Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals in InP-based Materials
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Photonic crystals (PhCs) are structures periodic in thedielectric constant. They exhibit a photonic bandgap, i.e., arange of wavelengths for which light propagation is forbidden.Engineering of defects in the PhC lattice offers new ways toconfine and guide light. PhCs have been manufactured usingsemiconductors and other material technologies. This thesisfocuses on two-dimensional PhCs etched in InP-based materials.Only recently, such structures were identified as promisingcandidates for the realization of novel and advanced functionsfor optical communication applications.
The primary focus was on fabrication and characterization ofPhC structures in the InP/GaInAsP/InP material system. Thedemands on fabrication are very high: holes as small as100-300nm in diameter have to be etched at least as deep as 2µm. Thus, different etch processes had to be explored andspecifically developed for InP. We have implemented an etchingprocess based on Ar/Cl2chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE), thatrepresents the state of the art PhC etching in InP.
Different building blocks were manufactured using thisprocess. A transmission loss of 10dB/mm for a PhC waveguide, areflection of 96.5% for a 4-row mirror and a record qualityfactor of 310 for a 1D cavity were achieved for this materialsystem. With an etch depth of 4.5 µm, optical loss wasfound to be close to the intrinsic limit. PhC-based opticalfilters were demonstrated using (a) a Fabry-Pérot cavityinserted in a PhC waveguide and (b) a contra-directionalcoupler. Lag effect in CAIBE was utilized positively to realizehigh quality PhC taper sections. Using a PhC taper, a couplingefficiency of 70% was demonstrated from a standard ridgewaveguide to a single line defect PhC waveguide.
During the course of this work, InP membrane technology wasdeveloped and a Fabry-Pérot cavity with a quality factorof 3200 was demonstrated.
Keywords:photonic crystals, photonic bandgap materials,indium phosphide, dry etching, chemically assisted ion beametching, reactive ion etching, electron beam lithography,photonic integrated circuits, optical waveguides, resonantcavities, optical filtering, finite difference time domain,plane wave expansion.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kista: Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik , 2004. , xx, 93 p.
Trita-HMA, ISSN 1404-0379 ; 2004:2
Photonic crystals, photonic bandgap materials, indium phosphide, dry etching, chemically assisted ion beam etching, reactive ion etching, electron beam lithography, photonic integrated circuits, optical waveguides, resonant cavities, optical filterin
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3751OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-3751DiVA: diva2:9600