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Techno-Economic Assessment of Thermal Energy Storage integration into Low Temperature District Heating Networks
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
2016 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Thermal energy storage (TES) systems are technologies with the potential to enhance the efficiency and the flexibility of the coming 4th generation low temperature district heating (LTDH). Their integration would enable the creation of smarter, more efficient networks, benefiting both the utilities and the end consumers.

This study aims at developing a comparative assessment of TES systems, both latent and sensible heat based. First, a techno-economic analysis of several TES systems is conducted to evaluate their suitability to be integrated into LTDH. Then, potential scenarios of TES integration are proposed and analysed in a case study of an active LTDH network. This is complemented with a review of current DH legislation focused on the Swedish case, with the aim of taking into consideration the present situation, and changes that may support some technologies over others.

The results of the analysis show that sensible heat storage is still preferred to latent heat when coupled with LTDH: the cost per kWh stored is still 15% higher, at least, for latent heat in systems below 5MWh of storage size; though, they require just half of the volume. However, it is expected that the cost of latent heat storage systems will decline in the future, making them more competitive.

From a system perspective, the introduction of TES systems into the network results in an increase in flexibility leading to lower heat production costs by load shifting. It is achieved by running the production units with lower marginal heat production costs for longer periods and with higher efficiency, and thus reducing the operating hours of the other more expensive operating units during peak load conditions. In the case study, savings in the magnitude of 0.5k EUR/year are achieved through this operational strategy, with an investment cost of 2k EUR to purchase a water tank.

These results may also be extended to the case when heat generation is replaced by renewable, intermittent energy sources; thus increasing profits, reducing fuel consumption, and consequently emissions. This study represents a step forward in the development of a more efficient DH system through the integration of TES, which will play a crucial role in future smart energy system.

Abstract [sv]

Thermal energy storage (TES) eller Termisk energilagring är en teknologi med potentialen att öka effektivitet och flexibilitet i den kommande fjärde generationens fjärrvärme (LTDH). Studien har som mål att kartlägga en komparativ uppskattning av TES systemen, baserad både på latent och sensibel värme. Resultaten visar att lagring av sensibel värme är att föredra före latent värme när den kopplas med LTDH: pris per lagrade kWh kvarstår som 15% högre än för latent värme i system under 5 MWh av lagringsutrymme; dock fordrar de endast hälften av volymen.

Utifrån systemperspektiv innebär introduktionen av TES system i nätverket en ökning av flexibilitet vilket leder till reducerade värmeproduktionskostnaderna i mindre belastning. I fallstudien nås en sparnivå av femhundra euro per år genom denna operativa strategi, med en investering av 2000 euro för inköp av vattentank.

Resultaten kan också vidgas till en situation där värmeproduktionen ersätts av förnybara, intermittenta energikällor; till detta medföljer högre vinster, lägre bruk av bränsle vilket skulle innebära lägre utsläpp. Studien kan ses som ett steg framåt mot skapandet av en mer effektiv DH system genom integrationen av TES, vilket kommer att spela en betydande roll i framtida smarta energisystem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 94 p.
Keyword [en]
Thermal energy storage (TES); 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH); low temperature district heating (LTDH); District heating (DH); Energy efficiency
National Category
Energy Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-191485OAI: diva2:956741
Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

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