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Designing Energy-Sensitive Interactions: Conceptualising Energy from the Perspective of Electric Cars
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH - Royal Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1974-1100
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

As technology is increasingly used in mobile settings, energy and battery management is becoming a part of everyday life. Many have experienced how quickly a battery can be depleted in a smartphone, laptop or electric cars, sometimes causing much distress. An important question is how we can understand and work with energy as a factor in interaction design to enable better experiences for end-users.

Through design-oriented research, I have worked with the specific case of electric cars, which is currently a domain where people struggle in terms of energy management. The main issue in this use case is that current driving range estimates cause distrust and anxiety among drivers. Through sketches, prototypes and studies, I investigated causes as well as possible remedies to this situation. My conclusion is that instead of providing black-boxed predictions, in-car interfaces should expose the logics of estimates so that drivers know how their own actions in e.g. driving style, climate control, and other equipment, affects energy use. Revealing such energy mechanisms will not only empower the driver, it will also acknowledge the impact of variables that cannot be predicted automatically.

In this work, understanding the dynamic aspects of energy has emerged as central to interaction with systems. This points to a need to design energy sensitive interactions - focusing on supporting users to find the right balance between energy use and the experiential values sought for. To ease design of energy sensitive interactions, energy use is divided into three different categories with accompanying ideals. These are exergy (always needed to achieve the required interaction), intergy (controllable and changing over time and use, needs to be addressed in design), and anergy (always waste that needs to be reduced). This articulation highlights aspects of energy that are specific to interaction design, and possible aspects to expose to allow more energy-efficient interactions in use. 

Abstract [sv]

I takt med att vi använder alltmer teknik i mobila sammanhang blir energi- och batterihantering en allt större del av vår vardag. Många har erfarenheter av de besvär som ett plötsligt urladdat batteri i en mobiltelefon, laptop eller elbil kan orsaka. En central fråga för att uppnå bättre användarupplevelser är hur vi kan förstå och arbeta med energi som en faktor i design av interaktion med mobil teknik.

Genom designdriven forskning har jag arbetat specifikt med interaktionen i elbilar, en situation där många brottas med just hantering och förståelse av begränsad energi. En specifik utmaning i denna kontext är den misstro som många upplever kring existerande system för räckviddsberäkning. Genom skisser, prototyper och användarstudier har jag undersökt orsaker och praktiska lösningar på detta problem. Min slutsats är att bilens gränssnitt bör exponera den inre logik som beräkningarna bygger på, så att föraren förstår hur egna handlingar, såsom körsätt och användning av t ex kupévärmare, påverkar energiförbrukning och räckvidd. Detta leder till ökad upplevelse av kontroll för föraren, och samtidigt till mer tillförlitliga beräkningar då det tar hänsyn till variabler som inte kan förutsägas automatiskt.

I arbetet har dynamiska aspekter av energi framträtt som centralt i användning av interaktiva system. Detta pekar på behovet av att designa energikänsliga interaktioner, som hjälper användaren att förstå balansen mellan energiåtgång och bruksvärde. För att stödja design av energikänsliga interaktioner artikuleras tre kategorier av energianvändning i interaktiva system. Dessa är exergi (behövs för att uppnå tänkt interaktion), intergi (kontrollerbar och föränderlig över tid och användning, måste adresseras med design), och anergi (är alltid ett slöseri som behöver reduceras). Denna artikulation belyser specifikt de aspekter av energiförbrukningen som varierar genom användning, och som skulle kunna exponeras för mer energieffektiv interaktion med ny teknik. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , 99 p.
Series
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 10
Keyword [en]
Interaction design, Electric vehicles, Range anxiety, Energy management, Battery management, Intergy, Exergy, Anergy, Energy-Sensitive Interactions, Energy dynamics, Energy compromises, Empowerment, Resourceful interaction
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185931ISBN: 978-91-7595-952-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-185931DiVA: diva2:924626
Public defence
2016-05-27, E2, Lindstedtsvägen 3, E-huset, huvudbyggnaden, plan 3, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUpSwedish Energy Agency, 37054-1
Note

QC 20160429

Available from: 2016-04-29 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2016-05-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Enough power to move: Dimensions for representing energy availability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enough power to move: Dimensions for representing energy availability
Show others...
2012 (English)In: MobileHCI'12 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, ACM Digital Library, 2012, 201-210 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Energy and design of energy-feedback are becoming increasingly important in the mobile HCI community. Our application area concerns electric vehicles. We thus depart from home and workplace appliances and address range and energy anxiety caused by short driving distance capabilities and long charging times in mobile settings. While some research has been done on energy management of mobile devices, less has been done on mobility devices like electric vehicles. We explore this topic by letting conventional fuel car drivers reflect on their current driving habits through an exploration tool that we developed. Our results demonstrate three dimensions related to energy availability to consider for design of energy dependent mobility devices and provide explanations on how these dimensions could be utilize in our design through energy visualizations. With this we contributed not only by demonstrating aspects of energy availability and mobility, but also through opening up for new interesting possibilities and inquires in our and possibly other domains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2012
Keyword
Electric vehicle, Energy, Energy availability, Information visualization, Interaction design, Mobility, Range anxiety, Sustainability
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-106932 (URN)10.1145/2371574.2371605 (DOI)2-s2.0-84867724418 (Scopus ID)978-145031105-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 14th ACM International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, MobileHCI'12, 21 September 2012 through 24 September 2012, San Francisco, CA
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20121205

Available from: 2012-12-05 Created: 2012-12-05 Last updated: 2016-04-29Bibliographically approved
2. COPE1 – Incorporating Coping Strategies into the Electric Vehicle Information System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>COPE1 – Incorporating Coping Strategies into the Electric Vehicle Information System
2012 (English)In: Adjunct Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (AutomotiveUI '12) / [ed] ACM, ACM , 2012, 17-19 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sales of Electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated by the industry to increase in the future, as they are an important step towards more energy efficient transportation and to lower CO2 emissions. A problem is that available battery technologies for EVs limit the driving range and might cause range anxiety, and as technology stands now, this problem will be present for many years to come. As a result, it is important to re-design the electric vehicle information system (EVIS) to include tools that could easily help users overcome range anxiety issues. Design of such technology can take advantage of the experience accumulated by drivers who have already coped with this problem for many years. In this paper, we describe a coping strategy observed among some more experienced EV drivers, describe why this strategy is powerful, and demonstrate a first attempt to utilize it in design. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM, 2012
Keyword
Electric Vehicle, Electric Vehicle Information System, Coping Strategies, Sustainability, Energy, Energy Management, Range Anxiety, Interaction Design, Information Visualization
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Human-computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185774 (URN)
Conference
Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (AutomotiveUI '12)
Projects
STandUP for Energy
Funder
StandUp
Note

QCR

Available from: 2016-04-27 Created: 2016-04-27 Last updated: 2016-05-03Bibliographically approved
3. Differentiated driving range: Exploring a solution to the problems with the "guess-o-meter" in electric cars
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differentiated driving range: Exploring a solution to the problems with the "guess-o-meter" in electric cars
2014 (English)In: AutomotiveUI 2014 - 6th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, in Cooperation with ACM SIGCHI - Proceedings, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Electric cars may be an important alternative to combustion engine cars in the process towards a more sustainable transportation system. However, the short and varying driving range communicated by what has become known as the "guess-o-meter" on the dashboard of current electric car models is known to sometimes cause confusion for electric car drivers. In this paper, we analyze this issue and propose alternative solutions to the current way of presenting the remaining driving range to the driver. We do this by exploring a concept that we call differentiated driving range. The concept aims to reveal the relationship between factors related to driving and the estimated driving range. Starting from this concept we explore different ways of giving it a concrete form and eventually reach a fully testable interactive design. We believe that this is of interest to a wider audience and reflect on some issues with our current instantiation and directions for future work.

Keyword
Driving range, Electric cars, Guess-O-meter, In-car interface, Interaction design, Range anxiety, In-car interfaces, Range anxieties
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-167930 (URN)10.1145/2667317.2667347 (DOI)2-s2.0-84910046920 (Scopus ID)9781450332125 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2014, 17 September 2014 through 19 September 2014
Note

QC 20150608

Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2016-04-29Bibliographically approved
4. Getting to Know Electric Cars Through an App
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Getting to Know Electric Cars Through an App
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, ACM Digital Library, 2015, 289-296 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Electric cars are a promising alternative to combustion engine cars to lower emissions and fossil fuel dependencies. However, many are skeptical to this unfamiliar technology and the limited driving range of these vehicles. Therefore, people disregard this option without properly knowing if it is a good practical alternative. This is unfortunate, as electric cars according to studies should cover most people’s needs. In this paper, we will share our results from a real-world study where 8 participants used an app designed to simulate the battery of electric cars using a regular combustion engine car. In this way it is intended to let people assess their real needs in their real context. Our results show that this might be an effective tool to overcome psychological barriers associated with electric cars, as they do not only assess electric cars and infrastructure, but also their own needs and habits. We also suggest a shift from a kWh and bar perspective to a percentage-perspective as our users easily could work with percentage to figure out the driving range and plan ahead. Our study also elevated a number of uncertainties causing unnecessary worries among our participants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2015
Series
AutomotiveUI ’15
Keyword
Battery level, driving range, electric cars, in-situ, interaction design, range anxiety, simulation
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Human-computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173014 (URN)10.1145/2799250.2799272 (DOI)978-1-4503-3736-6 (ISBN)
Conference
AutomotiveUI '15 The 7th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications Nottingham, United Kingdom — September 01 - 03, 2015
Funder
StandUpSwedish Energy Agency, 37054-1
Note

Qc 20150908

Available from: 2015-09-07 Created: 2015-09-07 Last updated: 2016-04-29Bibliographically approved
5. Electric Driving on the Edge: the Necessities of (Re)Planning, (Re)Assessment, and Reconfiguration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric Driving on the Edge: the Necessities of (Re)Planning, (Re)Assessment, and Reconfiguration
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
Electric Cars, Electric Vehicles, Range anxiety, Battery Management, Critical Situations, Range Estimation, User Interface, Trust in information, Driving Range, User Experience
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185807 (URN)
Funder
StandUpSwedish Energy Agency, 37054-1
Note

QC 20160503

Available from: 2016-04-27 Created: 2016-04-27 Last updated: 2016-05-03Bibliographically approved
6. Exergy, Anergy, and Intergy: Uncovering Energy in Interaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exergy, Anergy, and Intergy: Uncovering Energy in Interaction
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
User experience, Interaction Design, Energy, Exergy, Anergy, Intergy, Design Material, Materiality, Thermodynamics, Sustainability, Empowerment, Energy Management
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185808 (URN)
Funder
StandUpSwedish Energy Agency, 37054-1
Note

QC 20160503

Available from: 2016-04-27 Created: 2016-04-27 Last updated: 2016-05-10Bibliographically approved

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