Calcium and tin oxides for heterogeneous transesterification of Babasssu oil (Attalea speciosa)
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2213-3437Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Non-edible oils and waste cooking oils are alternatives to uphold a sustainable large scale production of biodiesel considering large volumes and by-products. Babassu oil (Attalea speciosa) offers a challenging case study scenario for the preparation of a heterogeneous catalytic material. This study shows the binary synthesis of calcium and stannic oxide (CaO/SnO2) catalysts for transesterification of oils with high content of free fatty acids (FFAs). The catalysts were prepared with several mass ratios of CaO:SnO2 in the proportions of 1:4, 4:1, 7:3 and 1:1. The catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N2-physisorption analyses. Biodiesel production was tested using a 23 full factorial design with variables such as temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst weight relative to oil. Such design statistically proved that there was no significant effect over the response variable. Furthermore a Box-Behnken design surface response analysis using the same three variables with three levels was performed with MATLAB showing a non-linear relation and statistical response of the optimal conditions for biodiesel production. The optimal experimental conditions were found to be 54.1°C, agitation speed at 250rpm with 6wt.% of CaO/SnO2 (7:3 mass ratio of the binary catalyst) and 10:1 (methanol:oil) molar ratio. The catalyst has shown a high potential for conversion of Babassu oil by fine-tuning as a single step by simultaneous esterification and transesterification to biodiesel.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Babassu oil, Biodiesel, Heterogeneous catalyst, Mixed oxides, Transesterification, Calcium, Catalysts, Electron microscopy, Fatty acids, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Methanol, Scanning electron microscopy, Tin oxides, Transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction, Full factorial design, Heterogeneous transesterification, Large scale productions, Mixed oxide, Optimal experimental conditions, Powder X ray diffraction, Oils and fats
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186798DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2016.04.006ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84964329865OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-186798DiVA: diva2:943098
QC 201606272016-06-272016-05-132016-06-27Bibliographically approved