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Modelling Lateral Stability of Prefabricated Concrete Structures
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
2016 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Stability calculations of prefabricated concrete structures with help of FEM-tools demand knowledge about how the elements are related to each other. This thesis concerns how joints between building elements affect the results when modelling prefabricated concrete structures, with demarcation to joints between hollow core (HC) slabs and between solid wall elements. The thesis also covers how the properties of the floor can be adjusted to account for the effects of the joints without modelling every single element.

The work started by measuring the deflection of 10 HC-slabs jointed together and loaded in-plane acting as a deep beam, in a FE-model made with Robot™, from Autodesk®. The joints between the HC-elements were modelled either rigid or elastic, and the cross-section and the length of the HC-elements were varied. The linear elastic stiffness between the HC-elements was obtained from the literature as 0.05 (GN/m)/m. The results showed that a changed cross-section geometry gave greater differences in deformation than a changed length. The in-plane shear modulus was then adjusted for the HC-elements in the rigid cases until the same deflection was achieved as for the elastic cases. The result showed that the shear modulus in average for the different cross-section geometries and lengths had to be reduced with a factor of 0.1 to account for the joints.

Based on the geometry of a castellated joint between prefabricated solid concrete walls, a calculation model was developed for its linear elastic stiffness. The result was a stiffness of 1.86 (GN/m)/m. To verify the calculated stiffness, a FE-model was developed consisting of a 30m high wall, loaded horizontally in-plane and with one or two vertical joints where the stiffness was applied. The deflection and the reaction forces were noted and the result from the calculated stiffness was compared to other stiffnesses and assessed reasonable. The reaction forces were shown to depend on the stiffness of the joint.

The reduced in-plane shear modulus of the HC-elements and the calculated stiffness of the wall joints were then used in a FE-model of a 10-storey building stabilised by two units. The vertical reaction forces were analysed and the results showed 0.02 % difference in the reaction forces in the stabilising units when consideration of the joints between the HC-elements were taken into account and 0.09 % when the vertical joints in the shear wall were taken into account. The results for the wall joint differed from the results when only the wall was modelled. This was thought to be a result of that the floors counteract the shear deformations in the wall joints. The influence of the floor joints was not significant for the building considered in this thesis, but for buildings with non-continuous configuration of the stiffness in the shear walls the outcome may be another, in these cases the reduction factor may be useful.

Abstract [sv]

Vid stabilitetsberäkningar av prefabricerade betongstommar med hjälp av FEM-verktyg ställs krav på kunskap om hur elementen förhåller sig till varandra. Detta arbete berör hur fogar mellan byggnadselement påverkar modellering av prefabricerade betongstommar med avgränsning till fogar mellan håldäckselement och mellan solida väggelement. Arbetet berör även en studie i hur ett bjälklags egenskaper kan justeras så att fogarnas effekt kan tillvaratas utan att modellera varje enskilt håldäckselement.

Arbetet inleddes med att utböjningen analyserades hos 10 st ihopskarvade håldäckselement, lastade i dess plan likt en hög balk, i en FE-modell skapad i programmet Robot™, från Autodesk®. Fogarna mellan håldäcken modellerades som antingen rigida eller elastiska och håldäckens tvärsnittsgeometri och längd varierades under testet. Den linjära styvheten mellan håldäcken togs från litteraturen som 0.05 (GN/m)/m. Resultatet visade att ändrad tvärsnittsgeometri gav större skillnader för deformationen än varierad längd på håldäcken. Håldäckens skjuvmodul justerades sedan i dess plan för de rigida testen tills dess att de uppnådde samma utböjning som de elastiska. Resultatet visade att skjuvmodulen behövdes reduceras med en faktor 0.1, i medeltal för de olika tvärsnittsgeometrierna och håldäckslängderna.

Utefter geometrin på en fog med förtagningar mellan prefabricerade väggar togs en beräkningsmodell fram för den linjärelastiska styvheten i väggfogarna. Resultatet blev en styvhet på 1.86 (GN/m)/m. För att verifiera den beräknade styvheten togs en FE-modell fram bestående av en 30m hög vägg lastad horisontellt i dess plan med en eller två vertikala fogar där en linjär styvhet applicerades. Utböjningen samt reaktionskrafterna noterades, resultatet för den uträknade linjära styvheten jämfördes med andra styvheter och bedömdes utifrån detta vara rimlig. Reaktionskrafterna visade sig vara beroende av styvheten på fogen.

Den sänkta skjuvmodulen för håldäcken och den beräknade linjära elasticiteten för väggarna användes sedan i en FE-modell av en 10-våningsbyggnad med två stabiliserande enheter där de vertikala reaktionskrafterna analyserades. Resultatet visade att endast 0.02 procentenheter skiljer reaktionskrafterna i de stabiliserande enheterna då hänsyn tas till fogarna mellan håldäcken och 0.09 procentenheter då hänsyn tas till fogarna mellan väggarna. Resultatet skiljer sig från när endast väggen modellerades, vilket tros bero på att bjälklaget hjälper till att motverka deformationer i väggfogarna. Fogen mellan bjälklagselementen tros kunna ha större inverkan på en byggnad med stabiliserande enheter som drastiskt ändrar styvhet från ett plan till ett annat, i dessa fall kan den framtagna reduktionsfaktorn vara av nytta.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 106 p.
Series
TRITA-BKN-Examensarbete, ISSN 1103-4297 ; 490
Keyword [en]
precast, concrete, hollow core, shear key, diaphragm
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-188586OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-188586DiVA: diva2:940461
External cooperation
Tyréns AB
Subject / course
Concrete Structures
Educational program
Master of Science in Engineering - Urban Management
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2016-06-29 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2016-06-29Bibliographically approved

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