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Energy efficiency and performance limitations of linear adaptive control for transition delay
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8209-1449
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7864-3071
(English)In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Reactive-control techniques have been longly investigated to control local flow instabilities in boundary-layer flows – Tollmien-Schlichting waves – that would eventually cause laminar-to-turbulence transition. Several studies have been published about the control of two-dimensional (2D) disturbances supposing a transition delay. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) disturbance environment is considered in a 2D zero-pressure-gradient boundary-layer flow. A control- law based on a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) filtered-x least-mean-squares (fxLMS) adaptive algorithm is introduced and its performances are analysed for increasing disturbance amplitude. Transition delay is achieved by the investigated control set-up; moreover, an energy budget is conducted in order to asses the net energy saving capabilities of the investigated control approach. Ideal as well as real actuators models are considered, focusing in particular on dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma actuators. To our knowledge, this is the first time that drag-reduction and energy-saving capabilities are studied for reactive transition-delay techniques. 

Keyword [en]
fxLMS, plasma actuator, drag reduction
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-187172OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-187172DiVA: diva2:929103
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-4246
Note

QC 20160518

Available from: 2016-05-17 Created: 2016-05-17 Last updated: 2016-05-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Transition delay in boundary-layer flows via reactive control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transition delay in boundary-layer flows via reactive control
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Fördröjning av laminärt-turbulent omslag i gränsskiktströmning genom reaktiv kontroll
Abstract [en]

Transition delay in boundary-layer flows is achieved via reactive control of flow instabilities, i.e. Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. Adaptive and model-based control techniques are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS) and experiments. The action of actuators localised in the wall region is prescribed based on localised measurement of the disturbance field; in particular, plasma actuators and surface hot-wire sensors are considered.

Performances and limitations of this control approach are evaluated both for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) disturbance scenarios. The focus is on the robustness properties of the investigated control techniques; it is highlighted that static model-based control, such as the linear-quadratic- Gaussian (LQG) regulator, is very sensitive to model-inaccuracies. The reason for this behaviour is found in the feed-forward nature of the adopted sensor/actuator scheme; hence, a second, downstream sensor is introduced and actively used to recover robustness via an adaptive filtered-x least-mean-squares (fxLMS) algorithm.

Furthermore, the model of the flow required by the control algorithm is reduced to a time delay. This technique, called delayed-x least-mean-squares (dxLMS) algorithm, allows taking a step towards a self-tuning controller; by introducing a third sensor it is possible to compute on-line the suitable time-delay model with no previous knowledge of the controlled system. This self-tuning approach is successfully tested by in-flight experiments on a motor-glider.

Lastly, the transition delay capabilities of the investigated control con- figuration are confirmed in a complex disturbance environment. The flow is perturbed with random localised disturbances inside the boundary layer and the laminar-to-turbulence transition is delayed via a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) version of the fxLMS algorithm. A positive theoretical net-energy- saving is observed for disturbance amplitudes up to 2% of the free-stream velocity at the actuation location, reaching values around 1000 times the input power for the lower disturbance amplitudes that have been investigated. 

Abstract [sv]

I den här avhandlingen har reglertekniska metoder tillämpats för att försena omslaget från ett laminärt till ett turbulent gränsskikt genom att dämpa tillväxten av små instabiliteter, så kallade Tollmien-Schlichting vågor. Adaptiva och modellbaserade metoder för reglering av strömning har undersökts med hjälp av numeriska beräkningar av Navier-Stokes ekvationer, vindtunnelexperiment och även genom direkt tillämpning på flygplan. Plasmaaktuatorer och varmtrådsgivare vidhäftade på ytan av plattan eller vingen har använts i experimenten och modellerats i beräkningarna.

Prestanda och begränsningar av den valda kontrollstrategin har utvärderats för både tvådimensionella och tredimensionella gränsskiktsinstabiliteter. Fokus har varit på metodernas robusthet, där vi visar att statiska metoder som linjär-kvadratiska regulatorer (LQG) är mycket känsliga för avvikelser från den nominella modellen. Detta beror främst på att regulatorer agerar i förkompenseringsläge (”feed-foward”) på grund av strömningens karaktär och placeringen av givare och aktuatorer. För att minska känsligheten mot avvikelser och därmed öka robustheten har en givare införts nedströms och en adaptiv fXLMS algoritm (filtered-x least-mean-squares) har tillämpats.                 

Vidare har modelleringen av fXLMS-algoritmen förenklats genom att ersätta överföringsfunktionen mellan aktuatorer och givare med en lämplig tidsfördröjning.  Denna  metod som kallas för dxLMS (delayed-x least-mean-squares) kräver att ytterligare en givare införs långt uppströms för att kunna uppskatta hastigheten på de propagerande instabilitetsvågorna. Denna teknik har tillämpats framgångsrikt för reglering av gränsskiktet på vingen av ett segelflygplan.

Slutligen har de reglertekniska metoderna testas för komplexa slumpmässiga tredimensionella störningar som genererats uppströms lokalt i gränsskiktet. Vi visar att en signifikant försening av laminärt-turbulentomslag äger rum med hjälp av en fXLMS algoritm. En analys av energibudgeten visar att för ideala aktuatorer och givare kan den sparade energiåtgången på grund av minskad väggfriktion vara upp till 1000 gånger större än den energi som använts för reglering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 200 p.
Series
TRITA-MEK, ISSN 0348-467X ; 2016:10
Keyword
flow control, drag reduction, net energy saving, adaptive control, model-based control, optimal control, flat-plate boundary layer, laminar-to- turbulent transition, plasma actuator, direct numerical simulation, in-flight experiments, strömningsstyrning, friktionsreduktion, netto energibesparing, adaptiv styrning, modellbaserad styrning, optimal kontroll, gränsskikt öve en plan platta, laminärt till turbulent omslag, plasma aktuator, DNS, flyg prov
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-187173 (URN)978-91-7729-030-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-06-13, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012- 4246
Available from: 2016-05-17 Created: 2016-05-17 Last updated: 2016-05-17Bibliographically approved

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