Urban microclimate and surface hydrometeorological processes
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
The urban near surface atmosphere is of great concern since it affects the climate to which an increasing amount of people are immediately exposed. This study investigated the microclimate in central Stockholm in terms of the thermal conditions in the 0-2.5 m air layer and the water and heat exchange processes at different types of surfaces found within the urban environment. The main objective was to improve our understanding of the urban small-scale climate system.
The urban microclimate was measured in terms of vertical air temperature profiles along a horizontal transect running through a vegetated park and its built-up surroundings during three clear and relatively calm summer days. The results showed that the air temperature at 1.2 m height within the park was 0.5 to 1.5 K lower than in the surrounding city blocks, and that the thermal stratification was generally stable (increasing temperature with height) in the park and unstable (decreasing temperature with height) in the built-up areas. In addition, there were a few examples of temperature gradients orientated in different directions within the lowest 2.5 m air layer, indicating horizontal advection between the park and the built-up areas. Climate conditions simulated with a three-dimensional microclimate model agreed well with observations and the model was therefore assumed to provide reasonable representations of important climate processes such as surface-air energy exchange processes. However, there were some discrepancies between observations and simulations that are discussed in terms of differences in real and modelled heat storage processes and wind conditions. Processes that need to be included for a more precise model description of areas such as the Stockholm environment include dynamic heat storage in buildings and dynamic wind forcing during the course of the simulation.
A soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model was used to study soil water transport, the surface energy balance of an asphalt surface, and the impact of urban climate on evapotranspiration. Based on model calibration to field measurements of soil water content in a till catchment outside Stockholm, new parameter values were estimated that can be used for water flow modelling of till soils. The heat fluxes of an asphalt surface were reliably simulated without knowledge of site-specific calibration and the model was useful in identifying problems with energy balance closure based on measurements only. Simulations of ‘urban’ modifications to the forcing climate conditions demonstrated that increased air temperature, and thereby increased vapour pressure deficit, had most effect on evapotranspiration from tall vegetation, while increased long-wave radiation raised grass evapotranspiration the most.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006. , viii, 24 p.
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1027
CoupModel, ENVI-met, roughness sub-layer, urban heat island
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3879ISBN: 91-7178-295-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-3879DiVA: diva2:9852
2006-03-24, Sal D3, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 10:15
Delian, Chen, Prof
Jansson, Per-ErikGustafsson, David
QC 201009012006-03-142006-03-142010-09-01Bibliographically approved
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