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Assessment of suspended solids concentration in highway runoff and its treatment implication
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2006 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 27, no 9, 945-950 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is understood that the major pollution from storm water is related to the content of particulate matter. One treatment practice is based on the first flush, i.e. detention of the initial part of the runoff that is considered to contain the highest concentrations of pollutants, This study has evaluated the concentration of total suspended solids in 30 consecutive runoff events during the winter season for an area of 6.7 hectares. A six-lane highway (E4) that has an annual average daily traffic load of 120,000 dominates the area and road de-icing salt (NaCl) and studded tires were in regular use during the studied period. The effluent standard for wastewater of 60 mg TSS per litre applied in EU was used to assess the treatment requirement of storm water. In only two of the events the event mean concentration was below 60 mg V. In four runoff events a partial event mean concentration below 60 mg l(-1) was found, in 26 %, 12 %, 11 %, and 2 % respectively of the runoff volume. This would suggest that a capture of the initial part of the runoff for subsequent treatment is less applicable in this type of urban watershed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 27, no 9, 945-950 p.
Keyword [en]
discharge value; event mean concentration; first flush; storm water; winter
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5521DOI: 10.1080/09593332708618710ISI: 000241916300001PubMedID: 17067120Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33750561517OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-5521DiVA: diva2:9914
Note
QC 20100709. Uppdaterad från Accepted till Published 20100709.Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Suspended solids and metals in highway runoff: implications for treatment systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suspended solids and metals in highway runoff: implications for treatment systems
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

It is known that traffic is a source of pollutants and that pollutant loads increase with elevated traffic densities. Studies executed in Stockholm, Sweden advocate that highway runoff from roads with an annual average daily traffic (AADT) exceeding 30,000 vehicles need treatment before discharge to the receiving water. It is common knowledge that sedimentation is the most expedient method for stormwater treatment. However, sedimentation units are area demanding and in highly urbanised watersheds the land use is often restricted. Studies have implied the occurrence of first flush, i.e. an initially higher pollutant load in the beginning of the runoff event, in highway watersheds. With an emphasized first flush it would be possible to treat only a part of the total runoff volume reducing the area needed for a sedimentation basin. In general two methods are used to design stormwater treatment ponds. One method is based on the reduced catchment area and pond surface and the other is based on an average runoff volume and a permanent pond volume. The methods are relaying on data from routine monitoring of various treatment systems and suggest removal efficiencies for pollutants. Applying general removal efficiencies for design it can be intricate to estimate an outlet concentration when the specific removal efficiency may be dependent on the initial concentration of the pollutant. Consequently, knowledge of the removal efficiencies dependence on initial concentration would be helpful to optimise stormwater treatment systems. This research has studied runoff from highly trafficated watersheds. The aim has been to evaluate the mass transport, stormwater quality and sedimentation behaviour and their implications for stormwater treatment. The study sites, Eugenia and Fredhäll, are located along the six-lane highway E4 through Stockholm that has an AADT load of 120,000 vehicles and a speed limit of 70 km/h. In lack of a unified definition of first flush the mass transport was studied using the EU directive 1991/271/EEC discharge demand for TSS of 60 mg/l. It was found that for the majority of the runoff events during winter the event mean concentration exceeded 60 mg/l suggesting that the complete runoff volume should be captured during winter. The dissolved concentration of metals showed significant variations between winter and summer, as did the concentration in the particulate matter (mg/kg). It was possible to correlate total metal concentration to total suspended solids with good correlation (r2 >0.90) for the majority of studied metals in winter and summer. The findings would imply that a successful treatment of the studied metal pollutants could be carried out by sedimentation. However, depending on discharge criteria, the elevated levels of dissolved matter, especially during winter, have to be considered with regards to the selection of the appropriate water treatment process. The sedimentation process could be described by a logarithmical function and initial turbidity. Good correlation (r2 >0.90) was indicated between turbidity and TSS. The sedimentation process of the studied highway runoff varied significantly (p<0.05) when elevated levels of NaCl could be found in the runoff. A significant difference (p<0.05) was shown for turbidity and TSS between summer and winter, which was assumed to be related to the use of studded tires. This study implies that the entire runoff volume must be treated and that the use of first flush as a design criterion is less applicable for the winter period. The study implies good correlation between total metal concentration and TSS. In addition the indicated correlation between turbidity and TSS would point to the possibility to use turbidity as a surrogate measurement for TSS and the studied metals. Moreover, the possibility to describe the sedimentation process by the initial concentration of turbidity would infer the utilisation of turbidity as a tool for process control for stormwater treatment systems. In addition, the novel results for the dependence on the sedimentation process could be incorporated in existing models for design of stormwater treatment systems in similar watersheds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. xii, 25 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2035
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3895 (URN)91-7178-307-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2006-03-31, Sal V2, Teknikringen 76, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2010-11-15Bibliographically approved
2. Treatment conditions for the removal of contaminants from road runoff
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment conditions for the removal of contaminants from road runoff
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The pollutant load in road runoff is related to traffic densities and road maintenance activities. Inurbanised areas treatment of road runoff is common and often considered necessary. The pollutantsare partitioned between the particulate and dissolved matter. However, the contaminantstend to have an affinity to the particulate material. Sedimentation, the predominant treatmentmethod for road runoff uses various types of ponds. Design tools used for stormwater treatmentsystems are based on extensive data from existing treatment systems. The variations in the empiricaldata make it difficult when attempting to evaluate precise conditions for pollutant removaland thereby minimising the land use for a treatment facility. This is a concern in highly urbanisedareas where land use often is restricted.In this work, field studies were conducted in three separate watersheds along the same motorwaywith an annual average daily traffic exceeding 120,000 vehicles. The aim was to assess treatmentconditions for the removal of contaminants from road runoff.The study of mass transport of total suspended solids used the EU Directive (1991/271/EEC)discharge requirement for urban wastewater treatment: 60 mg/l during winter and summer. Theresults showed that a capture of the total runoff volume was necessary during both seasons. Tenmetals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), as dissolved and particulate bound, werestudied in the road runoff during a winter season and the following summer period. The dissolvedpart of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni was significantly higher in winter. The mass concentration(mg/kg) for all metals was significantly higher over the summer except for Al and Co, whichshowed a higher mass concentration during the winter. The total metal concentration showed agood correlation to total suspended solids (TSS) during winter with exception for Cd. Good correlationto TSS was also found for the summer period for Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn. A simplemodel could describe sedimentation by the initial concentration of TSS, albeit road salt (NaCl)had a significant impact on the sedimentation process during winter. Removal of dissolved metalswas studied by column experiments using water granulated blast furnace slag. The result showedgood removal for Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn independent of NaCl concentrations. Sediment accumulation(mg sediment/mm precipitation) was relatively consistent for the studied summer seasons asopposed to winter. The sediment differed in metal mass concentrations (mg/kg) between theseasons. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were high in regard to the guidelines for sensitivity ofsediment dwelling organisms and Swedish guidelines for contaminated soils.The findings suggest that the entire runoff volume must be captured for treatment. The reductionof TSS concentration could be estimated for a specific surface load (m/h). This would alsoapply for majority of the studied metals that correlated well to the particulate material. Reactivefilter technology using water granulated blast furnace slag could be applied for treatment of runofffor the reduction of dissolved metals. However, long-term studies are necessary for its practicalimplementation. Furthermore; the work shows that on-line turbidity measurements could beused for expedient process control for treatment facilities in similar watersheds dominated byroads. The work could be used together with existing design methods and models to evaluate andoptimise road runoff treatment.

Abstract [sv]

Föroreningsbelastningen i vägdagvatten är beroende av trafikbelastningen och vägunderhållet. Iurbaniserade områden är behandling av dagvatten vanlig och ofta bedömd nödvändig. Föroreningarnaär lösta och partikulära, men har vanligen en affinitet till det partikulära materialet. Denförhärskande behandlingsmetoden för dagvatten är sedimentering, vanligen i dammar. Designmodellernabygger på data från olika befintliga dagvattenanläggningar. Det varierande ursprungettill det empiriska underlaget medför svårighet att precist värdera designförutsättningarna och såledesminimera behandlingsanläggningens storlek. I förtätad stadsmiljö, där tillgång på mark ärbegränsad, kan detta vara ett problem.I detta arbete har fältförsök genomförts i tre avrinningsområden vilka domineras av en motorledmed en årlig dygnstrafik större än 120,000 fordon för att utvärdera behandlingsförutsättningar förvägdagvatten.Masstransporten av suspenderat material (SS) utvärderades utifrån EU Direktivet(1991/271/EEC) och gränsvärdet för avloppsvatten på 60 mg/l under vinter och sommar. Studienvisade att hela avrinningsvolymen bör behandlas oberoende av säsong. Fördelningen mellanpartikulärt och löst material studerades för tio metaller (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn)under vinter och sommar. Den lösta delen av Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn och Ni var signifikant högreunder vintern. Den partikulära koncentrationen (mg/kg) för samtliga metaller var högre undersommaren med undantag för Al och Co vilka förekom i högre halter under vintern. Totalhalten(μg/l) av metallerna korrelerade väl med SS under vintern med undantag för Cd. Likaledes uppvisaderesultaten en god korrelation mellan SS och Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni och Zn under sommaren.Sedimenteringsegenskaperna kunde beskrivas med en enkel modell utifrån koncentration av SS,men förhöjda halter av vägsalt (NaCl) befanns påverka sedimenteringen under vintern. Reduktionav lösta metaller studerades i pilotförsök med vattenkyld granulerad masugnsslagg. God avskiljningerhölls för Cd, Cu, Ni och Zn oberoende av förhöjda halter av vägsalt. Ackumulering avsediment (mg sediment/mm nederbörd) befanns vara konstant under sommaren i motsats tillstuderade vinterperioder. Sedimentkoncentrationerna av Cu och Zn var förhöjda med avseendepå riktlinjer för känslighet hos sedimentlevande organismer samt för återanvändning av slam.Resultaten visar att hela avrinningsvolymen måste behandlas. Reduktion av SS samt huvuddelenav metallerna, vilka visade god korrelation till det partikulära materialet, kan skattas utifrån enspecifik ytbelastning (m/h). Reduktion av lösta metaller kan ske med granulerad masugnsslagg,dock bör långtidsstudier genomföras. Vidare visar studien på möjligheten att nyttja kontinuerligturbiditetsmätning för en effektiv och praktisk processkontroll i reningsanläggningar för liknandeavrinningsområden med hög trafikbelastning. Resultaten av arbetet kan användas för bedömningoch optimering av vägdagvattenbehandling tillsammans med existerande designmetoder och modeller.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. xii, 35 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1032
Keyword
dissolved matter, filter bed, particulate matter, sedimentation, suspended solids
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4386 (URN)978-91-7178-661-6 (ISBN)978-91-7178-645-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-06-01, Sal F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100709Available from: 2007-05-21 Created: 2007-05-21 Last updated: 2010-07-09Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • harvard1
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  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • nn-NO
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  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
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Output format
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