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From starch to polylactide and nano-graphene oxide: fully starch derived high performance composites
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4468-5019
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7790-8987
2016 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, no 59, 54336-54345 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

A delicate closed-loop strategy for valorization of starch to value-added products was developed. Carbon sheets, formed of carbon spheres, were obtained by microwave-assisted hydrothermal degradation of starch and then further transformed into nano-sized graphene oxide (nGO, 20 x 30 nm(2)) under oxygen-rich acidic conditions. The synthesized nGO exhibited self-assembly in solution. Furthermore, nGO strongly attached to the surface of starch granules by hydrogen bonding (nGO@ starch, 0.1 wt%) and allowed easy and highly efficient interfacial engineering in PLA/starch composites. After combining with polylactide (PLA), the composites could incorporate up to 30 wt% nGO@ starch, while retaining excellent properties. nGO was capable of facilitating PLA crystallization in the composites by providing a number of nucleation sites. Moreover, the interfacial adhesion between PLA and starch was significantly improved by nGO. Though its content was extremely low, nGO improved the mechanical and barrier properties and thermal stability of the PLA/starch composites. The results demonstrate a facile route to value-added starch-derived nGO and further to fully starch derived high performance PLA/starch biocomposites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016. Vol. 6, no 59, 54336-54345 p.
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-189959DOI: 10.1039/c6ra08194kISI: 000378521400091Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84973614832OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-189959DiVA: diva2:950065
Note

QC 20160727

Available from: 2016-07-27 Created: 2016-07-25 Last updated: 2017-06-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Closed-loop strategy for valorization of starch: From starch to functionalized starch biomaterials and bioplastics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Closed-loop strategy for valorization of starch: From starch to functionalized starch biomaterials and bioplastics
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The desire to utilize renewable resources and avoid wastes drives us to develop new concepts for material design. Non-edible starch feedstocks and starch bioplastic wastes were previously considered useless. However, with a proper design and process chain, starch-rich biomasses are a promising resource for production and modification of future materials. Therefore, a top-down and closed-loop strategy for valorization of starch through a circle consisting of “StarchÞEnhancerÞNew starch product” is developed and demonstrated in this work. Starch, as a model for starch rich waste resources, was converted into valuable chemicals or carbon products through a two-step decomposition. The valorization products were then utilized as property enhancers in starch-rich biomaterials and bioplastics through design of “structure adapted utilization”: i.e., the obtained products were included in the design of starch-rich products aiming at property enhancement or introduction of new properties. This leads to the closed-loop strategy for valorization of starch.

Through a two-step processing, starch was converted into two categories of value-added products: water soluble degradation products (mixture of glucose, levulinic acid (LA) and formic acid (FA)), and 0D nano-graphene oxide (nGO, smaller than 100 nm in all dimension). Specifically, in step one, through acid-catalyzed microwave-assisted reaction; starch was converted to a mixture of glucose, LA and FA in soluble phase and carbon spheres (C-spheres) as a solid residue phase. In step two, the insoluble C-spheres were further oxidized under oxygen-rich acidic conditions to obtain multifunctional nGO.

Through “structure adapted utilization”, four routes were designed to efficiently utilize the two categories of value-added products as functional enhancers for new starch-rich products. On one hand, starch-derived biomedical scaffolds were developed in route 1 and 2: nGO could stabilize porous 3D starch scaffolds (route 1) and starch nanofibrous scaffolds (route 2), and meanwhile endorse them the ability to induce biomineralization. On the other hand, starch-rich (and fully starch-derivable) bioplastics were developed in route 3 and 4: nGO effectively compatibilized poly lactic acid/starch composites enhancing the mechanical performance and barrier properties (route 3) and the water soluble degradation products plasticized starch films reducing their brittleness (route 4).

Along this closed-loop pathway, the material value of starch was significantly improved and minimum waste was derived, paving towards the sustainable environment and circular economy. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 60 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2017:22
Keyword
Starch, Nano-graphene oxide, Microwave, Valorization, Scaffold, Biomineralization, Bioplastics, Compatibilizer, Plasticizer
National Category
Materials Engineering Medical Materials Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Fibre and Polymer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208188 (URN)978-91-7729-341-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-05-05, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170602

Available from: 2017-06-02 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2017-06-02Bibliographically approved

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