Influence of Citric Acid on the Metal Release of Stainless Steels
2015 (English)In: Corrosion Science and Technology, ISSN 1598-6462, Vol. 14, no 4, 166-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Knowledge of how metal releases from the stainless steels used in food processing applications and cooking utensils is essential within the framework of human health risk assessment. A new European standard test protocol for testing metal release in food contact materials made from metals and alloys has recently been published by the Council of Europe. The major difference from earlier test protocols is the use of citric acid as the worst-case food simulant. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of citric acid at acidic, neutral, and alkaline solution pH on the extent of metal release for stainless steel grades AISI 304 and 316, commonly used as food contact materials. Both grades released lower amounts of metals than the specific release limits when they were tested according to test guidelines. The released amounts of metals were assessed by means of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and changes in the outermost surface composition were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that both the pH and the complexation capacity of the solutions affected the extent of metal release from stainless steel and are discussed from a mechanistic perspective. The outermost surface oxide was significantly enriched in chromium upon exposure to citric acid, indicating rapid passivation by the acid. This study elucidates the effect of several possible mechanisms, including complex ion- and ligand-induced metal release, that govern the process of metal release from stainless steel under passive conditions in solutions that contain citric acid.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Corrosion Science Society of Korea , 2015. Vol. 14, no 4, 166-171 p.
metal release, stainless steel, citric acid, food, surface oxide
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-191471DOI: 10.14773/cst.2015.14.4.166OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-191471DiVA: diva2:956620
QC 201609012016-08-302016-08-302016-09-01Bibliographically approved