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Building renovation processes towards low greenhouse gas emissions and energy use
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Buildings from the record year era are now 40 – 55 years old and in many cases in need of extensive renovation measures. This need for renovation could be seen as an opportunity to achieve overarching sustainability target levels and to perform renovation with a holistic approach. This thesis aims at creating support for the formulation and achievement of adequate environmental targets that relate to overarching Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives. The overall aim of the thesis is to contribute to an understanding of the current situation of environmental management in renovation processes. The scope of this thesis is limited to the aspects energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy use and material production. This thesis contributes to this aim with a stepwise procedure for evaluation of measures together with a proposal for target levels for three environmental aspects. The first paper appended to this thesis investigates how six Swedish property owners performed renovation projects. From this paper it can be concluded that the main barrier (except economic ones) are characterized by lack of knowledge about overarching objectives and what aspects define a sustainable built environment. The second paper assesses embodied GHG emissions due to material production for the totality of measures needed to reduce operational energy demand per unit heated floor area by 50% compared with 1995. On a national level, embodied GHG emissions are estimated to be 12% of the reduction of GHG emissions achieved by operational energy demand reduction. The final paper appended to this thesis uses a case study building to illustrate a working procedure to identify project-specific target levels for three environmental aspects. In addition, it identifies indicative improvements necessary for the achievement of long-term targets for those aspects, which could be focused and further investigated in later project stages with the help of a long-term plan of action.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , 36 p.
Series
TRITA-INFRA-FMS, ISSN 1652-5442 ; 2016:2
Keyword [en]
Renovation processes, buildings, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, target levels
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192888ISBN: 978-91-7729-114-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-192888DiVA: diva2:972744
Presentation
2016-11-09, Q24, Osquldas väg 6B, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2016-10-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Managing Sustainability Aspects in Renovation Processes: Interview Study and Outline of a Process Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing Sustainability Aspects in Renovation Processes: Interview Study and Outline of a Process Model
2015 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, 6336-6352 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In many European countries, there are building stocks in need of extensive renovation. This constitutes an important opportunity to perform energy-saving measures and improve indoor environmental quality aiming at a more sustainable built environment. In this paper, we report results from an interview study with the aim of obtaining an in-depth understanding of renovation processes and how sustainability aspects are handled by various Swedish property owners. Examples of important barriers revealed in the interviews are insufficient inspection of existing buildings, absence of both overarching and detailed sustainability targets and guidelines, and lack of knowledge about sustainability aspects. Based on the interview study, conclusions are drawn for the further development of a process model which aims at systematize integration and effectively address energy, environmental, and indoor environmental quality aspects throughout a renovation process; we refer to this as sustainable renovation. Some key starting points for the process model are to suggest routines, provide checklists and tools, and offer guidance for formulating sustainability targets. However, the interviews show that in order to reach a more sustainable built environment, there is a need for government subsidies, other incentives or new business models that value environmental aspects higher.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2015
Keyword
sustainability management; renovation; housing; process; interviews; barriers
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168132 (URN)10.3390/su7066336 (DOI)000357593000001 ()2-s2.0-84934299189 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

QC 20150604

Available from: 2015-05-27 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
2. Embodied greenhouse gas emissions from refurbishment of residential building stock to achieve a 50% operational energy reduction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embodied greenhouse gas emissions from refurbishment of residential building stock to achieve a 50% operational energy reduction
2014 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 79, 46-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mitigating climate change through operational energy reduction in existing buildings is of highest priority for policy-makers in Europe and elsewhere. At the same time there is increasing understanding of the significance of impacts arising from material production for buildings. The aim of this work has therefore been to evaluate the importance of embodied GWP for refurbishment for operational energy reduction on a stockwide basis. It is further intended to judge the relative significance of embodied GWP for specific refurbishment measures implemented for operational energy reduction. We study the case of operational energy reduction in the Swedish residential building stock by 50% compared to 1995. The total embodied GWP to achieve the noted operational energy reduction is 0.35 Mt CO2-e/year. 83% of this total is due to ventilation and window measures alone. Compared with previous studies assessing GWP mitigation from operational energy reduction, the "GWP payback time" is just over 3 years. Many types of measure that contribute significantly to achieving the above operational energy goal had average embodied GWP between 10 and 20 g CO2-e/kW h operational energy reduction, notably window and ventilation measures. Indoor temperature reduction (to 20 degrees C), was also significant for stockwide operational energy reduction but had a very low GWP of 0.4 g CO2-e/kW h operational energy reduction. If this measure proves unfeasible to implement on a stockwide basis then more expensive measures with higher embodied GWP will be needed to achieve the stated energy reduction goal.

Keyword
Life-cycle thinking, Climate change, Energy-efficiency, Building stocks, Refurbishment, Material
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-149960 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.04.018 (DOI)000339696500005 ()2-s2.0-84901327401 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Formas, 2008-1816
Note

QC 20140908

Available from: 2014-09-08 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. An approach towards sustainable renovationd: A tool for decision support in early project stages
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An approach towards sustainable renovationd: A tool for decision support in early project stages
2016 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 106, 20-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through energy reduction in buildings is a high priority for policy-makers in the European Union and elsewhere. However, although long-term sustainability targets exist on the societal level, it is not obvious how these targets may trickle down to individual sectors and further down to specific organizations or buildings. The aim of this paper is to illustrate an approach for evaluating renovation measures in order to identify appropriate target levels in early project stages and what is needed to achieve a number of proposed sustainability targets. The evaluation approach is supported by a tool that can be seen as an aid to making rough estimations of the environmental impacts. Sustainability target levels in a Swedish context are presented for three issues: operational energy use, GHG emissions due to total energy use for building operation, and embodied GHG emissions due to production of materials. The approach to support well-grounded retrofit decisions is shown with a case study. The tool developed, in combination with a suggested step-by-step evaluation approach, provides an effective way to evaluate various potential improvements, and their consequences, in early project stages. However, other tools with similar functionality may be used. Results from the case illustration imply that it is possible to achieve the proposed sustainability targets for operational energy use by implementing nine measures. However, the targets for GHG emissions for operational energy use and embodied GHG emissions were not achieved because of an energy supply with too high a share of nonrenewable fuels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Building renovation processes, evaluation procedure, sustainability targets, greenhouse gas emissions, energy-efficiency, embodied emissions
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192882 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.06.016 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

QC 20161020

Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
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