This thesis describes a new type of refractive lens for hardx-rays. It is shown that a linear array of prisms, slightlyinclined with respect to the optical axis, will form a linefocus at a certain distance from the lens. Hence, the namemulti-prism lens. These lenses are free from sphericalaberration and are similar to planar parabolic compoundrefractive lenses in terms of performance. However, theydistinguish themselves in that only planar surfaces need to befabricated. A special feature is that the focal length can beeasily varied by adjusting the inclination angle.
Theoretical calculations, based on geometrical and physicaloptics, are used to characterize the lenses. Aberrations arediscussed, as well as the sensitivity to fabricationimperfections, and insufficient flatness is identified as apotential problem. Ray-tracing is used to test theapproximations and assumptions used in the theory. Applicationsin x-ray microscopy and mammography are discussed.
Lenses have been made of beryllium, silicon, epoxy anddiamond using different methods. Results from measurements ofsurface roughness and figure error show that the imperfectionsof the silicon and epoxy lenses should have a small impact,while the beryllium lenses should suffer from strongscattering. Experiments were performed at the EuropeanSynchrotron Radiation Facility and sub-µm focal linewidths, close to theoretical expectations, were measured forsilicon and epoxy lenses at 30 keV and 14 keV, respectively.Insertion gains up to 40 were reached. Two crossed lenses wereused to obtain focusing in two dimensions and a point focus.The smallest measured focal spot size was 1.0 µm by 5 .4µm, and an insertion gain exceeding 100 was achieved usingepoxy lenses.
The diamond lenses suffered from voids in the materialformed in the chemical vapor deposition process, butnevertheless provided focal lines less than 2 µm in width,albeit at at relatively low insertion gain of 13. Due to theirexcellent thermal properties, these lenses are put forward ascandidates for optics at the next generationultra-high-intensity synchrotron beams and x-ray free electronlasers.
Keywords:x-ray, optics, refractive, lens, mammography,synchrotron.
Stockholm: KTH , 2002. , 131 p.