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Multi-Functional Composite Design Concepts for Rail Vehicle Car Bodies
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Structures and material combinations, tailored for multiple purposes, are within the reach of vehicle manufacturers. Besides reducing the environmental impact of the transportation sector these multi-functional structures can reduce costs, such as development, manufacturing and maintenance, and at the same time offer improved comfort to the passengers. This thesis sets out to develop multi-functional design algorithms and evaluate concepts for future composite high speed train car bodies with the objective of optimising the amount of mass needed to fulfil all functions of the structure.

In a first step complete composite car bodies were developed, optimised and evaluated based on global stiffness requirements and load cases. The knowledge gained in this step was used as requirements for the strength and stiffness of panels during the continued development of the multi-functional optimisation which, besides strength and stiffness, later also considers sound transmission, thermal insulation, geometric restrictions, manufacturability and fire safety. To be able to include fire safety in the analysis, a method for simulating the high temperature response of layered composite structures was needed, and developed.

Significant weight reductions are proven when utilising carbon fibre in the load carrying structure of the vehicle, on component level as high as 60%. Structures can be made significantly thinner when using the algorithms developed in this thesis and wall thickness is reduced by 5-6 cm. Analysis carried out and extensive literature surveys also suggest significant cost savings in manufacturing, maintenance and use-phase, even thou the raw material cost can be significantly higher as compared to the conventional steel or aluminium alternatives.

Results from drive cycle simulations showed that the benefit, with respect to reduced energy consumption, is in the range of 0.5-0.8% per reduced weight percentage, comparable to both automotive and air applications.

The algorithms and methods established in this thesis can be directly applied for the development and analysis of future high speed train car bodies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , ix, 59 p.
Keyword [en]
Car body, Composite, Finite element, Lightweight, Multi-discipline, Multi-functional, Optimisation, Rail Vehicles, Sandwich Panels
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122391ISBN: 978-91-7501-751-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-122391DiVA: diva2:622097
Public defence
2013-06-10, Kollegiesalen, plan04, Brinellvägen 8, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130521

Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2013-05-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Orthotropic models of corrugated sheets in finite element analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Orthotropic models of corrugated sheets in finite element analysis
2011 (English)In: Mechanical engineering (New York, N.Y. 1919), ISSN 0025-6501Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Reliability and Maintenance Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Fordonsteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33755 (URN)10.5402/2011/979532 (DOI)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note
QC 20110516Available from: 2011-05-16 Created: 2011-05-16 Last updated: 2013-05-21Bibliographically approved
2. Substitution of corrugated sheets in a railway vehicle's body structure by a multiple-requirement based selection process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Substitution of corrugated sheets in a railway vehicle's body structure by a multiple-requirement based selection process
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, Vol. 228, no 2, 143-157 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To simplify construction, reduce weight and improve mechanical properties, a sandwich panel substitution process is performed on corrugated sheets in the floor and roof of a rail vehicle car body. A requirement based selection is used to design the sandwich panels with the corrugated sheet mechanical characteristics as boundaries. Car body stiffness is evaluated by modal analysis. The derived panels reduce the mass of the car body by 600-700kg. Results show the varying importance of the longitudinal, transverse and shear properties of the floor and roof panels, as well as how efficient the corrugated sheets actually are.

Keyword
sandwich panels, lightweight, corrugated sheet, rail vehicle, modal analysis
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Reliability and Maintenance Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Fordonsteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33757 (URN)10.1177/0954409712467139 (DOI)000330771400003 ()2-s2.0-84892577539 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20140310

Available from: 2011-05-16 Created: 2011-05-16 Last updated: 2014-03-10Bibliographically approved
3. Optimisation of sandwich panels for the load carrying structure of high-speed rail vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimisation of sandwich panels for the load carrying structure of high-speed rail vehicles
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Aerospace and Lightweight Structures, ISSN 2010-4286, Vol. 2, no 1, 19-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates how various requirements, such as stiffness, strength, buckling, thickness and area density, influence the choice of load carrying sandwich panels for highspeed rail vehicles. Requirements on the load carrying structure are defined where after various sandwich alternatives are chosen to match these requirements. The initial panels are optimised with the software package HyperWorks. Refined optimisation results are then studied by Finite Element Analysis. A total weight reduction of over 30% of the load carrying structure is achieved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Research Publishing Services, 2012
Keyword
Finite element method, Sub modeling, Composites
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Fordonsteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-90379 (URN)10.3850/S2010428612000207 (DOI)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20120504

Available from: 2012-05-04 Created: 2012-02-23 Last updated: 2013-05-21Bibliographically approved
4. Benefits of weight reduction in high speed train operations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benefits of weight reduction in high speed train operations
2013 (English)In: ZEV rail Glaser Annalen, ISSN 1618-8330, Vol. 137, no 3, 77-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper highlights one of the main issues with light weight sandwich design in high-speed rail vehicles: The benefit of light weighting is said to be marginal when considering high-speed trains. A run cycle based analysis method is used to evaluate energy savings, wear reduction, downsizing possibilities and reduced travel time as function of reduced weight. Depending on operating conditions, the relation between weight reduction and energy consumption for high-speed trains is shown to be equivalent of that for both automobiles and aircrafts.

Keyword
Light weight, rail vehicle, high speed train, energy consumption
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122378 (URN)2-s2.0-84875976876 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20130521

Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2013-12-09Bibliographically approved
5. Finite difference adaptation of the decomposition of layered composite structures on irregular grid
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finite difference adaptation of the decomposition of layered composite structures on irregular grid
2014 (English)In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 48, no 20, 2427-2439 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The finite difference method is used to solve the time-dependent thermo mechanical response of a layered composite structure subjected to fire. State variables of the composite are chosen whereby the external and internal boundary conditions are derived for an irregular grid through the thickness of the structure. The homogenised mass flux and specific heat capacity of pyrolysis gases over a layered composite is also defined. The formulations are tested against documented results found in the literature.

Keyword
composites, layered structure, fire response, pyrolysis, finite difference method
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122383 (URN)10.1177/0021998313499196 (DOI)000340207400001 ()2-s2.0-84904814624 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

Updated from submitted to published.

QC 20140912

Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2014-09-12Bibliographically approved
6. Multi-Functional Design of a Composite High-Speed Train Body Structure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-Functional Design of a Composite High-Speed Train Body Structure
2014 (English)In: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, E-ISSN 1615-1488, Vol. 50, no 3, 475-488 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A multi-level, multi-functional, optimisation methodology is suggested for the design of a composite high speed train car body. The structure consists of a layer of inner lining (glass fibre/vinyl ester), a layer of fibrous insulation, and a load carrying sandwich panel (carbon fibre/epoxy face sheets on a PMI core). Besides the most commonly used design constraints, such as mechanical strength, stiffness and geometry, also acoustic and thermal insulation as well as fire safety is included in the optimisation. The results suggest that well over 40 % mass reduction can be achieved with these types of structures.

Keyword
Rail vehicle, Car body, Optimisation, Multi-physics, Multi-scale, Multi-discipline, Multi-constraint, Finite element, Composite, Sandwich panels, Stiffness, Strength, Acoustics, Thermal, Insulations, Fire, Dynamics, Modal analysis, Composite Lay-up, Weight minimisation
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122387 (URN)10.1007/s00158-014-1056-4 (DOI)000340401600009 ()2-s2.0-84905866006 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

Updated from "Accepted" to "Published". QC 20140912

Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2014-09-12Bibliographically approved

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