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Detection of stator interturn fault of synchronous machine by rotor current analysis: A SIMULATION APPROACH
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
2016 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

One of the major electrical faults of synchronous machines is an interturn short circuit in the stator winding, due to winding insulation failure. A synchronous machine is designed to have electrical and mechanical symmetry in the stator and rotor. An interturn fault in a synchronous machine damages the symmetrical property, thereby inducing abnormal symptoms like varying torque, mechanical vibration, and deviation of stator and rotor terminal currents from their usual waveform. This last symptom is what is studied in this thesis, as an indicator of the presence of an interturn fault. An interturn fault during machine operation can lead to a catastrophic machine failure and consequent long outage, unless it is rapidly detected and the machine shut down. Prevention of such outages is an important concern for machine owners and power system operators. That is why early detection of interturn faults is desirable to prevent such machine failure.

Several external sensors can be implemented to detect such interturn fault, which is costly. That is why it is desirable if the interturn fault can be detected by analyzing the measured currents that already are available to a protective relay. In this thesis a simulation approach is presented to observe the pattern and frequency spectrum of rotor field current in presence of a stator inter turn fault. All simulations have been performed using Matlab-based programs written during this thesis work in the Electromagnetic department (ETK) in KTH. The outcome of the thesis is that in the presence of an interturn fault in the stator, several even harmonic components are found in the frequency spectrum of the rotor field current. The presence of these harmonics is not a definitive sign of an interturn fault, as almost the same even harmonics are found in the rotor field current if the stator winding asymmetry is taken into account.

Abstract [sv]

En av de största elektriska felen i synkronmaskiner är en kortslutning mellan varv i statorlindningen, på grund av skadad lindningsisolering. En synkronmaskins konstruktion ger elektrisk och mekanisk symmetri i statorn och rotorn vilket ger en hög effektivitet. Ett varvfel i statorn skadar symmetrin och inducerar onormalt stora strömmarvilket leder till ett tidsvarierande vridmoment, mekanisk vibration, och onormala vågformer av strömmarna vid statorns och rotorns poler. Varvfel under maskinens drift kan snabbt orsaka stora skador, med följd av långa avbrottstider. Förebyggande av sådana avbrott är viktig hos maskinägare och systemansvariga. Därför är snabb detektering av sådana fel, och urdrifttagning av maskinen önskvärd för att minska skadan. Däremot ska detekteringen ha låg sannolikhet att lösa ut i onödan, av annat skäl. Externa sensorer kan användas för att upptäcka sådana fel, men det är tydligt önskvärt om detekteringen kan göras genom att analysera strömmarna som redan mäts av skyddsreläer för synkronmaskiner. I denna avhandling presenteras en metod för att simulera och observera mönster och frekvensspektrum av rotors magnetiseringsström i fall där statorn har varvfel, samt i andra fall som måste kunna skiljas från varvfel. Alla simuleringar har utförts med Matlab hos avdelningen för Elektroteknisk teori och konstruktion (ETK) i Skolan för Elektro- och systemteknik (EES) på KTH.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 76 p.
Series
EES Examensarbete / Master Thesis, TRITA-EE 2016:031
Keyword [en]
Synchronous machine, interturn fault, stator fault, rotor current, harmonic current, generator protection, motor protection, inductance matrix.
Keyword [sv]
synkronmaskin, varvfel, statorström, rotorström, strömöverton
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-187654OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-187654DiVA: diva2:930886
Examiners
Available from: 2016-05-25 Created: 2016-05-25 Last updated: 2016-11-15Bibliographically approved

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