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High temperature corrosion in biomass-fired energy applications: Alloying effects and test environment comparisons
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Swerea KIMAB.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0861-7342
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To reduce the greenhouse effect, the use of renewable fuel has to be increased. As renewable fuel has different characteristics compared to fossil fuel regarding content of trace metals, alkali, chlorine and sulphur, the corrosion characteristics in high temperature energy processes have to be evaluated. This thesis concerns high temperature corrosion in the superheater region of a boiler and the syngas cooler area of a gasifier.

For the superheater region, laboratory exposures were performed. The methods included a salt dip exposure, where samples were dipped in an equimolar solution of ZnCl2 and KCl, and two salt bed exposures with different chlorine concentrations, 10 and 20 wt%. Ranking of the materials showed that a Ni content above 10 wt% and Cr above 20 wt% reduced corrosion rates in the salt dip and in the 10% Cl salt bed exposure. For exposure in the 20% Cl bed, even higher alloying was needed. An alumina forming austenitic steel showed future potential in sulphidising-chlorinating environments.

For the gasifier region, the effect of HCl in a simulated gasifier atmosphere was studied and also samples exposed in the syngas section of a biomass gasifier were investigated. Metal loss was low for all exposures and it was observed that chlorine had minor influence. For the plant exposed samples, a difference compared to that reported for coal gasifiers was the absence of FeS for the lowest alloyed steel. Instead, a deposit with pronounced content of Zn, Ca, S and O was present on the surface. Zinc was suggested to mitigate corrosion.

Thermodynamic modelling was used to explain phases present and to predict the nitridation behaviour of an alumina forming austenitic steel. Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of the nitridation showed good coherence with the observed microstructures. However, the kinetic modelling resulted in larger nitridation depths than observed experimentally which was attributed to the presence of a thin oxide layer on the surface of the samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , xvi, 71 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2016:17
Keyword [en]
High temperature corrosion, biomass, waste, superheater corrosion, austenitic steel, biomass gasification, alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel, thermodynamic modelling, kinetic modelling
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Inorganic Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186318ISBN: 978-91-7595-935-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-186318DiVA: diva2:926844
Public defence
2016-06-03, F3, Lindstedtsv.26, KTH-Campus, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20160510

Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-05-10 Last updated: 2016-09-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Effect of Addition of 4% Al on the High Temperature Oxidation and Nitridation of a 20Cr-25Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Addition of 4% Al on the High Temperature Oxidation and Nitridation of a 20Cr-25Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel
2014 (English)In: Oxidation of Metals, ISSN 0030-770X, E-ISSN 1573-4889, Vol. 82, 469-490 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS, 2014
Keyword
Alumina forming austenite, sulphidising-chlorinating environment, high temperature oxidation, nitridation
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186315 (URN)10.1007/s11085-014-9503-6 (DOI)000344802100009 ()2-s2.0-84912035459 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160510

Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-05-10 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
2. Exposure of 304L and 310S in chlorinating gasification environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure of 304L and 310S in chlorinating gasification environments
2015 (English)In: Materials at High Temperature, ISSN 0960-3409, E-ISSN 1878-6413, Vol. 32, no 1-2, 36-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Maney Publishing, 2015
Keyword
High temperature corrosion, austenite, 304L, 310S, gasification, microstructure, TEM, hydrochloric acid
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186312 (URN)10.1179/0960340914Z.00000000059 (DOI)000348713300007 ()2-s2.0-84942420340 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160510

Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-05-10 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
3. Corrosion and deposit formation on four steels exposed in the syngas section after a biomass gasifier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrosion and deposit formation on four steels exposed in the syngas section after a biomass gasifier
2016 (English)In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
biomass gasification, hih temperature corrosion, stainless steel
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186313 (URN)10.1002/maco.201508686 (DOI)2-s2.0-84964342118 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160510

Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-05-10 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
4. Laboratory testing to evaluate candidate alloys for superheaters in waste-fired boilers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory testing to evaluate candidate alloys for superheaters in waste-fired boilers
(English)In: Materials at High Temperature, ISSN 0960-3409, E-ISSN 1878-6413Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186317 (URN)
Note

QC 20160510

Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-05-10 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
5. Modelling internal nitridation in an alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling internal nitridation in an alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel
2016 (English)In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
alumina forming austenitic stainless steel, high temperature corrosion, internal nitridation, kinetic modelling, thermodynamic modelling
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186316 (URN)10.1002/maco.201508771 (DOI)2-s2.0-84962641292 (Scopus ID)
Note

QS 20160510

Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-05-10 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved

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