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Suspended solids and metals in highway runoff: implications for treatment systems
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

It is known that traffic is a source of pollutants and that pollutant loads increase with elevated traffic densities. Studies executed in Stockholm, Sweden advocate that highway runoff from roads with an annual average daily traffic (AADT) exceeding 30,000 vehicles need treatment before discharge to the receiving water. It is common knowledge that sedimentation is the most expedient method for stormwater treatment. However, sedimentation units are area demanding and in highly urbanised watersheds the land use is often restricted. Studies have implied the occurrence of first flush, i.e. an initially higher pollutant load in the beginning of the runoff event, in highway watersheds. With an emphasized first flush it would be possible to treat only a part of the total runoff volume reducing the area needed for a sedimentation basin. In general two methods are used to design stormwater treatment ponds. One method is based on the reduced catchment area and pond surface and the other is based on an average runoff volume and a permanent pond volume. The methods are relaying on data from routine monitoring of various treatment systems and suggest removal efficiencies for pollutants. Applying general removal efficiencies for design it can be intricate to estimate an outlet concentration when the specific removal efficiency may be dependent on the initial concentration of the pollutant. Consequently, knowledge of the removal efficiencies dependence on initial concentration would be helpful to optimise stormwater treatment systems. This research has studied runoff from highly trafficated watersheds. The aim has been to evaluate the mass transport, stormwater quality and sedimentation behaviour and their implications for stormwater treatment. The study sites, Eugenia and Fredhäll, are located along the six-lane highway E4 through Stockholm that has an AADT load of 120,000 vehicles and a speed limit of 70 km/h. In lack of a unified definition of first flush the mass transport was studied using the EU directive 1991/271/EEC discharge demand for TSS of 60 mg/l. It was found that for the majority of the runoff events during winter the event mean concentration exceeded 60 mg/l suggesting that the complete runoff volume should be captured during winter. The dissolved concentration of metals showed significant variations between winter and summer, as did the concentration in the particulate matter (mg/kg). It was possible to correlate total metal concentration to total suspended solids with good correlation (r2 >0.90) for the majority of studied metals in winter and summer. The findings would imply that a successful treatment of the studied metal pollutants could be carried out by sedimentation. However, depending on discharge criteria, the elevated levels of dissolved matter, especially during winter, have to be considered with regards to the selection of the appropriate water treatment process. The sedimentation process could be described by a logarithmical function and initial turbidity. Good correlation (r2 >0.90) was indicated between turbidity and TSS. The sedimentation process of the studied highway runoff varied significantly (p<0.05) when elevated levels of NaCl could be found in the runoff. A significant difference (p<0.05) was shown for turbidity and TSS between summer and winter, which was assumed to be related to the use of studded tires. This study implies that the entire runoff volume must be treated and that the use of first flush as a design criterion is less applicable for the winter period. The study implies good correlation between total metal concentration and TSS. In addition the indicated correlation between turbidity and TSS would point to the possibility to use turbidity as a surrogate measurement for TSS and the studied metals. Moreover, the possibility to describe the sedimentation process by the initial concentration of turbidity would infer the utilisation of turbidity as a tool for process control for stormwater treatment systems. In addition, the novel results for the dependence on the sedimentation process could be incorporated in existing models for design of stormwater treatment systems in similar watersheds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006. , xii, 25 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2035
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3895ISBN: 91-7178-307-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-3895DiVA: diva2:9917
Presentation
2006-03-31, Sal V2, Teknikringen 76, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2010-11-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Treatment of polluted road run-off water: Problems and possibilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of polluted road run-off water: Problems and possibilities
2004 (English)In: Annals of Warsaw Agricultural University / Land Reclamation, ISSN 0208-5771, no 35, 55-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The legal aspects for conventional water production and treatment are clearly defined and not ambiguous. This is not the case for handling and treatment of run-off water. In the EU directive 1991/271/EEC run-off water is defined as sewage water. The EU Water Directive refers to 1991/271/EEC and points to run-off water as a pollutant source for ground water. Elevated levels of pollutant can be found in run-off water from catchment areas with dense traffic loads. Depending on road maintenance, use of studded tires, type of pavement, traffic flow, velocity, type of vehicle, residential and industrial areas, tunnels the degree of mobility of the pollutants will vary in the ambient air and the run-off water. An aspect that only to some extent has been elaborated on is the influence of pavement types and its wear with regard to the mobility of the pollutants. A treatment technique commonly used in many countries is storm water ponds. The pollutant removal efficiency varies for different ponds, due to different specific pond areas, i.e. pond area in relation to catchment area. Ponds act as sedimentation basins, collecting particles and bounded pollutants. However, the solute transport of e.g. heavy metals should be trapped by other means. For that purpose a filtration unit has been developed and tested in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Warzaw: Warsaw Agricultural University Press, 2004
Keyword
CATCHMENT, FIRST FLUSH, POLLUTANT, POND, TRAFFIC FLOW
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5520 (URN)
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2010-11-15Bibliographically approved
2. Assessment of suspended solids concentration in highway runoff and its treatment implication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of suspended solids concentration in highway runoff and its treatment implication
2006 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 27, no 9, 945-950 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is understood that the major pollution from storm water is related to the content of particulate matter. One treatment practice is based on the first flush, i.e. detention of the initial part of the runoff that is considered to contain the highest concentrations of pollutants, This study has evaluated the concentration of total suspended solids in 30 consecutive runoff events during the winter season for an area of 6.7 hectares. A six-lane highway (E4) that has an annual average daily traffic load of 120,000 dominates the area and road de-icing salt (NaCl) and studded tires were in regular use during the studied period. The effluent standard for wastewater of 60 mg TSS per litre applied in EU was used to assess the treatment requirement of storm water. In only two of the events the event mean concentration was below 60 mg V. In four runoff events a partial event mean concentration below 60 mg l(-1) was found, in 26 %, 12 %, 11 %, and 2 % respectively of the runoff volume. This would suggest that a capture of the initial part of the runoff for subsequent treatment is less applicable in this type of urban watershed.

Keyword
discharge value; event mean concentration; first flush; storm water; winter
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5521 (URN)10.1080/09593332708618710 (DOI)000241916300001 ()17067120 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-33750561517 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100709. Uppdaterad från Accepted till Published 20100709.Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
3. Seasonal variations of ten metals in highway runoff and their partition between dissolved and particulate matter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seasonal variations of ten metals in highway runoff and their partition between dissolved and particulate matter
2007 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 181, no 1-4, 183-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of differentiation of pollutants in urban runoff between dissolved and particulate matter is of great concern for a successful design of a water treatment process. Seasonal variations in pollutant load are of equal importance. Ten metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), as dissolved and particulate bound, was studied in the runoff from a major urban highway during a winter season and its following summer. Studded tyres and winter salting were expected to have an impact on the runoff water quality. The dissolved part of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn and Ni was significantly higher in winter in comparison with summer (p < 0.01). For Fe, however, the dissolved part was lower during winter. No significant difference was found for Cu, Pb and Zn between the two seasons. The mass concentration (mg kg(-1)) for all metals was significantly higher over the summer except for Al and Co, which showed a higher mass concentration during the winter. The concentration of selected metals vs. total suspended solids (TSS) showed a linear relationship (r(2)> 0.95) during winter runoff events except for Cd. A good correlation (r (2)> 0.90) was also found for the summer period for Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn. It is suggested that the metal pollutant load during winter could be assessed indirectly by measurement of TSS.

Keyword
de-icing salt; Event Mean Concentration; metal pollution; total suspended solids; storm water
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5522 (URN)10.1007/s11270-006-9289-5 (DOI)000245853500016 ()2-s2.0-34247507788 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100712. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100712.Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
4. Assessment of solid matter removal by sedimentation in highway runoff
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of solid matter removal by sedimentation in highway runoff
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5523 (URN)
Note

QC 20101115

Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2016-06-08Bibliographically approved

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