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Highly Absorbing Antimicrobial Biofoams Based on Wheat Gluten and Its Biohybrids
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7674-0262
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9663-7705
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2016 (English)In: ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 4, no 4, 2395-2404 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
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Text
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the absorption, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties of novel types of biofoams based on wheat-gluten (WG) and its biohybrids with silica. The hybrid WG foams were in situ polymerized with silica using two different silanes. When immersed in water, the 90-95% porous WG and silica-modified hybrid WG foams showed a maximum water uptake between 32 and 11 times the original sample weight. The maximum uptake was only between 4.3 and 6.7 times the initial weight in limonene (a nonpolar liquid) but showed reversible absorption/desorption and that the foams could be dried into their original shape. The different foams had a cell size of 2-400 mu m, a density of 60-163 kg/m(3), and a compression modulus of 1-9 MPa. The integrity of the foams during swelling in water was improved by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde (GA) or by a thermal treatment at 130 degrees C, which polymerized the proteins. In the never-dried state, the foam acted as a sponge, and it was possible to squeeze out water and soak it repeatedly. If the foam was dried to its glassy state, then the cells collapsed and did not open again even if the solid foam was reimmersed in water, saving as a sensor mechanism that can be used to reveal unintended exposure to polar liquids such as water under a product's service life. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed that the gliadin-correlated structure expanded and then disappeared in the presence of water. The foam was made antimicrobial by impregnation with a Lanasol solution (a bromophenol existing in algae). It was also shown that the foam can act as a transfer/storage medium for liquids such as natural oils (rapeseed oil) and as a slow-release matrix for surfactant chemicals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2016. Vol. 4, no 4, 2395-2404 p.
Keyword [en]
Protein, Freeze-drying, Swelling, Sponge, Lanasol
National Category
Chemical Sciences Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185985DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b00099ISI: 000373554600061Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84964378085OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-185985DiVA: diva2:926273
Note

QC 20160504

Available from: 2016-05-04 Created: 2016-04-29 Last updated: 2017-05-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Biofoams and Biocomposites based on Wheat Gluten Proteins
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biofoams and Biocomposites based on Wheat Gluten Proteins
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Novel uses of wheat gluten (WG) proteins, obtained e.g. as a coproduct from bio-ethanol production, are presented in this thesis. A flame-retardant foam was prepared via in-situ polymerization of hydrolyzed tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in a denatured WG matrix (Paper I). The TEOS formed a well-dispersed silica phase in the walls of the foam. With silica contents ≥ 6.7 wt%, the foams showed excellent fire resistance. An aspect of the bio-based foams was their high sensitivity to fungi and bacterial growth. This was addressed in Paper II using a natural antimicrobial agent Lanasol. In the same paper, a swelling of 32 times its initial weight in water was observed for the pristine WG foam and both capillary effects and cell wall absorption contributed to the high uptake. In Paper III, conductive and flexible foams were obtained using carbon-based nanofillers and plasticizer. It was found that the electrical resistance of the carbon nanotubes and carbon black filled foams were strain-independent, which makes them suitable for applications in electromagnetic shielding (EMI) and electrostatic discharge protection (ESD). Paper IV describes a ‘water-welding’ method where larger pieces of WG foams were made by wetting the sides of the smaller cubes before being assembled together. The flexural strength of welded foams was ca. 7 times higher than that of the same size WG foam prepared in one piece. The technique provides a strategy for using freeze-dried WG foams in applications where larger foams are required.

Despite the versatile functionalities of the WG-based materials, the mechanical properties are often limited due to the brittleness of the dry solid WG. WG/flax composites were developed for improved mechanical properties of WG (Paper V). The results revealed that WG, reinforced with 19 wt% flax fibres, had a strength that was ca. 8 times higher than that of the pure WG matrix. Furthermore, the crack-resistance was also significantly improved in the presence of the flax.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 98 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2017:30
Keyword
Wheat gluten, biofoam, biocomposite, freeze-drying, flame-retardant, silica, antimicrobial, bimodal, conductive biofoam, flax fiber, crack-resistance
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207778 (URN)978-91-7729-453-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-08-25, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 243-2011-1436
Note

QC 20170524

Available from: 2017-07-14 Created: 2017-05-23 Last updated: 2017-07-14Bibliographically approved

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