Novel concepts for advanced CMOS: Materials, process and device architecture
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
The continuous and aggressive dimensional miniaturization ofthe conventional complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)architecture has been the main impetus for the vast growth ofIC industry over the past decades. As the CMOS downscalingapproaches the fundamental limits, unconventional materials andnovel device architectures are required in order to guaranteethe ultimate scaling in device dimensions and maintain theperformance gain expected from the scaling. This thesisinvestigates both unconventional materials for the gate stackand the channel and a novel notched-gate device architecture,with the emphasis on the challenging issues in processintegration.
High-κ gate dielectrics will become indispensable forCMOS technology beyond the 65-nm technology node in order toachieve a small equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) whilemaintaining a low gate leakage current. HfO2and Al2O3as well as their mixtures are investigated assubstitutes for the traditionally used SiO2in our MOS transistors. These high-κ filmsare deposited by means of atomic layer deposition (ALD) for anexcellent control of film composition, thickness, uniformityand conformality. Surface treatments prior to ALD are found tohave a crucial influence on the growth of the high-κdielectrics and the performance of the resultant transistors.Alternative gate materials such as TiN and poly-SiGe are alsostudied. The challenging issues encountered in processintegration of the TiN or poly-SiGe with the high-k are furtherelaborated. Transistors with TiN or poly-SiGe/high-k gate stackare successfully fabricated and characterized. Furthermore,proof-of-concept strained-SiGe surface-channel pMOSFETs withALD high-κ dielectrics are demonstrated. The pMOSFETs witha strained SiGe channel exhibit a higher hole mobility than theuniversal hole mobility in Si. A new procedure for extractionof carrier mobility in the presence of a high density ofinterface states found in MOSFETs with high-κ dielectricsis developed.
A notched-gate architecture aiming at reducing the parasiticcapacitance of a MOSFET is studied. The notched gate is usuallyreferred to as a local thickness increase of the gatedielectric at the feet of the gate above the source/drainextensions. Two-dimensional simulations are carried out toinvestigate the influence of the notched gate on the static anddynamic characteristics of MOSFETs. MOSFETs with optimizednotch profile exhibit a substantial enhancement in the dynamiccharacteristics with a negligible effect on the staticcharacteristics. Notched-gate MOSFETs are also experimentallyimplemented with the integration of a high-κ gatedielectric and a poly-SiGe/TiN bi-layer gate electrode.
Key words:CMOS technology, MOSFET, high-κ, gatedielectric, ALD, surface pre-treatment, metal gate, poly-SiGe,strained SiGe, surface-channel, buried-channel, notchedgate.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kista: Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik , 2004. , x, 70 p.
Trita-EKT, ISSN 1650-8599 ; 2004:3
CMOS technology, MOSFET, high-k, gate dielectric, ALD, surface pre-treatment, metal gate, poly-SiGe, strained SiGe, surface-channel, buried-channel, notched gate
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3805OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-3805DiVA: diva2:9659