Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Radio and Sensor Interfaces for Energy-autonomous Wireless Sensing
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Along with rapid development of sensing and communication technology, Internet of Things (IoTs) has enabled a tremendous number of applications in health care, agriculture, and industry. As the fundamental element, the wireless sensing node, such as radio tags need to be operating under micro power level for energy autonomy. The evolution of electronics towards highly energy-efficient systems requires joint efforts in developing innovative architectures and circuit techniques. In this dissertation, we explore ultra-low power circuits and systems for micropower wireless sensing in the context of IoTs, with a special focus on radio interfaces and sensor interfaces. The system architecture of UHF/UWB asymmetric radio is introduced firstly. The active UWB radio is employed for the tag-to-reader communication while the conventional UHF radio is used to power up and inventory the tag. On the tag side, an ultra-low power, high pulse swing, and power scalable UWB transmitter is studied. On the reader side, an asymmetric UHF/UWB reader is designed. Secondly, to eliminate power-hungry frequency synthesis circuitry, an energy-efficient UWB transmitter with wireless clock harvesting is presented. The transmitter is powered by an UHF signal wirelessly and respond UWB pulses by locking-gating-amplifying the sub-harmonic of the UHF signal. 21% locking range can be achieved to prevent PVT variations with -15 dBm injected power. Finally, radio-sensing interface co-design is explored. Taking the advantage of RC readout circuit and UWB pulse generator, the sensing information is directly extracted and transmitted in the time domain, exploiting high time-domain resolution UWB pulses. It eliminates the need of ADC of the sensor interface, meanwhile, reduces the number of bits to be transmitted for energy saving. The measurement results show that the proposed system exhibits 7.7 bits ENOB with an average relative error of 0.42%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , xviii, 93 p.
Keyword [en]
Ultra-wideband, asymmetric UHF/UWB radio, clock harvesting, time-domain sensing, energy efficiency, Internet-of-things
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184851ISBN: 978-91-7595-855-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-184851DiVA: diva2:916943
Public defence
2016-05-02, Sal/hall B, Electrum, KTH-ICT, Kista, Kista, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20160412

Available from: 2016-04-12 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2016-04-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A 90nm CMOS UHF/UWB asymmetric transceiver for RFID readers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 90nm CMOS UHF/UWB asymmetric transceiver for RFID readers
Show others...
2011 (English)In: European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2011, 179-182 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an integrated asymmetric transceiver in 90nm CMOS technology for RFID reader. The proposed reader uses UHF transmitter to power up and inventory the tags. In the reverse link, a non-coherent Ultra-wide Band (UWB) receiver is deployed for data reception with high throughput and ranging capability. The transmitter delivers 160 kb/s ASK modulated data by an integrated modulator and a Digital Controlled Oscillator (DCO) in UHF band with 11% tuning range. The DCO consume 6 mW with 0.12 mm2 area. On the other side, adopting two integration channels, the 3-5 GHz energy detection receiver supports maximum 33 Mb/s data rate both in OOK and PPM modulations. The receiver front-end provides 59 dB voltage gain and 8.5 dB noise figure (NF). Measurement results shows that the receiver achieves an input sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s, with power consumption of 15.5 mW.

Keyword
ASK modulated data;CMOS UHF/UWB asymmetric transceiver;CMOS technology;OOK modulation;PPM modulation;RFID reader;UHF band;UHF transmitter;data reception;digital controlled oscillator;gain 59 dB;integrated asymmetric transceiver;noise figure 8.5 dB;noncoherent ultra-wide band receiver;power 15.5 mW;power 6 mW;reverse link;size 90 nm;tuning range;CMOS integrated circuits;UHF integrated circuits;amplitude shift keying;radio reception;radio transceivers;radiofrequency identification;ultra wideband communication;
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49204 (URN)10.1109/ESSCIRC.2011.6044894 (DOI)2-s2.0-82955201686 (Scopus ID)978-145770701-8 (ISBN)
Conference
37th European Solid-State Circuits Conference, ESSCIRC 2011; Helsinki; Finland; 12 September 2011 through 16 September 2011
Note

QC 20150713

Available from: 2011-11-25 Created: 2011-11-25 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
2. A power scalable and high pulse swing UWB transmitter for wirelessly-powered RFID applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A power scalable and high pulse swing UWB transmitter for wirelessly-powered RFID applications
Show others...
2012 (English)In: NORCHIP, 2012, IEEE , 2012, 6403099- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a 3-5 GHz, high output amplitude, carrier-less based Ultra Wideband (UWB) transmitter for wirelessly powered RFID application. The UWB transmitter consists of a baseband pulse generator, a driver amplifier and an output on-chip filter. The baseband pulse generator and the driver amplifier are designed as zero DC power consuming circuit, which enables scalable power with the pulse rate. IC pad and bonding wire parasitics are considered to be absorbed as part of output filtering network, realizing package co-design. The simulation result shows that the proposed transmitter radiates 2.34 pJ/pulse energy with 1.63 V pulse amplitude. The total energy consumption under 1.8 V power supply is 18 pJ/pulse, corresponding to 13% energy efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
Energy efficiency, Package co-design, Transmitter, Ultra-wide band (UWB)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118515 (URN)10.1109/NORCHP.2012.6403099 (DOI)000332453500004 ()2-s2.0-84873534835 (Scopus ID)978-146732221-8 (ISBN)
Conference
NORCHIP 2012 Conference, 12 November 2012 through 13 November 2012, Copenhagen
Note

QC 20130220

Available from: 2013-02-20 Created: 2013-02-20 Last updated: 2016-04-12Bibliographically approved
3. An UHF/UWB RFID Reader Tranceiver in 90 nm CMOS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An UHF/UWB RFID Reader Tranceiver in 90 nm CMOS
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an integrated asymmetric UHF/UWB reader transceiver in 90 nm CMOS technology for RFID applications. The reader uses UHF transmitter to power up and inventory the tags. Instead of backscattering, tag replies the reader using Ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses, allowing high throughput transmission and precise positioning. Therefore, a UWB receiver is deployed in the proposed reader for data reception and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) estimation using energy detection schemes. The transmitter delivers 160 kb/s ASK modulated data by an integrated modulator and a Digital Controlled Oscillator (DCO). The DCO has 11% tuning range ability to cover different UHF signal channels. On the UWB receiver side, the 3-5 GHz energy detection receiver supports maximum 33 Mb/s data rate in both OOK and PPM modulations. The receiver front-end provides 59 dB voltage gain and 8.5 dB noise figure (NF). Measurement results shows that the receiver achieves an input sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s, and the power consumption of transceiver is 21.5 mW.

Keyword
RFID, wireless sensor network, impulse radio, ultra-wideband, UHF, transceiver architecture
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185156 (URN)
Note

QC 20160412

Available from: 2016-04-11 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2016-04-12Bibliographically approved
4. A 35 pJ/pulse injection-locking based UWB transmitter for wirelessly-powered RFID tags
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 35 pJ/pulse injection-locking based UWB transmitter for wirelessly-powered RFID tags
2013 (English)In: 2013 Proceedings of the ESSCIRC (ESSCIRC), 2013, 379-382 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an energy-efficient injection-locking based UWB transmitter for RFID tags in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The transmitter is powered by 900 MHz UHF signals radiated by a reader wirelessly, and responds UWB pulses by locking-gating-amplifying the sub-harmonic of the UHF signal. A simple harmonic injection-locking ring oscillator (ILRO) is utilized to generate a 450 MHz carrier for sub-GHz UWB, eliminating power-hungry and complex timing components such as PLL and crystal on tags. The measurement results show that the sensitivity of the ILRO is -15 dBm under 21% locking range without any extra amplifier. Thanks to fast setup time of the ILRO, the proposed transmitter is power-scalable with 35 pJ/pulse energy consumption by duty-cycling. The amplitude of the transmitted UWB pulse is 0.75 Vpp, allowing a pulse rate up to 5 MHz under the FCC regulations. The entire power consumption of the transmitter is 175 μW, which is favorable to wirelessly-powered RFID applications.

Series
European Solid-State Circuits Conference, ISSN 1930-8833
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-139111 (URN)10.1109/ESSCIRC.2013.6649152 (DOI)2-s2.0-84891054488 (Scopus ID)9781479906437 (ISBN)
Conference
39th European Solid-State Circuits Conference, ESSCIRC 2013; Bucharest, Romania, 16-20 September 2013
Note

QC 20140115

Available from: 2014-01-15 Created: 2014-01-07 Last updated: 2016-04-12Bibliographically approved
5. A Subgigahertz UWB Transmitter With Wireless Clock Harvesting for RF-Powered Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Subgigahertz UWB Transmitter With Wireless Clock Harvesting for RF-Powered Applications
2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, E-ISSN 1558-3791, Vol. 61, no 5, 314-318 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A subgigahertz ultrawideband (UWB) transmitter (TX) with wireless clock harvesting is presented for RF-powered applications such as RF identifications and implantable devices in the 180-nm CMOS process. The proposed low-power TX consists of a harmonic injection-locked ring oscillator (ILRO), a synchronized pulse generator, and a driver stage. Through wireless injection locking, a 450-MHz carrier is extracted using the sub-harmonic of an ultrahigh frequency signal radiated by a reader. Following the ILRO, the carrier is gated and amplified to generate the UWB pulses. This approach avoids power-hungry frequency synthesis circuitry and bulky crystal reference, and it relaxes the timing synchronization between the reader and the tag. Due to aggressive duty cycling and the fast setup time (< 50 ns at an input power of -15 dBm), the proposed TX is power scalable with an energy consumption of 35 pJ/pulse. To comply with the Federal Communications Commission regulations, the maximum pulse rate is up to 5 MHz with a peak-to-peak pulse amplitude of 0.75 V and a corresponding power consumption of 175 mu W, which is favorable to RF-powered applications.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-147431 (URN)10.1109/TCSII.2014.2312801 (DOI)000336669600006 ()2-s2.0-84901296413 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140630

Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
6. Mismatch aware power and area optimization of successive-approximation ADCs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mismatch aware power and area optimization of successive-approximation ADCs
2010 (English)In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems, ICECS 2010, 2010, 882-885 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the trade-off between device mismatch, quantization noise and device noise in successive approximation register analog to digital converter (SAR ADC) is investigated. An optimization method for designing area-constrained SAR ADC with highest possible energy efficiency for a given dynamic range (DR) is proposed. By taking device noise and process mismatch information into account, it is able to minimize power dissipations by reducing the size of the unit capacitor area without dynamic range degradation due to capacitor mismatch. As a case study, a low power 12 bits SAR ADC has been designed in 0.18 #x03BC;m CMOS process, with 1-100 kHz sample rate.

Keyword
CMOS process;area optimization;area-constrained ADC;device mismatch;device noise;low power ADC;mismatch aware power;power dissipations;process mismatch;quantization noise;size 0.18 mum;successive approximation register analog-digital converter;successive-approximation ADC;unit capacitor area size;word length 12 bit;CMOS integrated circuits;analogue-digital conversion;integrated circuit noise;low-power electronics;power aware computing;
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49206 (URN)10.1109/ICECS.2010.5724653 (DOI)2-s2.0-79953091090 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2010 IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems, ICECS 2010. Athens. 12 December 2010 - 15 December 2010
Note
QC 20111130Available from: 2011-11-25 Created: 2011-11-25 Last updated: 2016-04-12Bibliographically approved
7. A 180 nm-CMOS Asymmetric UWB-RFID Tag with Real-time Remote-monitored ECG-sensing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 180 nm-CMOS Asymmetric UWB-RFID Tag with Real-time Remote-monitored ECG-sensing
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, 2015, 210-215 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes an asymmetric ultra-wideband - radio frequency identification (UWB-RFID) tag with electrocardiogram (ECG)-sensing capability for patients remote-monitoring in hospital environment. A UWB-RFID communication protocol is suggested for real-time transmission of undistorted ECG by interleaving ADC sampling and burst-mode UWB transmission. The proposed system shows a maximum accessing capability of 400 tags/second at 1.5 KHz ECG sampling rate with 10 Mbps UWB pulse rate. The tag consists of UHF-RFID receiver, UWB transmitter, ECG analog front-end, multi-input ADC and baseband circuitry integrated on two silicon dies. It was implemented by 6 mm2 -sized 180 nm CMOS technology. Electrodes for ECG-sensing are manufactured by inkjet-printing on polyimide substrate. Experiment results show that the tag transmits UWB pulses at 1 Mbps rate with 18 µW power. The printed electrodes conduct ECG waveform comparable to commercial electrodes.

Keyword
Real-Time Remote-Monitoring, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Asymmetric Ultra-Wideband - Radio Frequency Identification (UWB-RFID), Inkjet-Printed Electrodes
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175318 (URN)10.5220/0005286302100215 (DOI)2-s2.0-84936762426 (Scopus ID)978-989-758-071-0 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Conference
The International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, 2015, Lisbon, Portugal
Note

QC 20151012

Available from: 2015-10-12 Created: 2015-10-12 Last updated: 2016-09-05Bibliographically approved
8. A UWB-Based Sensor-to-Time Transmitter for RF-Powered Sensing Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A UWB-Based Sensor-to-Time Transmitter for RF-Powered Sensing Applications
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, E-ISSN 1558-3791, Vol. 63, no 5, 507Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An ultrawideband (UWB)-based sensor-to-time transmitter consisting of a remote control (RC) time-constant interface and an ultralow-power pulse generator is presented. The sensing information is directly extracted and transmitted in the time domain, exploiting UWB pulses with a high time-domain resolution. This approach eliminates the need for an analog-to-digital converter and baseband blocks of sensor tags; meanwhile, it reduces the number of bits to be transmitted for energy saving. The sensor interface measures the discharging time of the RC time constant proportional to the sensor variation. The UWB pulses are triggered with intervals of the RC discharging time, without any digitizing or modulations. The circuit prototype is implemented in the standard 0.18-mu m CMOS process. Resistance measurement results show that the proposed system exhibits an effective number of resolution bits (ENOB) of 7.7 bits with an average relative error of 0.42% in the range of 200-1500 Omega. The overall energy consumption of conversion and transmission per sample is measured to be 0.58 nJ with a 1.27-Vp-p pulse amplitude, which is favorable to radio-frequency-powered wireless sensing applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2016
Keyword
RFIDs, time-domain sensing, ultra-wideband, ultra-low power, resistive sensor interface, transmitter
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185155 (URN)10.1109/TCSII.2015.2503643 (DOI)000375304400019 ()2-s2.0-84970024963 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20160412

Available from: 2016-04-11 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(5992 kB)177 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 5992 kBChecksum SHA-512
3ba48e79ecd4f5d5f4ae10ef4ef6c5385bad61084dab7b16d10c8e6679812f2c4baa7efb1e088384ded810eb6a9c67ac5e852c451d62e3f1b4d7028993538991
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Mao, Jia
By organisation
Industrial and Medical Electronics
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 177 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 737 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf