Although a superconductor has zero resistivity when carrying a direct current, losses do occur when it is exposed to an alternating magnetic field and/or is carrying an alternating current. The magnitude of these so-called AC losses depends on the operating temperature, the amplitude and the direction of the magnetic field, the transport current, and the frequency. Therefore, the use of high-temperature superconductors, HTSs, in electric power components such as cables, transformers or reactors, requires knowledge of the AC losses.
This thesis deals with the development of AC loss models for HTSs, mainly for Bi-2223 tapes. In particular, the orientation of the applied magnetic field is taken into account in the modelling. The basis for the models is the results of experimental investigations.
The basic concepts of HTSs with special emphasis on the modelling of AC losses are presented. These can be broken down into several components. Their sources and natures are described. One of the components is the hysteretic loss and it is the dominating loss in AC applications at power frequencies. Therefore, the other loss components are neglected in the modelling.
Models are presented and the associated parameters are investigated with respect to their dependence of the magnetic field as well as the temperature. The AC losses for parallel and perpendicular magnetic field with respect to the wide side of the tape are calculated numerically. Moreover, a semi-empirical model for intermediate angels of the applied magnetic field is proposed. The comparisons show good agreement with experimental results.
Keywords: High-temperature superconductors, AC loss modelling, hysteresis, E-J characteristic.
Stockholm: Elektrotekniska system , 2004.
Electronics, High-temperatur superconductors, AC loss modelling, hysteresis, E - J characteristic