EstimatingChloride concentration in surface water and groundwater duet to deicing salt application
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
A road in operation along with its traffic can pose aserious pollutant threat to groundwater and surface water inits vicinity. Examples of pollutants are metals from thecorrosion of vehicles, rails and poles and the wear of roadsurfaces and tyres; hydrocarbons from the wear of roadsurfaces, tyres, exhausts, oils; sodium chloride from roadsalt; and hazardous goods discharged in accidents. Eventuallypollutants that are not degraded or retarded in soil will reachgroundwater and surface water. The chloride ion in deicing saltis a good tracer. It is conservative and highly soluble and notsubject to retardation or degradation. If the chlorideconcentration has increased in groundwater or surface water inthe vicinity of a deiced road, other road-related pollutantsmight also be present in the water.
Increased chloride concentrations have been observed inseveral water supplies, in groundwater as well as in surfacewater, since the 1970s. The number of affected water supplieshas also increased. The increase in chloride concentration inwaters is concurrent with the increase in deicing saltapplication and it is clear that most of the increase is due tothe application of deicing salt.
The thesis presents a simple tool that quantified theincrease in chloride concentration for water in a catchmentarea, based on a steady-state water balance. The data wereefficiently processed and presented as maps with GIS. At aregional catchment area scale, substantially increased chlorideconcentrations were calculated. The variation between catchmentareas was verified by a national monitoring programme of lakes.Deicing salt application was estimated to account for more thanhalf of the total chloride load for a catchment area in the midsouth of Sweden.
A distributed dynamic method was used to evaluate thetemporal and spatial variation of the chloride concentration inan aquifer. The distributed dynamic approach integrated thespreading of deicing salt from the road with the infiltrationin the unsaturated zone in the soil, which in turn wasintegrated with the groundwater flow. The simulation was runfor a 40-year period and showed a potential to describe aspecific system.
Keywords:road, deicing salt, monitoring, chloride,catchment area, river basin, simulation, GIS, groundwater,surface water
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Mark och vatten , 2003. , xii, 21 p.
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1006
road, deicing salt, monitoring, chloride, catchment area, river basin, simulation, GIS, groundwater, surface water
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3575ISBN: 91-7283-532-XOAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-3575DiVA: diva2:9395
NR 201408052003-06-262003-06-26Bibliographically approved