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On the Nucleation and Inoculation of Metals
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Latent heat during recalesence and nucleation and post-recalesence temperature was analysed for refractory metals. An effect on latent heat was found by alloying the pure elements with other refractories. Latent heat was found to be 15-65% of tabulated values. Interface energy was evaluated from undercooling experiments. It was found that the dimensionless numbers β (σLs/ σLv) and α can be used to classify elements into distinctive groups and crystallographic structure.

The phase diagrams for Al-Ti, Al-Ti-B and Al-Ti-C as well as inoculation were analysed. It was found that Al nucleates on Al3Ti which nucleates on TiB2. TiC was found to decompose into Al4C3 and Al3Ti.

The inoculation of nodular cast iron with Mg, Ce; Ca and the formation of sulphides and oxides was analysed. The formation of new inclusions during the solidification as well as the formation of graphite is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006. , 13 p.
Series
Trita-MG, ISSN 1104-7127 ; 2006:02
Keyword [en]
Solidification, nucleation, inoculation, undercooling, interface energy, refractory metals, latent heat, inclusions, nodular cast iron
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3893OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-3893DiVA: diva2:9907
Public defence
2006-03-24, M3, 43:38, Brinellv.64, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100602Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2010-06-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Heat of Solidification in Refractory Metals Studied by Drop-Tube Experiments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heat of Solidification in Refractory Metals Studied by Drop-Tube Experiments
2009 (English)In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, ISSN 0019-493X, Vol. 62, no 4-5, 269-273 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

A number of pure refractory metals have been investigated by drop-tube experiments. The cooling curves have been registered and theoretically analysed. A model for analysing the heat of fusion has been developed. It was found that the heat of fusion was approximately 50% of the tabulated value.

Keyword
drop-tube experiment; heat of fusion; refractory metal
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5510 (URN)000276133700004 ()2-s2.0-76249083523 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100528

Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
2. Correlations between surface and interface energies with respect to crystal nucleation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correlations between surface and interface energies with respect to crystal nucleation
2002 (English)In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 255, no 2, 363-374 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The energetic chemical and structural properties of interfaces between solid and liquid metals are of great interest in numerous applications. However, solid-liquid interfacial energies of metals are often determined by nucleation experiments, requiring particular attention to the measurements so obtained. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an analysis of the level of liquid undercooling of 3d-, 4d-, and 5d-transition metals, as well as of other common undercooled elements, through a critical survey of thermophysical data and experimental results. As already pointed out for the liquid-vapor surface energy sigma(LV), the solid-liquid interface energy sigma(LS) determined from the maximum amount of liquid undercooling is well connected to the position of the element in the periodic table, leading to the individualization of each behavior, including the size of the critical nucleus. The beta ratio of sigma(LS)/sigma(LV) is demonstrated to be an interesting dimensionless number by which to classify the elements into distinctive groups. No significant unexplained anomaly is identified, except for Co, supporting the belief that Turnbull's classical theory furnishes a robust support to describe the crystal nucleation in pure elements.

National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5511 (URN)10.1006/jcis.2002.8627 (DOI)000179263700020 ()12505085 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
3. Study and Modelling of Nucleation and Phase Selection Phenomena: Application to Refractory Metals and Alloys from Drop-Tube Processing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study and Modelling of Nucleation and Phase Selection Phenomena: Application to Refractory Metals and Alloys from Drop-Tube Processing
Show others...
2001 (English)In: Microgravity Research and Aplications in Physical Sciences and Biotechnology: Proceedings of the First International Symposium held 10-15 September, 2000 in Sorrento, Italy. Edited by O. Minster and B. Schürmann. European Space Agency, ESA SP-454., 2001, Vol. SP454, 1123- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5512 (URN)
Note
QC 20100531Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2010-05-31Bibliographically approved
4. Inoculation of Al Alloys with Ti
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inoculation of Al Alloys with Ti
2005 (English)In: TRANSACTIONS OF THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF METALS, 2005, Vol. 58, no 4, 553-556 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]
The solubility of Ti in the liquid in equilibrium with Al3Ti is discussed. From this discussion, it is suggested that Al3Ti is the phase nucleating Al. The proposal is based on evaluation of enthalpy and entropy of formation of Al3Ti of experiments reported in literature. The heat of formation was found to be dependent on the processing. The variation of solubility is an effect of lattice defects in Al3Ti. The effect of B on inoculation is discussed. TiB2 acts as an inoculant of Al3Ti and Al is nucleated on Al3Ti.
Series
TRANSACTIONS OF THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF METALS, ISSN 0019-493X
Keyword
ALUMINUM; TITANIUM
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5513 (URN)000232332700009 ()2-s2.0-33644699083 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Solidification Science and Processing Bangalore, INDIA, NOV 17-20, 2004 Indian Inst Technol Kharagpur
Note
QC 20100602Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2010-06-02Bibliographically approved
5. A Thermodynamic Assessment of the Inoculation Process in Al-base Alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Thermodynamic Assessment of the Inoculation Process in Al-base Alloys
2007 (English)In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, ISSN 0019-493X, Vol. 60, no 2-3, 361-365 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The binary Al-Ti and the ternary phase diagrams Al-Ti-B and Al-Ti-C are calculated from normal thermodynamic laws. The calculated phase diagrams are used to discuss the formation of Al3Ti during the cooling process. In the binary Al-Ti phase diagram an undercooling of only 30 K is shown to be necessary to nucleate new crystals of Al3Ti. It is shown that both Al3Ti and TiB2 are formed during cooling of an inoculated Al-melt. TiB2 is more easily nucleated than Al3Ti due to its lower solubility product. Al3Ti is assumed to be nucleated on the TiB2 particles. TiC is not stable at the melting point of aluminium and will decompose into Al4C3 and Al3Ti during cooling. It is suggested that Al3Ti is the active reagent for nucleation of Al.

National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5514 (URN)000208324000053 ()2-s2.0-44649187838 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100602

Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
6. A Thermodynamic Analysis of the Inoculation Process in Cast Iron
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Thermodynamic Analysis of the Inoculation Process in Cast Iron
(English)In: International Journal of Cast Metals Research, ISSN 1364-0461, E-ISSN 1743-1336Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5515 (URN)
Note

QS 2011. QS 20120328

Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved

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