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Toward a new experimental method for measuring coalescence in bitumen emulsions: A study of two bitumen droplets
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3968-6778
2016 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 494, 228-240 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

Cold mix asphalt (CMA) emulsion technology could become an attractive alternative for the road industry due to low startup and equipment installation costs, diminished energy consumption and reduced environmental impact. The performance of cold asphalt mixtures produced from emulsions is strongly influenced by a good control of the breaking and coalescence process. The wetting of bitumen on the surface of the aggregates is hereby of major importance for the performance of the asphalt. Premature coalescence of the bitumen emulsions away from the surface, could lead to poor adhesion and decreased mechanical strength of the asphalt. Today, the breaking and coalescence mechanisms of bitumen emulsions are still not fully understood due to their complexities and the lack of fundamental experimental methods and existing models. However, in the past years efforts have been made in defining relationships for understanding the bitumen emulsions. In this paper, a new experimental method is presented to study coalescence of bitumen by using shape relaxation of bitumen droplets in an emulsion environment. The coalescence of spherical droplets of different bitumen have been correlated with neck growth, densification and surface area change during the coalescence process. The test protocol was designed in a controlled climate chamber, to study the coalescence process with varying environmental conditions. The kinetics of the relaxation process was influenced by the temperature as well as other parameters. The research showed that the developed test procedure is repeatable and able to study the coalescence process on a larger scale. However, the relationship between the measured parametric relationships at the larger scale and the bitumen emulsion scale still needs further investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016. Vol. 494, 228-240 p.
Keyword [en]
Bitumen emulsions, Breaking, Coalescence, Relaxation, Sintering, Light transmission
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184520DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2016.01.045ISI: 000371394800028Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84959517932OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-184520DiVA: diva2:917545
Note

QC 20160407

Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fundamental investigation to improve the quality of cold mix asphalt
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fundamental investigation to improve the quality of cold mix asphalt
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cold mix asphalt (CMA) emulsion technology could become an attractive option for the road industry as it offers lower startup and equipment installation costs, energy consumption and environmental impact than traditional alternatives. The adhesion between bitumen and aggregates is influenced by diverse parameters, such as changes in surface free energies of the binder and aggregates or the presence of moisture or dust on the surface of aggregates, mixing temperatures, surface textures (including open porosity), nature of the minerals present and their surface chemical composition, as well as additives in the binder phase. The performance of cold asphalt mixtures is strongly influenced by the wetting of bitumen on surfaces of the aggregates, which is governed by breaking and coalescence processes in bitumen emulsions. Better understanding of these processes is required. Thus, in the work this thesis is based upon, the surface free energies of both minerals/aggregates and binders were characterized using two approaches, based on contact angles and vapor sorption methods. The precise specific surface areas of four kinds of aggregates and seven minerals were determined using an approach based on BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) theory, by measuring the physical adsorption of selected gas vapors on their surfaces and calculating the amount of adsorbed vapors corresponding to monolayer occupancy on the surfaces. Interfacial bond strengths between bitumen and aggregates were calculated based on measured surface free energy components of minerals/aggregates and binders, in both dry and wet conditions.

In addition, a new experimental method has been developed to study bitumen coalescence by monitoring the shape relaxation of bitumen droplets in an emulsion environment. Using this method, the coalescence of spherical droplets of different bitumen grades has been correlated with neck growth, densification and changes in surface area during the coalescence process. The test protocol was designed to study the coalescence process in varied environmental conditions provided by a climate-controlled chamber. Presented results show that temperature and other variables influence kinetics of the relaxation process. They also show that the developed test procedure is repeatable and suitable for studying larger-scale coalescence processes. However, possible differences in measured parametric relationships between the bitumen emulsion scale and larger scales require further investigation.

There are several different research directions that can be explored for the continuation of the research presented in this thesis. For instance, the rationale of the developed method for analyzing coalescence processes in bitumen emulsions rests on the assumption that the results are applicable to large-scale processes, which requires validation. A linear relationship between the scales is not essential, but it is important to be able to determine the scaling function. Even more importantly, qualitative effects of the investigated parameters require further confirmation. To overcome the laboratory limitations and assist in the determination of appropriate scaling functions further research could focus on the development of a three-dimensional multiphase model to study coalescence processes in more detail, including effects of surfactants, pH and other additives such as mineral fillers and salts. Additionally, better understanding of the breaking process and water-push out could help significantly to optimize CMA mix design. Different methods, both numerical and experimental could be explored for this.

Abstract [sv]

Cold mix asphalt (CMA) eller kall asfaltbetong med hjälp av emulsionsteknik kan vara ett attraktivt alternativ för vägbyggnadsindustrin då det möjliggör lägre uppstart- och investeringskostnader, lägre energiförbrukning och mindre miljöpåverkan än traditionella alternativ. Adhesionen mellan bindemedel och stenpartiklarna påverkas av ett flertal parametrar, så som förändring i fri ytenergi hos både bindemedel och partiklar i närvaro av fukt eller damm på stenytorna, blandningstemperatur, yttextur (inklusive ytporositet), mineralegenskaper och ytornas kemiska sammansättning lika väl som tillsatsmedel i bindemedlen. Beteendet hos kall asfaltbetong är starkt påverkad av vätningsegenskaperna hos bindemedlet när det kommer i kontakt med stenmaterialet och detta i sin tur är beroende på bitumenemulsionens brytegenskaper och förmåga att blandas. Bättre förståelse av dessa processer är av största vikt. I detta arbete är avhandlingen baserad på fri ytenergi hos både mineraler/aggregat och bindemedel, baserat på kontaktvinkel och på ångabsorptionsmetoder. Den exakta specifika ytan hos fyra typer av aggregat och sju mineraler undersöktes med en metod baserad på BET (Brunauer, Emmett och Teller):s teorier genom att mäta den fysiska adsorptionen av utvalda gaser på ytorna och beräkna mängden adsorberad ånga som korresponderade mot ytlagret. Styrkan hos kontaktytornas bindning mellan bindemedlet och stenaggregaten beräknades baserat på mätningar av den fria ytenergin hos bägge ingående komponenterna, dels i torrhet dels i våta omgivningar.

Som tillägg har en ny experimentell metod utvecklats för att studera bitumens blandbarhet genom att studera bitumendroppars relaxation i en emulsionsmiljö. Genom att använda denna metod har korelationen mellan sväriska droppar av bitumen undersökts mot förändringen i ytans area under blandningsprocessen. Testprotokollet utformades för att studera blandningsprocessen i varierande miljöer i en klimatkammare. Presenterade resultat visar att temperatur och andra variabler påverkar de kinetiska förhållandena vid relaxationsprocessen. De visar även att den utvecklade testmetoden är repeterbar och passar för studier av storskaliga blandningsprocesser. Det bör dock påpekas att vidare studier krävs för att påvisa skillnaderna mellan bitumenemulsionsskalan och större skalor.

Framtida forskning kommer att koncentreras på utveckling av tredimensionella multifas­modeller för att studera blandningsförlopp på en mer detaljerad nivå, inkluderande effekter på ytaktiva ämnen, pH-värden och andra additativ så som mineralfiller och salt. Som tillägg kommer nyttan av nya karaktäriseringsmetoder att utvärderas, så som lågvikelspridning av neutroner eller kombinationer av röntgen, neutronradiologi och datortomografi, för att studera brytmekanismer hos bitumenemulsioner vid kontakt med mineraler och aggregat.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 59 p.
Series
TRITA-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 142
Keyword
Bitumen, Cold Asphalt Mixtures, Minerals/Aggregates, Surface Free Energy, Sorption, Contact Angle, Bitumen Emulsions, Breaking and Coalescence., Bitumen, kallblandad asfaltmassa, mineraler/aggregat, fri ytenergi, sorption, kontaktvinkel, bitumenemulsion, brytning och blandning.
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-191527 (URN)
External cooperation:
Presentation
2016-09-26, B2, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
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Note

QC 20160901

Available from: 2016-09-01 Created: 2016-09-01 Last updated: 2016-09-01Bibliographically approved

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