Deactivation of cobalt and nickel catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and methanation
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
A potential route for converting different carbon sources (coal, natural gas and biomass) into synthetic fuels is the transformation of these raw materials into synthesis gas (CO and H2), followed by a catalytic step which converts this gas into the desired fuels. The present thesis has focused on two catalytic steps: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) and methanation. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis serves to convert synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. Methanation serves instead to produce synthetic natural gas (SNG). Cobalt catalysts have been used in FTS while nickel catalysts have been used in methanation.
The catalyst lifetime is a parameter of critical importance both in FTS and methanation. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the deactivation causes of the cobalt and nickel catalysts in their respective reactions.
The resistance to carbonyl-induced sintering of nickel catalysts supported on different carriers (γ-Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and α-Al2O3) was studied. TiO2-supported nickel catalysts exhibited lower sintering rates than the other catalysts. The effect of the catalyst pellet size was also evaluated on γ-Al2O3-supported nickel catalysts. The use of large catalyst pellets gave considerably lower sintering rates. The resistance to carbon formation on the above-mentioned supported nickel catalysts was also evaluated. Once again, TiO2-supported nickel catalysts exhibited the lowest carbon formation rates. Finally, the effect of operating conditions on carbon formation and deactivation was studied using Ni/TiO2 catalysts. The use of higher H2/CO ratios and higher pressures reduced the carbon formation rate. Increasing the temperature from 280 °C to 340 °C favored carbon deposition. The addition of steam also reduced the carbon formation rate but accelerated catalyst deactivation.
The decline in activity of cobalt catalysts with increasing sulfur concentration was also assessed by ex situ poisoning of a cobalt catalyst. A deactivation model was proposed to predict the decline in activity as function of the sulfur coverage and the sulfur-to-cobalt active site ratio. The results also indicate that sulfur decreases the selectivity to long-chain hydrocarbons and olefins.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: US-AB , 2016. , xii, 124 p.
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081
cobalt, nickel, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanation, deactivation, carbonyl, sintering, carbon fomation. sulfur, poisoning
Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject Chemical Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-190593ISBN: 978-91-7729-060-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-190593DiVA: diva2:952256
2016-09-23, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Boutonnet, Magali, UnivL
FunderEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 308733
QC 201608172016-08-172016-08-122016-08-18Bibliographically approved
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