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Radio Resource Allocation and Utilization in Multiple Radio Access Networks
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. Huawei Technologies Sweden R&D Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7372-5139
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Meeting in a sustainable way the demands of an unprecedented explosive growth in the number of connected devices and mobile data traffic, next-generation mobile networks are expected to make flexible use of spectrum and provide higher capacity by a denser deployment of radio access network infrastructure. In addition, the allocation and the utilisation of radio access resources should improve spectrum usage efficiency and keep energy consumption low, implying the capability to effectively exploit the denser deployment of radio accesses and the co-existence of radio accesses belonging to one or multiple radio access technologies. The term radio access (RA) is used to denote the radio resources associated with a frequency carrier that can be allocated to one or multiple users for their data transmissions.

In a network consisting of multiple radio accesses, improvements in spectral and energy efficiency can be achieved when either channel gains are increased or interference is eliminated or both. There are at least three possible approaches to improve performance, namely, (i) by opportunistically utilizing channel conditions of multiple radio accesses, (ii) by mitigating interference across and within radio accesses, and (iii) by redistributing traffic load among radio accesses. In this work, four different technical solutions for downlink transmissions have been studied and evaluated with respect to throughput, spectral efficiency and energy efficiency performance: (a) multi-access transmit diversity, which refers to the dynamic selection of multiple radio accesses for the transmission of a user’s data, (b) inter-cell interference coordination, which mitigates interference by dividing radio access bandwidth among neighbouring nodes, (c) power on/off of access nodes, which mitigates interference by switching off radio accesses of interfering neighbouring nodes, and (d) radio access load balancing, which effectively distributes load by associating users to radio accesses where the expected rate is higher. For the implementation of the technical solutions different algorithms have been devised and their performance have been evaluated for different user distribution scenarios and different heterogeneous multi-radio access networks deployments consisting of at least a tier of macro-cellular and/or a tier of pico-cells of different densities.

The technical solutions are combined into a framework for the allocation and utilisation of radio access resources in heterogeneous multi-radio access dense networks. The framework consists of two subsequent steps: (1) a step solving the multi-radio allocation problem which associates users with a single or multiple radio accesses in the network on the basis of the expected data rates, and (2) a step solving the multi-radio utilisation problem that determines which of the associated radio access(s) should be used at any time for the user data transmissions in the downlink on the basis of the expected instantaneous data rate. To solve the first problem, we employ the flexible spectrum access solution that performs load balancing by associating users to multiple radio accesses while keeping radio accesses without users switched off. For the second problem, we utilise different multi-radio transmit diversity schemes while taking into account different forms of static inter-cell interference coordination. The evaluation of our framework, which is performed by means of simulations, demonstrates significant performance improvements in terms of user throughput, cell-edge throughput, spectral efficiency and energy efficiency.

Abstract [sv]

För att på ett hållbart sätt uppfylla de krav som en explosiv framtida tillväxt i mobildatatrafik medför, förväntas att nästa generations radionät ger en högre nätkapacitet genom en tät utbyggnad av radionätinfrastruktur, och en effektiv användming av radioaccessresurser. Avhandlingen behandlar resursallokering och resursutnyttjande i radionät med flera olika radioaccesser tillhörande en eller flera olika tekniker. Radioaccesserna, som tilldelas radionätets användare kan användas parallellt eller sekvensiellt där bäraren med högst kvalitet används vid varje transmissionstillfälle. Med radioaccess avses här är en frekvensbärare som består av en eller flera radio resurser som kan tilldelas användare för deras dataöverföringar. Fyra olika tekniska lösningar har studerats och utvärderats med avseende på genomströmning, spektrumeffektivitet och energieffektivitet: (a) multi-diversitet, som gäller det dynamiska urvalet av flera radioaccesser för överföring av en användares data, (b) samordning av intercell-interferens, vilket minskar störningar genom att dela upp radiobandbredden bland grannoder, (c) slå på/av transmissionseffekt, vilket minskar störningar genom att stänga av radion i angränsande noder som stör, och (d) lastbalansering mellan radioaccesser, som effektivt fördelar lasten genom att associera användare till radioaccesser där förväntade genomströmningen är högst.

Dessa tekniska lösningar kombineras till ett ramverk för resursallokering och resursutnyttjande i multiradioaccessnät. Ramverket består av en tvåstegslösning till två på varandra följande problem: (i) ett resursallokeringsproblem, där användarna associeras till radioaccesser på grundval av de förväntade genomsnittliga genomströmningarna, och (ii) ett problem för resursutnyttjande, där användarna nyttjar radioaccesserna på grundval av de förväntade momentana genomströmningarna. För att lösa det första problemet, använder vi oss av en teknisk lösning som bygger på lastbalansering, där användare tilldelas en eller flera radioaccesser, samtidigt som radioaccesser utan användare stängs av. Det andra problemet löser vi genom att använda oss av olika former av multi-diversitet, samtidigt som vi tar hänsyn till samordningar av intercellinterferens. För genomförandet av de tekniska lösningarna har olika algoritmer tagits fram och deras prestanda har utvärderats för olika användarscenarier. Vi studerar installationer av heterogena multiradioaccessnät som består av åtminstone en grupp av makroceller och/eller picoceller av olika densitet. Utvärderingen har utförts med simuleringar som visar betydande prestandaförbättringar i form av datagenomströmning, cellkantsgenomströmning, spektrumeffektivitet och energieffektivitet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , xii, 116 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184620ISBN: 978-91-7595-874-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-184620DiVA: diva2:916391
Public defence
2016-04-25, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 17:39 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160404

Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Switched multi-radio transmission diversity in future access networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Switched multi-radio transmission diversity in future access networks
2005 (English)In: VTC2005-FALL: 2005 IEEE 62ND VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, 1-4, PROCEEDINGS, 2005, 235-239 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we study packet scheduling algorithms which exploit multi-radio transmission diversity in a multi-radio access network. We view the packet scheduling process as a combination of user scheduling and radio access allocation. A number of such schemes are proposed and their performance is evaluated via simulations in a multi-cell environment. It is shown that the use of such schemes across a total of six uncoupled radio accesses can result in average gains of up to 60% in spectral efficiency, as compared to scenarios where the radio accesses operate independently.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1090-3038
Keyword
communication networks beyond 3G, Ambient Networks, generic link layer, multi-radio access, multi-radio transmission diversity
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123047 (URN)000235046900049 ()0-7803-9152-7 (ISBN)
Conference
62nd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, SEP 25-28, 2005, Dallas, TX
Note

QC 20130531

Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
2. Switched Multi-Radio Transmission Diversity for Non-Collocated Radio Accesses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Switched Multi-Radio Transmission Diversity for Non-Collocated Radio Accesses
2006 (English)In: 2006 IEEE 63RD VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-6, 2006, 167-171 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We evaluate the spectral efficiency gains observed through multi-radio transmission diversity (MRTD), whereby packets of data are jointly scheduled for downlink transmission over multiple independent radio accesses. We specifically address downlink switched MRTD employed across macro- and pico-cellular radio accesses with non-collocated base stations in a hierarchical cell structure. It is shown that while significant gains can be achieved via MRTD among collocated macro-cell (or pico-cell) base stations, tight cooperation across non-collocated macro- and pico-cell base stations is only beneficial for a small subset of possible geometries. The impact of CQI reporting delays is also investigated.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1090-3038
Keyword
multi-radio transmission diversity, joint scheduling, radio access allocation, networks beyond 3G, Ambient Networks, generic link layer, multi-radio access
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123048 (URN)000259580100034 ()978-0-7803-9391-2 (ISBN)
Conference
63rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, MAY 07-10, 2006, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
Note

QC 20130531

Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
3. On the performance of multi-radio ARQ and packet scheduling in Ambient Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the performance of multi-radio ARQ and packet scheduling in Ambient Networks
2007 (English)In: 2007 IEEE 66TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-5, 2007, 1456-1460 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In alignment to an "always best experience" scenario, we assess gains on user traffic in the context of a multi-radio access environment where heterogeneous radio technologies are integrated at link layer and users are jointly scheduled across multiple radio accesses (RAs). Such integration allows for an implementation of multi-radio transmission diversity (MRTD) which switches transmission of a user's data over the available RAs. The RA selection is based on measurements of radio link quality as reported by the radio interface. The application of an ARQ scheme utilising multiple RAs (MR-ARQ) in conjunction with MRTD provides added gains on user delay and neutralizes parts of degradations in spectral efficiency caused by reporting delays. Such multi-radio ARQ mechanism exploits the diversity across independent RAs, and results in gains in throughput over those achieved by RA-specific ARQ. MRTD when combined with MR-ARQ shows gains of up to 35% in spectral efficiency compared to the case where the radio accesses operate independently.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1090-3038
Keyword
Ambient Networks, multi-radio access, multi-radio ARQ multi-radio transmission diversity
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123049 (URN)10.1109/VETECF.2007.310 (DOI)000257697000294 ()978-1-4244-0263-2 (ISBN)
Conference
66th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, SEP 30-OCT 03, 2007, Baltimore, MD
Note

QC 20130531

Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
4. A quantitative analysis of the throughput gains and the energy efficiency of multi-radio transmission diversity in dense access networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A quantitative analysis of the throughput gains and the energy efficiency of multi-radio transmission diversity in dense access networks
2015 (English)In: Telecommunications Systems, ISSN 1018-4864, E-ISSN 1572-9451, Vol. 59, no 1, 145-168 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Densification of mobile network infrastructure and integration of multiple radio access technologies are important approaches to support the increasing demand for mobile data traffic and to reduce energy consumption in future 5G networks. In this paper, the benefits of multi-radio transmission diversity (MRTD) are investigated by modelling the radio access link throughputs as uniform- and Rayleigh-distributed random variables and evaluating different user schedulers and resource allocation strategies. We examine different strategies for the allocation of radio accesses to individual users ranging from independent utilisation of the radio accesses to MRTD-enabled schemes. The schemes are compared by considering the statistics of the system throughput and energy consumption of the mobile devices. It is shown that MRTD can increase the throughput significantly through two types of diversity gain: Firstly by having multiple radio accesses to choose from for each user and secondly by having more available users to choose from for each radio access. The increased throughput also helps to reduce the energy consumption per bit, but this comes at a cost of increased energy consumption for channel measurement and reporting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Keyword
Multi-radio access, Multi-radio transmit diversity, Dense radio access networks, Multi-radio access infrastructure, Multi-radio energy consumption
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165192 (URN)10.1007/s11235-014-9889-0 (DOI)000351695800011 ()2-s2.0-84919934490 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150508

Available from: 2015-05-08 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
5. Exploration of Capacity Gains by Inter-Cell Interference Coordination based on User Distribution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploration of Capacity Gains by Inter-Cell Interference Coordination based on User Distribution
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The inter-cell interference problem is a key challenge for the planning of OFDMA-based cellular networks. This paper shows the possible gains that can be obtained by employing a static Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) scheme in the downlink. A simplified simulation-based capacity analysis study is performed investigating the correlation between system capacity and the distributions of power limited frequency bands among the cells. The size of the ICIC area and the power level in the power limited frequency bands have been two of the key configuration parameters that have been studied. Overall, static ICIC mechanisms are effective in scenarios where the user distribution spatially across the network is uniform. To exploit the full potential of coordination we have investigated the system capacity gains taking the non-uniform user distribution into account. With appropriate configuration of power level settings and proper bandwidth allocation to the spatially clustered users, it was shown that there is a great potential for further capacity improvements.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184607 (URN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops,ICC, Workshop on Smart Communication Protocols and Algorithms, SCPA 2013
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
6. Partial Frequency Allocation in Downlink OFDMA based on Evolutionary Algorithms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Partial Frequency Allocation in Downlink OFDMA based on Evolutionary Algorithms
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the optimization of the frequency allocation in the downlink of an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) cellular network by means of centralized adaptive frequency management. The adaptive frequency allocation is performed off-line based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) which computes for each cell an optimal number of radio resource blocks as guided by the geometry and the interference induced from adjacent cells. The objective of the optimization algorithm is to reduce interference and improve cell edge user throughput while preserving overall system throughput performance. For certain scenarios simulation results demonstrate gains up to 20% for the cell-edge user throughput as compared to a partial frequency 3-reuse scheme.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184608 (URN)
Conference
IEEE 72nd Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2010-Fall
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
7. Path-loss Based Power Suppression for Spectral and Energy Efficient Inter-cell Interference Coordination
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Path-loss Based Power Suppression for Spectral and Energy Efficient Inter-cell Interference Coordination
2014 (English)In: Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Technology, ISSN 2215-0811, Vol. 3, no 1, 44-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The inter-cell interference problem is a key challenge in OFDMA-based cellular networks because it significantly decreases the throughput of the users at the cell-edge. Mitigating this problem requires an inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) scheme that divides the spectrum into a power constant band and a power limited band for the cell-edge users. Overall, static ICIC or frequency reuse schemes are effective when users are uniformly distributed across the network, whilst non-uniform user distributions suggest semi-static ICIC schemes where the power levels in the power limited bands are effectively set based on the interference situation from neighboring cells. In this paper we define a method that uses path-loss statistical measures to describe the non-uniform distribution between adjacent cells. Based on this method, we devise a new distributed algorithm that derives the suppression levels of transmit power a cell may set at a neighboring cell’s cell-edge band based on the path-loss to the cell-edge users of that neighboring cell. Our algorithm is evaluated by means of simulations and compared to reference frequency reuse schemes based on a non-uniform user distribution scenario where users are distributed in clusters. Simulation results show that the power suppression levels derived by our algorithm greatly improve spectral and energy efficiency as compared to 7-reuse and 1-reuse schemes respectively. It is also shown that our algorithm exploits the nonuniformity in the user distribution to improve the user throughput of cell-edge users without any losses in the user throughput of the cell-centre users.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bentham Science, 2014
Keyword
ICIC, interference coordination, frequency partitioning, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ofdm), soft frequency reuse system capacity, 3GPP LTE standardization
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184617 (URN)10.2174/2215081102666140311010423 (DOI)
Note

QC 20160404

Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2016-11-28Bibliographically approved
8. A Centralised Approach to Power On-Off Optimisation for Heterogeneous Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Centralised Approach to Power On-Off Optimisation for Heterogeneous Networks
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The design of centralized algorithms and techniques allowing for an efficient utilisation of infrastructure in terms of energy consumption is one of the key challenges in heterogeneous networks (HetNets). In this study the energy efficiency in the HetNet scenario is formulated as an optimisation problem and an iterative improvement algorithmic approach to power on-off of network cells is devised and evaluated. The algorithm is based on the simulated annealing search approach and the obtained network configuration solutions are compared to a baseline configuration scenario where all cells are powered on. The optimization search is guided by an objective function which is defined on outage throughput and energy efficiency. Simulation results show that significant energy reductions gains can be achieved by switching off macro cells and with no loss of the cell edge user throughput. In some scenarios the algorithm generates solutions which considerably increase network throughput. The gains are more pronounced in configurations where pico cells are deployed at hot zones of user clusters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2012
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184610 (URN)
Conference
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference,VTC 2012 Fall
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
9. On the Application of Self-Growing Networks for Capacity and Energy-Saving Improvements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Application of Self-Growing Networks for Capacity and Energy-Saving Improvements
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper a realization of the self-growing networks concept is developed by means of an adaptive algorithm that facilitates capacity and energy-efficient performance. The algorithm builds on two aspects of optimisation of the selfgrowing concept: goal-based optimisation and network-based optimisation. The former aspect elaborates on the performance of a network controlled by multi-objective functions while the latter addresses the achievable capacity and energy savings in a heterogeneous network when the density of the pico cell network is varied. The energy savings come from switching off sets of macro and pico cells and the ability of the self-growing algorithm to determine the priorities among the objectives where performance is maximised.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184611 (URN)
Conference
IEEE 17th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modelling and Design of Communication Links and Networks,CAMAD 2012
Note

QC 20160404

Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
10. Distributed Power On-Off Optimisation for Heterogeneous Networks: A comparison of autonomous and cooperative optimisation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed Power On-Off Optimisation for Heterogeneous Networks: A comparison of autonomous and cooperative optimisation
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The design of distributed algorithms and techniques allowing for an efficient utilisation of infrastructure in terms of energy consumption is one of the key challenges in heterogeneous networks. In this study the energy efficiency in the HetNet scenario is formulated as an optimisation problem and an iterative improvement algorithmic approach to power on-off of network cells is devised and evaluated. The algorithm builds on the simulated annealing search approach that executes in a distributed manner among network’s clusters. Four different variations of autonomous and cooperative optimisation are devised and the obtained network configuration solutions are compared to a baseline configuration scenario where all cells are powered on. The optimization search is guided by an objective function which is defined on outage throughput and energy efficiency. Simulation results show that the distributed cooperative algorithms perform better than the baseline in nearly all cases both in terms of outage throughput and energy efficiency. Furthermore, coordination among clusters has a strong impact on the speed and the performance of the obtained solutions.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184612 (URN)
Conference
IEEE 17th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modelling and Design of Communication Links and Networks, CAMAD 2012
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
11. Distributed Spectrum Access in Dense 5G Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed Spectrum Access in Dense 5G Networks
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The next generation of radio access networks is expected to offer users flexible radio access to a wide range of frequency bands and radio access technologies (RATs) in dense deployments. In this context, we investigate novel lightweight algorithms for spectrum access in ultra-dense networks. We pose the problem as a network utility maximization and apply Lagrange duality to devise distributed algorithms for users to jointly select access nodes and spectrum bands. Leveraging our theoretical framework, we further propose a heuristic scheme for spectrum access based on the expected long-term user data rate per RAT, hence on a measure of the RATs’ traffic load. Numerical examples show that our schemes achieve significant throughput gains on top of the gains achievable by network densification.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184613 (URN)
Conference
IEEE 26th Annual International Symposium on on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC 2015
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2016-04-05Bibliographically approved
12. Multiple Connectivity and Spectrum Access Utilisation in Heterogeneous Small Cell Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiple Connectivity and Spectrum Access Utilisation in Heterogeneous Small Cell Networks
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, ISSN 1068-9605, E-ISSN 1572-8129, Vol. 23, no 1, 1-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the context of heterogeneous and small cell networks, users will have the possibility to connect to multiple radio access (RA) carriers that will be available by a dense deployment of radio access infrastructure consisting of high-power and low-power access nodes. Determining which RAs a user should be associated with and select from, for its downlink transmissions, depends on the long-term and short-term data rates that these RAs may offer to the user. In this study the multi-RA allocation and utilisation is decomposed into a multi-RA to user association problem that assigns multiple RAs to users, and a multi-RA selection problem that determines which of the assigned RAs should be used at any time for the user transmissions. As a solution to the first problem, we propose a distributed dual-based spectrum access scheme (DSA) that considers multi-connectivity, whilst, the second problem is solved by means of a heuristic multi-RA selection scheme that utilise different multi-radio transmit diversity (MRTD) schemes while taking into account different inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) schemes. Our two-step approach is evaluated by means of simulations which demonstrate cell-edge user throughput performance improvements that exceed 100% when the multi-connectivity dual-based spectrum access (MC-DSA) is employed. Further significant user rate and energy efficiency improvements up to 69% and 38% respectively can be achieved when MRTD is combined with ICIC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keyword
Multi-connectivity, Load balancing Multi-radio transmission diversity, Spectrum allocation, ICIC, Heterogeneous and small cell networks
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184614 (URN)10.1007/s10776-016-0302-7 (DOI)000372577900001 ()2-s2.0-84961214489 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160404

Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved

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