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Ionizing Radiation in Concrete and Concrete Buildings: Empirical Assessments
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures. CBI Betonginstitutet.
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the major issues with radiation from the natural isotopes 40K, 226Ra (238U) and 232Th and their decay products is the forthcoming legislation from the European Commission in relation to its Basic Safety Directive (2014). The European legislation is mandatory and could not be overthrown by national legislation. Hence, even though the BSS is still a directive it is foreseen as becoming a regulation in due time.

The reference value of the natural isotopes, from a radiation point of view, set for building materials is 1 mSv per year (EC, 2014). Earlier recommendations (The Radiation Protection Authorities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 2000) within the Nordic countries set an upper limit at 2 mSv per year of radiation from building materials.

The main objective within the frame of the thesis was to investigate gamma radiation in relation to Swedish aggregates and their use as final construction products and the applicability and use of a model (EC, 1999) for building materials to calculate the effective dose within a pre-defined room. Part of the thesis also investigates different methodologies that can be used to assess the radiation in a construction material made up of several constituents (building materials) and aims to show that for some purposes as for the construction industries (precast concrete), that a hand-held spectrometer can be used with good accuracy, even though the object is limited in thickness and size. Secondly, the author proposes a simplified way of assessing the radiation in a construction material by use of correlation coefficient of a specified recipe by use of a hand-held spectrometer. Moreover, an understanding of the different building materials´ contribution to the finalized construction product, e.g. concrete is demonstrated, and how to achieve a good control of the radiation levels in the concrete building.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , 89 p.
Series
TRITA-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 2016:141
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192956ISBN: 978-91-7729-143-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-192956DiVA: diva2:974033
Presentation
2016-09-30, Sal B2, Brinellvägen 23, entréplan, KTH, Stockholm, 10:05 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-23 Last updated: 2016-09-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Evaluation of the I-index by use of a portable hand-held spectrometer and laboratory methods: a risk assessment of Swedish concrete by use of different crushed aggregates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the I-index by use of a portable hand-held spectrometer and laboratory methods: a risk assessment of Swedish concrete by use of different crushed aggregates
2014 (English)In: Mineralproduksjon, ISSN 1893-1057, E-ISSN 1893-1170, no 5, A35-A52 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The recommended levels of ionizing radiation from construction materials in effective dose is set to a maximum of 1 mSv/year, EC (1996, 1999, 2013), ICRP (2007), IAEA (2011). By using a theoretical model proposed by the European Union (1999), this is equivalent to I-index 1. By using of concrete slabs with dimensions of 1.5 m × 1.5 m × 0.15 m, an empirical approach is suggested for the calculation of the I-index of naturally occurring ionizing radiation from construction materials. Measurements of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and the total gamma radiation were conducted and the I-index values were calculated for each concrete mix. A good linear relationship could be established between measurements performed by the Swedish Cement and Research Institute (CBI) and the laboratory results acquired from the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) and Centre de Recherches Pétrographique et Géochimiques/ Le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CRPG/CNRS). The results indicate that 60 % of the investigated construction materials are in agreement with the stipulated levels set out by the EC (1999, 2013). The cause for the higher levels of ionizing radiation is often elevated concentrations of all the radioactive elements measured. Regarding the concrete samples yielding values of I-index > 1, 232Th makes the largest contribution.

National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193022 (URN)
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-26 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
2. Risk Assessment of Swedish Concrete as a Construction Material in Relation to Naturally Occurring Radiation from Different Aggregates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk Assessment of Swedish Concrete as a Construction Material in Relation to Naturally Occurring Radiation from Different Aggregates
2014 (English)In: / [ed] Giorgio Lollino,Andrea Manconi,Fausto Guzzetti,Martin Culshaw,Peter Bobrowsky,Fabio Luino, Springer , 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014
Keyword
Building materials, Ionizing radiation, Actvity index, Gamma radiation, Concrete
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering; Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192953 (URN)
Conference
XII International IAEG Congress, Torino, 2014
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2016-09-23 Created: 2016-09-23 Last updated: 2016-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents: Assessment by using I-index and dose-model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents: Assessment by using I-index and dose-model
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 155-156, 105-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of 4 0K, 226Ra and 232Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ~16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Aggregates, Building materials, Concrete, Construction product, Dose model, I-index, Radioactivity
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186973 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvrad.2016.02.012 (DOI)000374358100014 ()2-s2.0-84960957052 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160518

Available from: 2016-05-18 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved

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