The main objective for the work described in this PhD thesiswas to formulate a friction model to characterize thefrictional behavior of paper. More specifically, the modelshould explain a phenomenon that is typical for paper grades,viz.: that the level of paper-to-paper friction is dependent onthe direction and the number of previous slides. The modelshould also explain the lubricating effect oflow-molecular-mass lipophilic compounds (LLC) that occur inpaper on paper-to-paper friction. Furthermore, the model shoulddescribe the types of forces that influence paper-to-paperfiction and explain the mechanism by which the LLC decreasepaper-to-paper friction.
This thesis consists of a literature review of the basicconcepts of tribology and a summary of the main results andconclusions from four studies on the frictional characteristicsof paper and a study on the friction and adhesion of cellulosesurfaces together with some unpublished material.
The purpose of the investigation described in the firstpaper was to explain a phenomenon that is typical for papergrades, viz.: the level of paper-to-paper friction is dependenton the direction and the number of previous slides. Thisbehavior is calledfriction hysteresisby theauthors, and it has its origin in the reorientation of thefibers on the surface of a paper and their alignment relativeto the sliding direction.
The second paper describes a study that was aimed atidentifying lubricants that occur natively in paper. Filterpapers were impregnated with model compounds representing woodextractives, i.e. low-molecular-weight lipophilic compounds,which are present in wood, pulp and paper, and thepaper-to-paper friction was determined. The results of thatstudy show that a wood extractive must fulfill severalstructural criteria in order to lubricate a paper surface: Itmust have a hydrophilic group that can attach to the papersurface and a linear hydrocarbon backbone of sufficientlength.
Although it is not specifically stated in the second paper,the authors proposed a type of lubrication by which woodextractives decrease paper-to-paper friction that is, ineffect, boundary lubrication. The purpose of the investigationdescribed in the third paper was to clarify whether woodextractives and other low-molecular-mass lipophilic compoundsthat occur in paper can act as boundary lubricants on papersurfaces. The main objective of that study was to investigatethe role of chemical structure of LLC for their orientationrelative to the paper surface, which is an important criterionfor boundary lubrication. Filter papers were impregnated withmagnesium salts of different lipophilic acids, which were usedfor model compounds for the LLC. The deposited layers ofmagnesium salts were characterized by X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle goniometry and thefriction of the impregnated paper sheets was determined. Theresults show that the degree of lubrication and the resistanceto wear of the layers of a magnesium salt increased withincreasing chain length and increasing degree of linearity ofthe lipophilic acid. Based on the results of that study and ofearlier studies, it is concluded that boundary lubrication isthe type of lubrication by which low-molecular-mass lipophiliccompounds that occur natively in paper decreasepaper-to-paper-friction.
In boundary lubrication, surfaces are covered withmonolayers of lubricant molecules that comprise an active headgroup that can attach to the surface, e.g. a carboxyl group,and an inert linear backbone, such as a long saturatedhydrocarbon chain. Such compounds form ordered monolayers onsurfaces, so that the backbone points vertically out of planeof the surface. The friction is then determined by theinteractions between the monolayers, which are weaker than theinteractions between the clean surfaces and this gives a lowerfriction.
The fourth paper describes a study on the origin of thedifferences in friction levels between different linerboardsbased on recycled fiber (old corrugated container, OCC). Thesheets were subjected to two extraction stages and analyzedwith respect to surface roughness and their content oflow-molecular-mass lipophilic compounds (LLC). The resultsshowed that a high amount of LLC in the sheets lead to lowfriction, due to lubrication.
The fifth paper describes a study that was aimed atdetermining the types of forces that influence the frictionbetween the surfaces of hydrophilic polymers and explaining themechanism by which boundary lubricants decrease the friction.The adhesion and the friction of model systems was measuredwith atomic force microscopy (AFM) using regenerated cellulosefilms and functionalised AFM tips and the effect of fatty acidsand humidity was investigated. The friction significantlyincreased with increasing humidity and that there was a strongcorrelation between the ability of a fatty acid to form ahydrophobic surface and its lubricating performance. Measuredadhesion forces at high humidity were well predicted bytheoretical models that took into account the effect of theLaplace pressure acting in a water meniscus formed aroundcontact regions due to capillary condensation. The resultsindicated that the degree of capillary condensation may beeffectively suppressed by increasing the hydrophobicity of thecontacting surfaces, causing adhesion and friction to decrease.These results suggest that friction between paper surfacesunder ambient conditions is greatly influenced by the degree ofcapillary condensation. Furthermore, lubrication by fatty acidsis achieved by the formation of a vertically oriented,hydrophobic monolayer that can withstand the stresses duringsliding and increase the hydrophobicity of the paper surfaceand thereby suppress capillary condensation.
Keywords:Friction, paper-to-paper friction, frictionhysteresis, fibers, orientation, sliding direction, woodextractives, low-molecular-mass lipophilic compounds, boundarylubrication, adhesion, capillary condensation, Laplacepressure, surface forces, JKR theory, gas chromatography-massspectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle,atomic force microscopy
Institutionen för pappers- och massateknologi , 2002. , 70 p.
friction, fibers, boundary lubrication, adhesion, capillary condensation, surface forces, chemcial analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscope