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Evaluation of the I-index by use of a portable hand-held spectrometer and laboratory methods: a risk assessment of Swedish concrete by use of different crushed aggregates
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1526-9331
2014 (English)In: Mineralproduksjon, ISSN 1893-1057, E-ISSN 1893-1170, no 5, A35-A52 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The recommended levels of ionizing radiation from construction materials in effective dose is set to a maximum of 1 mSv/year, EC (1996, 1999, 2013), ICRP (2007), IAEA (2011). By using a theoretical model proposed by the European Union (1999), this is equivalent to I-index 1. By using of concrete slabs with dimensions of 1.5 m × 1.5 m × 0.15 m, an empirical approach is suggested for the calculation of the I-index of naturally occurring ionizing radiation from construction materials. Measurements of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and the total gamma radiation were conducted and the I-index values were calculated for each concrete mix. A good linear relationship could be established between measurements performed by the Swedish Cement and Research Institute (CBI) and the laboratory results acquired from the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) and Centre de Recherches Pétrographique et Géochimiques/ Le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CRPG/CNRS). The results indicate that 60 % of the investigated construction materials are in agreement with the stipulated levels set out by the EC (1999, 2013). The cause for the higher levels of ionizing radiation is often elevated concentrations of all the radioactive elements measured. Regarding the concrete samples yielding values of I-index > 1, 232Th makes the largest contribution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. no 5, A35-A52 p.
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193022OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-193022DiVA: diva2:974348
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-26 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Ionizing Radiation in Concrete and Concrete Buildings: Empirical Assessments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ionizing Radiation in Concrete and Concrete Buildings: Empirical Assessments
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the major issues with radiation from the natural isotopes 40K, 226Ra (238U) and 232Th and their decay products is the forthcoming legislation from the European Commission in relation to its Basic Safety Directive (2014). The European legislation is mandatory and could not be overthrown by national legislation. Hence, even though the BSS is still a directive it is foreseen as becoming a regulation in due time.

The reference value of the natural isotopes, from a radiation point of view, set for building materials is 1 mSv per year (EC, 2014). Earlier recommendations (The Radiation Protection Authorities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 2000) within the Nordic countries set an upper limit at 2 mSv per year of radiation from building materials.

The main objective within the frame of the thesis was to investigate gamma radiation in relation to Swedish aggregates and their use as final construction products and the applicability and use of a model (EC, 1999) for building materials to calculate the effective dose within a pre-defined room. Part of the thesis also investigates different methodologies that can be used to assess the radiation in a construction material made up of several constituents (building materials) and aims to show that for some purposes as for the construction industries (precast concrete), that a hand-held spectrometer can be used with good accuracy, even though the object is limited in thickness and size. Secondly, the author proposes a simplified way of assessing the radiation in a construction material by use of correlation coefficient of a specified recipe by use of a hand-held spectrometer. Moreover, an understanding of the different building materials´ contribution to the finalized construction product, e.g. concrete is demonstrated, and how to achieve a good control of the radiation levels in the concrete building.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 89 p.
Series
TRITA-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 2016:141
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192956 (URN)978-91-7729-143-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-09-30, Sal B2, Brinellvägen 23, entréplan, KTH, Stockholm, 10:05 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-23 Last updated: 2016-09-27Bibliographically approved

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