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Lignin as a Binder Material for Eco-Friendly Li-Ion Batteries
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1713-1659
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5816-2924
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9392-9059
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2016 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 3, 127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
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Text
Abstract [en]

The industrial lignin used here is a byproduct from Kraft pulp mills, extracted from black liquor. Since lignin is inexpensive, abundant and renewable, its utilization has attracted more and more attention. In this work, lignin was used for the first time as binder material for LiFePO4 positive and graphite negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. A procedure for pretreatment of lignin, where low-molecular fractions were removed by leaching, was necessary to obtain good battery performance. The lignin was analyzed for molecular mass distribution and thermal behavior prior to and after the pretreatment. Electrodes containing active material, conductive particles and lignin were cast on metal foils, acting as current collectors and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. Good reversible capacities were obtained, 148 mAhg(-1) for the positive electrode and 305 mAhg(-1) for the negative electrode. Fairly good rate capabilities were found for both the positive electrode with 117 mAhg(-1) and the negative electrode with 160 mAhg(-1) at 1C. Low ohmic resistance also indicated good binder functionality. The results show that lignin is a promising candidate as binder material for electrodes in eco-friendly Li-ion batteries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG , 2016. Vol. 9, no 3, 127
Keyword [en]
lignin, binder, leaching, electrodes, Li-ion batteries
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186569DOI: 10.3390/ma9030127ISI: 000373805400072Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84962652184OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-186569DiVA: diva2:927987
Note

QC 20160513

Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-04-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Wood-based Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wood-based Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) have become very important recently as power sources for portable electronics and electric vehicles. Today non-renewable petroleum-based polymers are used as binders in state-of-the-art LIB. Therefore, it is essential to investigate alternative binders, which are environmentally friendly and inexpensive. Using wood-based materials, such as cellulose and lignin, could make the batteries more environmentally benign, cheaper and easier to produce.

Lignin, a byproduct from the pulping industry and the second most abundant bio-polymer in wood, has been investigated for the first time as binder material for eco-friendly LIB. Both LiFePO4 (LFP) positive and graphite negative electrodes using pretreated lignin as binder exhibited good electrochemical performance. The drawback of lignin as binder is that its poor mechanical properties limit the preparation of a thick electrode, constraining the energy density for LIB.

In order to meet the demands of flexible and bendable electronic devices, cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) as binder materials have been successfully fabricated for flexible batteries by a water-based paper making process. It showed excellent binding properties for different kinds of electrode materials, which were homogenously dispersed in its visible network. The flexible electrodes obtained good mechanical and electrochemical properties. A study of different CNF shows that the manufacturing process affects the performance of the electrodes.

Another innovative LIB concept in this thesis was to build both lightweight and bendable LIB. Chopped carbon fibers (CF), bound by CNF, were demonstrated as both current collector and as a current collector-free negative electrode, produced by an easy filtration process. The gravimetric energy density was increased compared to cells with metallic current collectors. The CF-based lightweight and flexible electrode achieved a good cycling stability, rate capability, even after 4000 times of bending.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 48 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2017:26
Keyword
binder, lignin, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils, flexible paper electrodes, lightweight, eco-friendly, Li-ion batteries
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205663 (URN)978-91-7729-358-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-05-22, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170421

Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2017-04-24Bibliographically approved

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