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Treatment of polluted road run-off water: Problems and possibilities
KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2004 (English)In: Annals of Warsaw Agricultural University / Land Reclamation, ISSN 0208-5771, no 35, 55-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The legal aspects for conventional water production and treatment are clearly defined and not ambiguous. This is not the case for handling and treatment of run-off water. In the EU directive 1991/271/EEC run-off water is defined as sewage water. The EU Water Directive refers to 1991/271/EEC and points to run-off water as a pollutant source for ground water. Elevated levels of pollutant can be found in run-off water from catchment areas with dense traffic loads. Depending on road maintenance, use of studded tires, type of pavement, traffic flow, velocity, type of vehicle, residential and industrial areas, tunnels the degree of mobility of the pollutants will vary in the ambient air and the run-off water. An aspect that only to some extent has been elaborated on is the influence of pavement types and its wear with regard to the mobility of the pollutants. A treatment technique commonly used in many countries is storm water ponds. The pollutant removal efficiency varies for different ponds, due to different specific pond areas, i.e. pond area in relation to catchment area. Ponds act as sedimentation basins, collecting particles and bounded pollutants. However, the solute transport of e.g. heavy metals should be trapped by other means. For that purpose a filtration unit has been developed and tested in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Warzaw: Warsaw Agricultural University Press , 2004. no 35, 55-64 p.
Keyword [en]
CATCHMENT, FIRST FLUSH, POLLUTANT, POND, TRAFFIC FLOW
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5520OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-5520DiVA: diva2:9913
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2010-11-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Suspended solids and metals in highway runoff: implications for treatment systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suspended solids and metals in highway runoff: implications for treatment systems
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

It is known that traffic is a source of pollutants and that pollutant loads increase with elevated traffic densities. Studies executed in Stockholm, Sweden advocate that highway runoff from roads with an annual average daily traffic (AADT) exceeding 30,000 vehicles need treatment before discharge to the receiving water. It is common knowledge that sedimentation is the most expedient method for stormwater treatment. However, sedimentation units are area demanding and in highly urbanised watersheds the land use is often restricted. Studies have implied the occurrence of first flush, i.e. an initially higher pollutant load in the beginning of the runoff event, in highway watersheds. With an emphasized first flush it would be possible to treat only a part of the total runoff volume reducing the area needed for a sedimentation basin. In general two methods are used to design stormwater treatment ponds. One method is based on the reduced catchment area and pond surface and the other is based on an average runoff volume and a permanent pond volume. The methods are relaying on data from routine monitoring of various treatment systems and suggest removal efficiencies for pollutants. Applying general removal efficiencies for design it can be intricate to estimate an outlet concentration when the specific removal efficiency may be dependent on the initial concentration of the pollutant. Consequently, knowledge of the removal efficiencies dependence on initial concentration would be helpful to optimise stormwater treatment systems. This research has studied runoff from highly trafficated watersheds. The aim has been to evaluate the mass transport, stormwater quality and sedimentation behaviour and their implications for stormwater treatment. The study sites, Eugenia and Fredhäll, are located along the six-lane highway E4 through Stockholm that has an AADT load of 120,000 vehicles and a speed limit of 70 km/h. In lack of a unified definition of first flush the mass transport was studied using the EU directive 1991/271/EEC discharge demand for TSS of 60 mg/l. It was found that for the majority of the runoff events during winter the event mean concentration exceeded 60 mg/l suggesting that the complete runoff volume should be captured during winter. The dissolved concentration of metals showed significant variations between winter and summer, as did the concentration in the particulate matter (mg/kg). It was possible to correlate total metal concentration to total suspended solids with good correlation (r2 >0.90) for the majority of studied metals in winter and summer. The findings would imply that a successful treatment of the studied metal pollutants could be carried out by sedimentation. However, depending on discharge criteria, the elevated levels of dissolved matter, especially during winter, have to be considered with regards to the selection of the appropriate water treatment process. The sedimentation process could be described by a logarithmical function and initial turbidity. Good correlation (r2 >0.90) was indicated between turbidity and TSS. The sedimentation process of the studied highway runoff varied significantly (p<0.05) when elevated levels of NaCl could be found in the runoff. A significant difference (p<0.05) was shown for turbidity and TSS between summer and winter, which was assumed to be related to the use of studded tires. This study implies that the entire runoff volume must be treated and that the use of first flush as a design criterion is less applicable for the winter period. The study implies good correlation between total metal concentration and TSS. In addition the indicated correlation between turbidity and TSS would point to the possibility to use turbidity as a surrogate measurement for TSS and the studied metals. Moreover, the possibility to describe the sedimentation process by the initial concentration of turbidity would infer the utilisation of turbidity as a tool for process control for stormwater treatment systems. In addition, the novel results for the dependence on the sedimentation process could be incorporated in existing models for design of stormwater treatment systems in similar watersheds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. xii, 25 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2035
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3895 (URN)91-7178-307-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2006-03-31, Sal V2, Teknikringen 76, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2010-11-15Bibliographically approved

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