Gaze perception and awareness in smart devices
2016 (English)In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 92-93, 55-65 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Eye contact and gaze awareness play a significant role for conveying emotions and intentions during face-to-face conversation. Humans can perceive each other's gaze quite naturally and accurately. However, the gaze awareness/perception are ambiguous during video teleconferencing performed by computer-based devices (such as laptops, tablet, and smart-phones). The reasons for this ambiguity are the (i) camera position relative to the screen and (ii) 2D rendition of 3D human face i.e., the 2D screen is unable to deliver an accurate gaze during video teleconferencing. To solve this problem, researchers have proposed different hardware setups with complex software algorithms. The most recent solution for accurate gaze perception employs 3D interfaces, such as 3D screens and 3D face-masks. However, today commonly used video teleconferencing devices are smart devices with 2D screens. Therefore, there is a need to improve gaze awareness/perception in these smart devices. In this work, we have revisited the question; how to improve a remote user's gaze awareness among his/her collaborators. Our hypothesis is that 'an accurate gaze perception can be achieved by the '3D embodiment' of a remote user's head gesture during video teleconferencing. We have prototyped an embodied telepresence system (ETS) for the 3D embodiment of a remote user's head. Our ETS is based on a 3-DOF neck robot with a mounted smart device (tablet PC). The electromechanical platform in combination with a smart device is a novel setup that is used for studying gaze awareness/perception in 2D screen-based smart devices during video teleconferencing. Two important gaze-related issues are considered in this work; namely (i) 'Mona-Lisa Gaze Effect' - the gaze is always directed at the person independent of his position in the room, and (ii) 'Gaze Awareness/Faithfulness' - the ability to perceive an accurate spatial relationship between the observing person and the object by an actor. Our results confirm that the 3D embodiment of a remote user head not only mitigates the Mona Lisa gaze effect but also supports three levels of gaze faithfulness, hence, accurately projecting the human gaze in distant space.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 92-93, 55-65 p.
Mona-Lisa Gaze Effect, Gaze awareness, Computer-mediated communication, Eye contact, Head gesture, Gaze faithfulness, Embodied telepresence system, Tablet PC, HCI
Computer and Information Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-190481DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.05.002ISI: 000379367900005ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84969549223OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-190481DiVA: diva2:954430
QC 201608222016-08-222016-08-122016-08-22Bibliographically approved