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Influence of Admixtures on Crystal Nucleation of Vanillin
KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Admixtures like reactants and byproducts are solublenon-crystallizing compounds that can be present in industrialsolutions and affect crystallization of the main substance.This thesis provides experimental and molecular modellingresults on the influence of admixtures on crystal nucleation ofvanillin (VAN). Seven admixtures: acetovanillone (AVA),ethylvanillin (EVA), guaiacol (GUA), guaethol (GUE), 4-hydroxy-acetophenone (HAP), 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (HBA), andvanillic acid (VAC) have been used in this study. Classicalnucleation theory is used as the basis to establish arelationship between experimental induction time andsupersaturation, nucleation temperature, and interfacialenergy. A novel multicell device is designed, constructed, andused to increase the experimental efficiency in thedetermination of induction times by using 15 nucleation cellsof small volumes simultaneously. In spite of the largevariation observed in the experiments, the solid-liquidinterfacial energy for each VAN-admixture system can beestimated with an acceptable statistical confidence. At 1 mole% admixture concentration, the interfacial energy is increasedin the presence of GUA, GUE, and HBA, while it becomes lower inthe presence of the other admixtures. As the admixtureconcentration increases from 1 to 10 mole %, the interfacialenergy also increases. The interfacial energies obtained are inthe range 7-10 mJ m-2. Influence of admixtures on metastable zone widthand crystal aspect ratio of VAN is also presented. Theexperimental results show that the admixtures studied arepotential modifiers of the nucleation of VAN. Molecularmodelling by the program Cerius2 is used to identify the likelycrystal growth faces. Two approaches, the surface adsorptionand the lattice integration method, are applied to estimatequantitatively the admixture-crystal interaction energy on thedominating crystal faces of VAN,i.e., {0 0 1} and {1 0 0}. However, a simple and clearcorrelation between the experimental values of interfacialenergy and the calculated interaction energies cannot beidentified. A qualitative structural analysis reveals a certainrelationship between the molecular structure of admixtures andtheir effect on nucleation. The determination of the influenceof admixtures on nucleation is still a challenge. However, themolecular and crystal structural approach used in this thesiscan lead to an improved fundamental understanding ofcrystallization processes. Keywords: Crystallization,nucleation, vanillin, admixtures, additives, impurities,induction time, interfacial energy, molecular modelling,interaction energy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kemiteknik , 2004. , 79 p.
Trita-KET, ISSN 1104-3466 ; 191
Keyword [en]
Crystallization, nucleation, vanillin, admixtures, additives, impurities, induction time, interfacial energy, molecular modelling, interaction energy
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3800ISBN: 91-7283-775-6OAI: diva2:9654
Public defence
2004-06-11, 00:00
Available from: 2004-06-10 Created: 2004-06-10 Last updated: 2012-03-21

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