The recent development of methods for constructing andhandling large collections (libraries) of proteins, from whichvariants with desired traits can be isolated, hasrevolutionized the field of protein engineering. Key elementsof such methods are the various ways in which the genotypes(the genes) and the phenotypes (the encoded proteins) arephysically linked during the process. In one section of thework underlying this thesis, one such technique (phagedisplay), was used to isolateand identify protein librarymembers based on their catalytic or target molecule-bindingproperties.
In a first study, phage display libraries of the lipolyticenzyme Lipolase from Thermomyces lanuginosa were constructed,the objective being to identify variants with improvedcatalytic efficiency in the presence of detergents. Toconstruct the libraries, nine positions were targeted for codonrandomization, all of which are thought to be involved in theconformational change-dependent enzyme activation that occursat water-lipid interfaces. The aim was to introduce two tothree amino acid mutations at these positions per lipase gene.After confirming that the wt enzyme could be functionallydisplayed on phage, selections with the library were performedutilizing a mechanism-based biotinylated inhibitor in thepresence of a detergent formulation. According to rhodamineB-based activity assays, the fraction of active clonesincreased from 0.2 to 90 % over three rounds of selection.Although none of the variants selected using this approachshowed increased activity, in either the presence or absence ofdetergent compared to the wild type enzyme, the resultsdemonstrated the possibility of selecting variants of theenzyme based on catalytic activity.
In the following work, phage libraries of the StaphylococcalProtein A (SPA)-derived Z-domain, constructed by randomizationof 13 surface-located positions, were used to isolate Z domainvariants (affibodies) with novel binding specificities. Astargets for selections, the parental SPA domains as well as twopreviously selected affibodies directed against two unrelatedtarget proteins were used. Binders of all three targets wereisolated with affinities (KD) in the range of 2-0.5 µM.One SPA binding affibody (ZSPA-1) was shown to bind to each of the fivehomologous native IgG-binding domains of SPA, as well as theZdomain used as the scaffold for library constructions.Furthermore, the ZSPA-1affibody was shown to compete with one of thenative domains of SPA for binding to the Fc part of humanantibodies, suggesting that the ZSPA-1affibody bound to the Fc-binding surface ofthe Z domain. The majority of the affibodies isolated in theother two selections using two different affibodies as targets,showed very little or no binding to unrelated affibodies,indicating that the binding was directed to the randomizedsurface of their respective targets, analogously toanti-idiotypic antibodies.
The structure of the wild type Z domain/ZSPA-1affibody co-complex was determined by x-raycrystallography, which confirmed the earlier findings in thatthe affibody ZSPA-1affibody was shown to bind to the Fc bindingsurface of the Z domain. Further, both the Z domain and the ZSPA-1affibody had very similar three helix-bundletopologies, and the interaction surface involved ten out of thethirteen randomized residues, with a central hydrophobic patchsurrounded by polar residues. In addition, the interactionsurface showed a surprisingly high shape complementarity, giventhe limited size of the library used for selections. The ZSPA-1affibody was further investigated for use invarious biotechnological applications. In one study, the ZSPA-1affibody was successfully recruited as a novelaffinity gene fusion partner for production, purification anddetection of cDNA-encoded recombinant proteins using anSPA-based medium for affinity chromatography. Further, the SPAbinding capability of the ZSPA-1affibody was employed for site-specific andreversible docking of ZSPA-1affibody-tagged reporter proteins onto an SPAfusion protein anchored to a cellulose surface via acellulose-binding moiety. These generated protein complexesresembles the architecture of so-called cellulosomes observedin cellulolytic bacteria. The results suggest it may bepossible to use anti-idiotypic affibody-binding protein pairsas modules to build other self-assembling types of proteinnetworks.
Keywords:phage display, selection, mechanism-basedinhibitor, affinity domains, crystal structure, Staphylococcusaureus protein A, affinity chromatography, anti-idiotypicbinding pairs, affibody, combinatorial, protein engineering,lipase, cellulosome, assembly.
Stockholm: Bioteknologi , 2004. , 98 p.
phage display, selection, enzyme, affinity domains, crystal structure, affibody, lipase, protein engineering, protein A, assembly