Rational bioenergy utilisation in energy systems and impacts on CO2emissions
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
The increased concentration of greenhouse gases in theatmosphere, in particular CO2, is changing the Earths climate. Accordingto the Kyoto protocol, where the international community agreedon binding emission targets, developed countries are committedto reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The increased use ofbiomass in energy systems is an important strategy to reduce CO2emissions. The purpose of this thesis has been toanalyse the opportunities for Sweden to further reduce CO2emissions in the energy system, by rationallyutilising woody biomass energy. The characteristics of currentcommercially operating biofuel-based CHP plants in Sweden aresurveyed and systematically presented. A consistent andtransparent comprehensive reference base for system comparisonsis given. Furthermore, the fuel effectiveness and contributionto CO2reduction is calculated. The governmentalsubsidies of the CHP plantsinvestment, expressed as costof specific CO2reduction, appears to be low.
The competitiveness of biomass-fuelled energy production inrelation to fossil-based production with carbon capture isanalysed, showing that the biomass-fuelled systems provide acompetitive option, in terms of cost of electricity andefficiencies. The remaining Swedish woody biofuel potential ofat least 100 PJ/yr is principally available in regions with abiomass surplus. Transportation is therefore required to enableits utilisation in a further national and international market.Refining the biofuel feedstock to pellets, or even furtherrefining to motor fuels (DME, methanol or ethanol) or power,could facilitate this transport. Different options for fuelrefining are studied and compared. The entire fuel chain, fromfuel feedstock to end users, is considered and CO2emissions are quantified. Substituting fuelpellets for coal appears to be the most costeffectivealternative and shows the largest CO2reduction per energy unit biofuel. Motor fuelsappear more costly and give about half the CO2reduction. Transportation of the upgraded biofuelpellets is highly feasible from CO2emissions point of view and does not constitute ahindrance for further utilisation, i.e. the pellets can betransported over long distances efficiently with only limitedemissions of CO2.
Bioenergy utilisation has additional features forenvironmental improvement, apart from the CO2aspect. Waste heat from biofuel-based CHP can becost-effectively used in conjunction with sewage treatment. Theincoming sewage water to the nitrification process can bepreheated with the waste heat, and thereby substantiallyenhance the nitrification and the reduction of ammoniumnitrogen during the winter season.
Keywords:CO2reduction, energy system, biofuel, CHP, refining,fuel pellets, ethanol, methanol, DME, fuel substitution, sewagewater, nitrification.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kemiteknik , 2003. , 53 p.
Trita-KET, ISSN 1104-3466 ; R174
CO2 reduction, energy system, biofuel, CHP, refining, fuel pellets, ethanol, methanol, DME, fuel substitution, sewage water, nitrification
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3490ISBN: ISBN 91-7283-463-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-3490DiVA: diva2:9295
NR 201408052003-04-022003-04-02Bibliographically approved