Long-Wavelength Vertical-Cavity Lasers: Materials and Device Analysis
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Vertical-cavity lasers (VCLs) are of great interest as lightsources for fiber-optic communication systems. Such deviceshave a number of advantages over traditional in-plane laserdiodes, including low power consumption, efficient fibercoupling, on-chip testability, as well as potential low-costfabrication and packaging. To date, GaAs-based VCLs operatingat 850 nm are the technology of choice for short-distance,high-speed data transmission over multimode fiber. Forlong-distance communication networks, long-wavelength (LW) VCLsoperating in the 1.3 and 1.55-μm transmission windowsof standard singlemode fibers are desired. However, despiteconsiderable worldwide development efforts, the commercialbreakthrough of such devices has still to be achieved. This ismainly due to shortcomings of the intrinsic material propertiesof InP-based material systems, traditionally employed in LWlaser diodes. While LW quantum well (QW) active regions basedon InP are well established, efficient distributed Braggreflectors (DBRs) are better built up in the AlGaAs/GaAsmaterial system. Therefore, earlier work on LW VCLs has focusedon hybrid techniques such as bonding between InP-based QWs andAlGaAs/GaAs DBRs using waferfusion. More recently, however, themain interest in this field has shifted towards all-epitaxialGaAs-based devices employing novel 1.3-μm activematerials with strained GaInNAs QWs as one of the mostpromising candidates.
The main focus of this thesis is on the characterization andanalysis of LW VCLs and building blocks thereof, based on bothInP and GaAs substrates. This includes a theoretical study on1.3-μm InGaAsP/InP multiple QW active regions, as wellas an experimental investigation of novel, highly strained1.2-μm InGaAs/GaAs single QWs. Two high-accuracyabsolute reflectance measurement setups were built for thecharacterization of various DBRs. Reflectance measurementsrevealed that n-type doping is much more detrimental to theperformance of AlGaAs/GaAs DBRs than previously anticipated.Near-room temperature operation of a single-fused1.55-μm VCL with an InP/InGaAsP bottom DBR wasobtained. A thermal analysis of this device structure clearlyindicated its limited capabilities in terms of high-temperatureoperation. As a result, further efforts were directed towardsall-epitaxial GaAs-based VCLs. Record-long emission wavelengthsto above 1260 nm were obtained from InGaAs VCLs based on anextensive gaincavity detuning. These devices showed verypromising performance characteristics in terms of thresholdcurrent and light output power, indicating good potential forbeing a viable alternative to GaInNAs-based VCLs.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kista: Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik , 2003. , xviii, 72 p.
Trita-HMA, ISSN 1404-0379 ; 2003:2
VCL, VCSEL, vertical-cavity laser, semiconductor laser, long-wavelength, DBR, characterization, analysis, InP, InGaAs, quantum well, numerical modeling
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3585ISBN: 91-7283-564-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-3585DiVA: diva2:9406
NR 201408052003-09-082003-09-08Bibliographically approved