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  • 1.
    Abdullah Al Ahad, Muhammed
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Non-linearstates in parallel Blasius boundary layer2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is large theoretical, experimental and numerical interest in studying boundary layers, which develop around any body moving through a fluid. The simplest of these boundary layers lead to the theoretical abstraction of a so-called Blasius boundary layer, which can be derived under the assumption of a flat plate and zero external pressure gradient. The Blasius solution is characterised by a slow growth of the boundary layer in the streamwise direction. For practical purposes, in particular related to studying transition scenarios, non-linear finite-amplitude states (exact coherent states, edge states), but also for turbulence, a major simplification of the problem could be attained by removing this slow streamwise growth, and instead consider a parallel boundary layer. Parallel boundary layers are found in reality, e.g. when applying suction (asymptotic suction boundary layer) or rotation (Ekman boundary layer), but not in the Blasius case. As this is only a model which is not an exact solution to the Navier-Stokes (or boundary-layer) equations, some modifications have to be introduced into the governing equations in order for such an approach to be feasible. Spalart and Yang introduced a modification term to the governing Navier-Stokes equations in 1987. In this thesis work, we adapted the amplitude of the modification term introduced by Spalart and Yang to identify the nonlinear states in the parallel Blasius boundary layer. A final application of this modification was in determining the so-called edge states for boundary layers, previously found in the asymptotic suction boundary layer

  • 2.
    Abedin, Arian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Ligai, Wolmir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Automatingand optimizing pile group design using a Genetic Algorithm2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In bridge design, a set of piles is referred to as a pile group. The design process of pile groups employed by many firms is currently manual, time consuming, and produces pile groups that are not robust against placement errors.

    This thesis applies the metaheuristic method Genetic Algorithm to automate and improve the design of pile groups for bridge column foundations. A software is developed and improved by implementing modifications to the Genetic Algorithm. The algorithm is evaluated by the pile groups it produces, using the Monte Carlo method to simulate errors for the purpose of testing the robustness. The results are compared with designs provided by the consulting firm Tyrens AB.

    The software is terminated manually, and generally takes less than half an hour to produce acceptable pile groups. The developed Genetic Algorithm Software produces pile groups that are more robust than the manually designed pile groups to which they are compared, using the Monte Carlo method. However, due to the visually disorganized designs, the pile groups produced by the algorithm may be di cult to get approved by Trafikverket. The software might require further modifications addressing this problem before it can be of practical use.

  • 3. Adams, Henry
    et al.
    Tausz, Andrew
    Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. Institut Jozef Stefan, Slovenia .
    javaPlex: A Research Software Package for Persistent (Co) Homology2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The computation of persistent homology has proven a fundamental component of the nascent field of topological data analysis and computational topology. We describe a new software package for topological computation, with design focus on needs of the research community. This tool, replacing previous jPlex and Plex, enables researchers to access state of the art algorithms for persistent homology, cohomology, hom complexes, filtered simplicial complexes, filtered cell complexes, witness complex constructions, and many more essential components of computational topology. We describe, herewithin, the design goals we have chosen, as well as the resulting software package, and some of its more novel capabilities.

  • 4.
    Adler, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    GPU Monte Carlo scatter calculations for Cone Beam Computed Tomography2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A GPU Monte Carlo code for x-ray photon transport has been implemented and extensively tested. The code is intended for scatter compensation of cone beam computed tomography images.

    The code was tested to agree with other well known codes within 5% for a set of simple scenarios. The scatter compensation was also tested using an artificial head phantom. The errors in the reconstructed Hounsfield values were reduced by approximately 70%.

    Several variance reduction methods have been tested, although most were found infeasible on GPUs. The code is nonetheless fast, and can simulate approximately 3 ·109 photons per minute on a NVIDIA Quadro 4000 graphics card. With the use of appropriate filtering methods, the code can be used to calculate patient specific scatter distributions for a full CBCT scan in approximately one minute, allowing scatter reduction in clinical applications.

  • 5.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Computational methods for microfluidics2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with computational methods for fluid flows on the microscale, also known as microfluidics. This is motivated by current research in biological physics and miniaturization technology, where there is a need to understand complex flows involving microscale structures. Numerical simulations are an important tool for doing this.

    The first paper of the thesis presents a numerical method for simulating multiphase flows involving insoluble surfactants and moving contact lines. The method is based on an explicit interface tracking method, wherein the interface between two fluids is decomposed into segments, which are represented locally on an Eulerian grid. The framework of this method provides a natural setting for solving the advection-diffusion equation governing the surfactant concentration on the interface. Open interfaces and moving contact lines are also incorporated into the method in a natural way, though we show that care must be taken when regularizing interface forces to the grid near the boundary of the computational domain.

    In the second paper we present a boundary integral formulation for sedimenting particles in periodic Stokes flow, using the completed double layer boundary integral formulation. The long-range nature of the particle-particle interactions lead to the formulation containing sums which are not absolutely convergent if computed directly. This is solved by applying the method of Ewald summation, which in turn is computed in a fast manner by using the FFT-based spectral Ewald method. The complexity of the resulting method is O(N log N), as the system size is scaled up with the number of discretization points N. We apply the method to systems of sedimenting spheroids, which are discretized using the Nyström method and a basic quadrature rule.

    The Ewald summation method used in the boundary integral method of the second paper requires a decomposition of the potential being summed. In the introductory chapters of the thesis we present an overview of the available methods for creating Ewald decompositions, and show how the methods and decompositions can be related to each other.

  • 6.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Ewald summation for the rotlet singularity of Stokes flow2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ewald summation is an efficient method for computing the periodic sums that appear when considering the Green's functions of Stokes flow together with periodic boundary conditions. We show how Ewald summation, and accompanying truncation error estimates, can be easily derived for the rotlet, by considering it as a superposition of electrostatic force calculations.

  • 7.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Fast and accurate integral equation methods with applications in microfluidics2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with computational methods for fluid flows on the microscale, also known as microfluidics. This is motivated by current research in biological physics and miniaturization technology, where there is a need to understand complex flows involving microscale structures. Numerical simulations are an important tool for doing this.

    The first, and smaller, part of the thesis presents a numerical method for simulating multiphase flows involving insoluble surfactants and moving contact lines. The method is based on an interface decomposition resulting in local, Eulerian grid representations. This provides a natural setting for solving the PDE governing the surfactant concentration on the interface.

    The second, and larger, part of the thesis is concerned with a framework for simulating large systems of rigid particles in three-dimensional, periodic viscous flow using a boundary integral formulation. This framework can solve the underlying flow equations to high accuracy, due to the accurate nature of surface quadrature. It is also fast, due to the natural coupling between boundary integral methods and fast summation methods.

    The development of the boundary integral framework spans several different fields of numerical analysis. For fast computations of large systems, a fast Ewald summation method known as Spectral Ewald is adapted to work with the Stokes double layer potential. For accurate numerical integration, a method known as Quadrature by Expansion is developed for this same potential, and also accelerated through a scheme based on geometrical symmetries. To better understand the errors accompanying this quadrature method, an error analysis based on contour integration and calculus of residues is carried out, resulting in highly accurate error estimates.

  • 8.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Saffar Shamshirgar, Davoud
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Fast Ewald summation for free-space Stokes potentials2017In: Research in the Mathematical Sciences, ISSN 2197-9847, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a spectrally accurate method for the rapid evaluation of free-space Stokes potentials, i.e., sums involving a large number of free space Green’s functions. We consider sums involving stokeslets, stresslets and rotlets that appear in boundary integral methods and potential methods for solving Stokes equations. The method combines the framework of the Spectral Ewald method for periodic problems (Lindbo and Tornberg in J Comput Phys 229(23):8994–9010, 2010. doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2010.08.026 ), with a very recent approach to solving the free-space harmonic and biharmonic equations using fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) on a uniform grid (Vico et al. in J Comput Phys 323:191–203, 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2016.07.028 ). Convolution with a truncated Gaussian function is used to place point sources on a grid. With precomputation of a scalar grid quantity that does not depend on these sources, the amount of oversampling of the grids with Gaussians can be kept at a factor of two, the minimum for aperiodic convolutions by FFTs. The resulting algorithm has a computational complexity of $$O(N \log N)$$ O ( N log N ) for problems with N sources and targets. Comparison is made with a fast multipole method to show that the performance of the new method is competitive.

  • 9.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    A fast integral equation method for solid particles in viscous flow using quadrature by expansionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Boundary integral methods are advantageous when simulating viscous flow around rigid particles, due to the reduction in number of unknowns and straightforward handling of the geometry. In this work we present a fast and accurate framework for simulating spheroids in periodic Stokes flow, which is based on the completed double layer boundary integral formulation. The framework implements a new method known as quadrature by expansion (QBX), which uses surrogate local expansions of the layer potential to evaluate it to very high accuracy both on and off the particle surfaces. This quadrature method is accelerated through a newly developed precomputation scheme. The long range interactions are computed using the spectral Ewald (SE) fast summation method, which after integration with QBX allows the resulting system to be solved in M log M time, where M is the number of particles. This framework is suitable for simulations of large particle systems, and can be used for studying e.g. porous media models.

  • 10.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Adaptive Quadrature by Expansion for Layer Potential Evaluation in Two Dimensions2018In: SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, ISSN 1064-8275, E-ISSN 1095-7197, Vol. 40, no 3, p. A1225-A1249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When solving partial differential equations using boundary integral equation methods, accurate evaluation of singular and nearly singular integrals in layer potentials is crucial. A recent scheme for this is quadrature by expansion (QBX), which solves the problem by locally approximating the potential using a local expansion centered at some distance from the source boundary. In this paper we introduce an extension of the QBX scheme in two dimensions (2D) denoted AQBX—adaptive quadrature by expansion—which combines QBX with an algorithm for automated selection of parameters, based on a target error tolerance. A key component in this algorithm is the ability to accurately estimate the numerical errors in the coefficients of the expansion. Combining previous results for flat panels with a procedure for taking the panel shape into account, we derive such error estimates for arbitrarily shaped boundaries in 2D that are discretized using panel-based Gauss–Legendre quadrature. Applying our scheme to numerical solutions of Dirichlet problems for the Laplace and Helmholtz equations, and also for solving these equations, we find that the scheme is able to satisfy a given target tolerance to within an order of magnitude, making it useful for practical applications. This represents a significant simplification over the original QBX algorithm, in which choosing a good set of parameters can be hard.

  • 11.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Estimation of quadrature errors in layer potential evaluation using quadrature by expansionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In boundary integral methods it is often necessary to evaluate layer potentials on or close to the boundary, where the underlying integral is difficult to evaluate numerically. Quadrature by expansion (QBX) is a new method for dealing with such integrals, and it is based on forming a local expansion of the layer potential close to the boundary. In doing so, one introduces a new quadrature error due to nearly singular integration in the evaluation of expansion coefficients. Using a method based on contour integration and calculus of residues, the quadrature error of nearly singular integrals can be accurately estimated. This makes it possible to derive accurate estimates for the quadrature errors related to QBX, when applied to layer potentials in two and three dimensions. As examples we derive estimates for the Laplace and Helmholtz single layer potentials. These results can be used for parameter selection in practical applications.

  • 12.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Fast Ewald summation for Stokesian particle suspensions2014In: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, ISSN 0271-2091, E-ISSN 1097-0363, Vol. 76, no 10, p. 669-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a numerical method for suspensions of spheroids of arbitrary aspect ratio, which sediment under gravity. The method is based on a periodized boundary integral formulation using the Stokes double layer potential. The resulting discrete system is solved iteratively using generalized minimal residual accelerated by the spectral Ewald method, which reduces the computational complexity to O(N log N), where N is the number of points used to discretize the particle surfaces. We develop predictive error estimates, which can be used to optimize the choice of parameters in the Ewald summation. Numerical tests show that the method is well conditioned and provides good accuracy when validated against reference solutions. 

  • 13.
    Ahlberg, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Fornander, Eric
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Test Case Prioritization as a Mathematical Scheduling Problem2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software testing is an extremely important phase of product development where the objective is to detect hidden bugs. The usually high complexity of today’s products makes the testing very resource intensive since numerous test cases have to be generated in order to detect all potential faults. Therefore, improved strategies of the testing process is of high interest for many companies. One area where there exists potential for improvement is the order by which test cases are executed to detect faults as quickly as possible, which in research is known as the test case prioritization problem. In this thesis, an extension to this problem is studied where dependencies between test cases are present and the processing times of the test cases are known. As a first result of the thesis, a mathematical model of the test case prioritization problem with dependencies and known processing times as a mathematical scheduling problem is presented. Three different solution algorithms to this problem are subsequently evaluated: A Sidney decomposition algorithm, an own-designed heuristic algorithm and an algorithm based on Smith’s rule. The Sidney decomposition algorithm outper-formed the others in terms of execution time of the algorithm and objective value of the generated schedule. The evaluation was conducted by simulation with artificial test suites and via a case study in industry through a company in the railway domain.

  • 14.
    Ahlin, Filip
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Internal model for spread risk under Solvency II2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In May 2009 the European Commission decided on new regulations regarding solvency among insurance firms, the Solvency II Directive. The directive aims to strengthen the connection between the requirement of solvency and risks for insurance firms. The directive partly consists of a market risk module, in which a credit spread risk is a sub category.

    In this thesis a model for credit spread risk is implemented. The model is an extended version of the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull model (A Markov Model for theTerm Structure of Credit Risk Spreads, 1997) as proposed by Dubrana (A Stochastic Model for Credit Spreads under a Risk-Neutral Framework through the use of an Extended Version of the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull Model, 2011). The implementation includes the calibration of a stochastic credit risk driver as well as a simulation of bond returns with the allowance of credit transitions and defaults.

    The modeling will be made with the requirements of the Solvency II Directive in mind. Finally, the result will be compared with the Solvency II standard formula for the spread risk sub-module.

  • 15.
    Ahmadi-Djam, Adrian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Belfrage Nordström, Sean
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Forecasting Non-Maturing Liabilities2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With ever increasing regulatory pressure financial institutions are required to carefully monitor their liquidity risk. This Master thesis focuses on asserting the appropriateness of time series models for forecasting deposit volumes by using data from one undisclosed financial institution. Holt-Winters, Stochastic Factor, ARIMA and ARIMAX models are considered with the latter being the one with best out-of-sample performance. The ARIMAX model is appropriate for forecasting deposit volumes on a 3 to 6 month horizon with seasonality accounted for through monthly dummy variables. Explanatory variables such as market volatility and interest rates do improve model accuracy but vastly increases complexity due to the simulations needed for forecasting.

  • 16.
    Aho, Yousef
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Persson, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Factors Affecting the Conversion Rate in the Flight Comparison Industry: A Logistic Regression Approach2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using logistic regression, we aim to construct a model to examine the factors that are most influential in affecting user behavior on the flight comparison site flygresor.se. The factors examined were number of adults, number of children, number of stops on the inbound trip, number of stops on the outbound trip, number of days between the search date and the departure date and number of search results displayed for the user. The data sample, collected during a one-week period, was taken from Flygresor and consisted of trips to or from Sweden, made within Europe, excluding Nordic countries, and made more than six days before departure. To find the variables which best explain the user behavior, variable selection methods were used along with hypothesis testing. Also, multicollinearity analysis and residual analysis were performed to evaluate the final model. The result showed that the factor number of children had no significant impact on the conversion rate, while the remaining factors had a high impact. The final model has a high predictive ability on the user's propensity to select a certain flight.

  • 17.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Aronsson, Martin
    Disaggregation in Bundle Methods: Application to the Train Timetabling Problem2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bundle methods are often used to solve dual problems that arise from Lagrangian relaxations of large scale optimization problems. An example of such problems is the train timetabling problem. This paper focuses on solving a dual problem that arises from Lagrangian relaxation of a train timetabling optimization program. The dual problem is solved using bundle methods. We formulate and compare the performances of two different bundle methods: the aggregate method, which is a standard method, and a new, disaggregate, method which is proposed here. The two methods were tested on realistic train timetabling scenarios from the Iron Ore railway line. The numerical results show that the new disaggregate approach generally yields faster convergence than the standard aggregate approach.

  • 18.
    Alathur Srinivasan, Prem Anand
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Deep Learning models for turbulent shear flow2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deep neural networks trained with spatio-temporal evolution of a dynamical system may be regarded as an empirical alternative to conventional models using differential equations. In this thesis, such deep learning models are constructed for the problem of turbulent shear flow. However, as a first step, this modeling is restricted to a simplified low-dimensional representation of turbulence physics. The training datasets for the neural networks are obtained from a 9-dimensional model using Fourier modes proposed by Moehlis, Faisst, and Eckhardt [29] for sinusoidal shear flow. These modes were appropriately chosen to capture the turbulent structures in the near-wall region. The time series of the amplitudes of these modes fully describe the evolution of flow. Trained deep learning models are employed to predict these time series based on a short input seed. Two fundamentally different neural network architectures, namely multilayer perceptrons (MLP) and long short-term memory (LSTM) networks are quantitatively compared in this work. The assessment of these architectures is based on (i) the goodness of fit of their predictions to that of the 9-dimensional model, (ii) the ability of the predictions to capture the near-wall turbulence structures, and (iii) the statistical consistency of the predictions with the test data. LSTMs are observed to make predictions with an error that is around 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of the MLP. Furthermore, the flow fields constructed from the LSTM predictions are remarkably accurate in their statistical behavior. In particular, deviations of 0:45 % and 2:49 % between the true data and the LSTM predictions were obtained for the mean flow and the streamwise velocity fluctuations, respectively.

  • 19.
    Albinski, Szymon Janusz
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    A branch-and-cut method for the Vehicle Relocation Problem in the One-Way Car-Sharing2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop an algorithm which solves the Vehicle Relocation Problem in the One-Way Car-Sharing (VRLPOWCS) as fast as possible. The problem describes the task of relocating the cars to areas with the largest demand. The chauffeurs who relocate the cars are transported by shuttle buses. Each car is assigned an individual relocation utility. The objective is to find shuttle tours that maximise in a given time the relocation utility while balancing the distribution of the cars. The VRLPOWCS is formulated as a mixed integer linear program. Since this problem is NP-complete we choose the branch-and-cut method to solve it. Using additional cutting planes – which exploit the structure of the VRLPOWCS – we enhance this method. Tests on real data show that this extended algorithm can solve the VRLPOWCS faster.

  • 20.
    Alexei, Iupinov
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Implementation of the Particle Mesh Ewald method on a GPU2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Particle Mesh Ewald (PME) method is used for efficient long-range electrostatic calculations in molecular dynamics (MD).

    In this project, PME is implemented for a single GPU alongside the existing CPU implementation, using the code base of an open source MD software GROMACS and NVIDIA CUDA toolkit. The performance of the PME GPU implementation is then studied.

    The motivation for the project is examining the PME algorithm’s parallelism, and its potential benefit for performance scalability of MD simulations on various hardware.

  • 21.
    Alexis, Sara
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Combinatorial and price efficient optimization of the underlying assets in basket options2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop an optimization model that chooses the optimal and price efficient combination of underlying assets for a equally weighted basket option.

    To obtain a price efficient combination of underlying assets a function that calculates the basket option price is needed, for further use in an optimization model. The closed-form basket option pricing is a great challenge, due to the lack of a distribution describing the augmented stochastic price process. Many types of approaches to price an basket option has been made. In this thesis, an analytical approximation of the basket option price has been used, where the analytical approximation aims to develop a method to describe the augmented price process. The approximation is done by moment matching, i.e. matching the first two moments of the real distribution of the basket option with an lognormal distribution. The obtained price function is adjusted and used as the objective function in the optimization model.

    Furthermore, since the goal is to obtain en equally weighted basket option, the appropriate class of optimization models to use are binary optimization problems. This kind of optimization model is in general hard to solve - especially for increasing dimensions. Three different continuous relaxations of the binary problem has been applied in order to obtain continuous problems, that are easier to solve.

    The results shows that the purpose of this thesis is fulfilled when formulating and solving the optimization problem - both as an binary and continuous nonlinear optimization model. Moreover, the results from a Monte Carlo simulation for correlated stochastic processes shows that the moment matching technique with a lognormal distribution is a good approximation for pricing a basket option.

  • 22.
    Alfonsetti, Elisabetta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Weeraddana, P. C.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Min-max fair car-parking slot assignment2015In: Proceedings of the WoWMoM 2015: A World of Wireless Mobile and Multimedia Networks, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies show that cruising for car parking accounts for a non-negligible amount of the daily traffic, especially in central areas of large cities. Therefore, mechanisms for minimizing traffic from cruising directly affect the dynamics of traffic congestions. One way to minimizing cruising traffic is efficient car-parking-slot assignment. Usually, the related design problems are combinatorial and the worst-case complexity of optimal methods grows exponentially with the problem sizes. As a result, almost all existing methods for parking slot assignment are simple and greedy approaches, where each car or the user is assigned a free parking slot, which is closer to its destination. Moreover, no emphasis is placed to optimize any form of fairness among the users as the a social benefit. In this paper, the fairness as a metric for modeling the aggregate social benefit of the users is considered. An algorithm based on Lagrange duality is developed for car-parking-slot assignment. Numerical results illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm compared to the optimal assignment and a greedy method.

  • 23.
    Al-Hassan, Yazid
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Simulation of Suspensions of Curved Fibers.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Yazid Al-Hassan

    Simulation of Suspensions of Curved Fibers

    The thesis at hand presents a numerical method for simulations of the dynamics of slender rigid fibers immersed in an incompressible fluid. The underlying mathematical formulation is based on a slender body approximation as applied to a boundary integral equation for Stokes flow. The curvature and torsion of the fibers can be arbitrarily specified, and we consider fiber shapes ranging from moderately bent to high curvature helical shapes. Two different settings are considered; naturally buoyant fibers in shear flow and heavier fibers sedimenting due to gravity. The dynamics show a very rich behavior, with fiber trajectories that display a very different degree of regularity depending on the initial conditions and fiber shape.

  • 24.
    Almér, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Control and Analysis of Pulse-Modulated Systems2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of an introduction and four appended papers. In the introduction we give an overview of pulse-modulated systems and provide a few examples of such systems. Furthermore, we introduce the so-called dynamic phasor model which is used as a basis for analysis in two of the appended papers. We also introduce the harmonic transfer function and finally we provide a summary of the appended papers.

    The first paper considers stability analysis of a class of pulse-width modulated systems based on a discrete time model. The systems considered typically have periodic solutions. Stability of a periodic solution is equivalent to stability of a fixed point of a discrete time model of the system dynamics.

    Conditions for global and local exponential stability of the discrete time model are derived using quadratic and piecewise quadratic Lyapunov functions. A griding procedure is used to develop a systematic method to search for the Lyapunov functions.

    The second paper considers the dynamic phasor model as a tool for stability analysis of a general class of pulse-modulated systems. The analysis covers both linear time periodic systems and systems where the pulse modulation is controlled by feedback. The dynamic phasor model provides an $\textbf{L}_2$-equivalent description of the system dynamics in terms of an infinite dimensional dynamic system. The infinite dimensional phasor system is approximated via a skew truncation. The truncated system is used to derive a systematic method to compute time periodic quadratic Lyapunov functions.

    The third paper considers the dynamic phasor model as a tool for harmonic analysis of a class of pulse-width modulated systems. The analysis covers both linear time periodic systems and non-periodic systems where the switching is controlled by feedback. As in the second paper of the thesis, we represent the switching system using the L_2-equivalent infinite dimensional system provided by the phasor model. It is shown that there is a connection between the dynamic phasor model and the harmonic transfer function of a linear time periodic system and this connection is used to extend the notion of harmonic transfer function to describe periodic solutions of non-periodic systems. The infinite dimensional phasor system is approximated via a square truncation. We assume that the response of the truncated system to a periodic disturbance is also periodic and we consider the corresponding harmonic balance equations. An approximate solution of these equations is stated in terms of a harmonic transfer function which is analogous to the harmonic transfer function of a linear time periodic system. The aforementioned assumption is proved to hold for small disturbances by proving the existence of a solution to a fixed point equation. The proof implies that for small disturbances, the approximation is good.

    Finally, the fourth paper considers control synthesis for switched mode DC-DC converters. The synthesis is based on a sampled data model of the system dynamics. The sampled data model gives an exact description of the converter state at the switching instances, but also includes a lifted signal which represents the inter-sampling behavior. Within the sampled data framework we consider H-infinity control design to achieve robustness to disturbances and load variations. The suggested controller is applied to two benchmark examples; a step-down and a step-up converter. Performance is verified in both simulations and in experiments.

  • 25.
    Almér, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Sampled data control of DC-DC convertersArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 26. Almér, Stefan
    et al.
    Jönsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Dynamic Phasor Analysis Of Pulse-Modulated Systems2012In: SIAM Journal of Control and Optimization, ISSN 0363-0129, E-ISSN 1095-7138, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 1110-1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers stability and harmonic analysis of a general class of pulse-modulated systems. The systems are modeled using the dynamic phasor model, which explores the cyclic nature of the modulation functions by representing the system state as a Fourier series expansion defined over a moving time window. The contribution of the paper is to show that a special type of periodic Lyapunov function can be used to analyze the system and that the analysis conditions become tractable for computation after truncation. The approach provides a trade-off between complexity and accuracy that includes standard state space averaged models as a special case. The paper also shows how the dynamic phasor model can be used to derive a frequency domain input-to-state map which is analogous to the harmonic transfer function.

  • 27.
    Almér, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Jönsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Harmonic analysis of pulse-width modulated systems2009In: Automatica, ISSN 0005-1098, E-ISSN 1873-2836, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 851-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper considers the so-called dynamic phasor model as a basis for harmonic analysis of a class switching systems. The analysis covers both periodically switched systems and non-periodic systems where the switching is controlled by feedback. The dynamic phasor model is a powerful tool for exploring cyclic properties of dynamic systems. It is shown that there is a connection between the dynamic phasor model and the harmonic transfer function of a linear time periodic system and this connection is used to extend the notion of harmonic transfer function to describe periodic solutions of non-periodic systems.

  • 28.
    Almér, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Mathematics.
    Jönsson, Ulf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Mathematics.
    Kao, Chung-Yao
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Mathematics.
    Mari, Jorge
    Global stability analysis of DC-DC converters using sampled-data modeling2004In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2004 AMERICAN CONTROL CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-6, 2004, p. 4549-4554Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents stability analysis of a class of pulse-width modulated (PWM) systems which incorporates many different DC-DC converters. Two types of pulse-width modulation (digital and analog control) are considered. A procedure is developed for systematic search for Lyapunov functions. The state space is partitioned in such a way that stability is verified if a set of coupled Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) is feasible. Global stability is considered as well as the computation of local regions of attraction.

  • 29.
    Almér, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Jönsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Kao, Chung-Yao
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Elect & Elect Engn.
    Mari, Jorge
    GE Global Res, Elect Energy Syst.
    Stability analysis of a class of PWM systems2007In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 1072-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This note considers stability analysis of a class of pulsewidth modulated (PWM) systems that incorporates several different switched mode dc-de- converters. The systems of the class typically have periodic solutions. A sampled data model is developed and used to prove stability of these solutions. Conditions for global and local exponential stability are derived using quadratic and piecewise quadratic Lyapunov functions. The state space is partitioned and the stability conditions are verified by checking a set of coupled linear matrix inequalities (LMIs).

  • 30.
    Alpsten, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Modeling News Data Flows using Multivariate Hawkes Processes2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a multivariate Hawkes process approach to model flows of news data. The data is divided into classes based on the news' content and sentiment levels, such that each class contains a homogeneous type of observations. The arrival times of news in each class are related to a unique element in the multivariate Hawkes process. Given this framework, the massive and complex flow of information is given a more compact representation that describes the excitation connections between news classes, which in turn can be used to better predict the future flow of news data. Such a model has potential applications in areas such as finance and security. This thesis focuses especially on the different bucket sizes used in the discretization of the time scale as well as the differences in results that these imply. The study uses aggregated news data provided by RavenPack and software implementations are written in Python using the TensorFlow package.

    For the cases with larger bucket sizes and datasets containing a larger number of observations, the results suggest that the Hawkes models give a better fit to training data than the Poisson model alternatives. The Poisson models tend to give better performance when models trained on historic data are tested on subsequent data flows. Moreover, the connections between news classes are given to vary significantly depending on the underlying datasets. The results indicate that lack of observations in certain news classes lead to over-fitting in the training of the Hawkes models and that the model ought to be extended to take into account the deterministic and periodic behaviors of the news data flows.

  • 31.
    Alpsten, Gustav
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Samanci, Sercan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Portfolio Protection Strategies: A study on the protective put and its extensions2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need among investors to manage volatility has made itself painfully clear over the past century, particularly during sudden crashes and prolonged drawdowns in the global equity markets. This has given rise to a liquid portfolio insurance market in the form of options, as well as attracted the attention of many researchers. Previous literature has, in particular, studied the effectiveness of the widely known protective put strategy, which serially buys a put option to protect a long position in the underlying asset. The results are often uninspiring, pointing towards few, if any, protective benefits with high option premiums as a main concern. This raises the question if there are ways to improve the protective put strategy or if there are any cost-efficient alternatives that provide a relatively be.er protection. This study extends the previous literature by investigating potential improvements and alternatives to the protective put strategy. In particular, three alternative put spread strategies and one collar strategy are constructed. In addition, a modified protective put this introduced to mitigate the path dependency in a rolling protection strategy.

     

    The results show that no option-based protection strategy can dominate the other in all market situations. Although reducing the equity position is generally more effective than buying options, we report that a collar strategy that buys 5% OTM put options and sells 5% OTM call options has an attractive risk-reward profile and protection against drawdowns. We also show that the protective put becomes more effective, both in terms of risk-adjusted return and tail protection, for longer maturities.

  • 32.
    Alvianto Priyanto, Criss
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Shift Design and Driver Scheduling Problem2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scheduling problem and shift design problems are well known NP-hard problems within the optimization area. Often time, the two problems are studied individually. In this thesis however, we are looking at the combination of both problems. More specifically, the aim of this thesis is to suggest an optimal scheduling policy given that there are no predefined shifts to begin with. The duration of a shift, along with the start and end time may vary. Thus we have proposed to split the problem into two sub-problems: weekly scheduling problem and daily scheduling problem. As there are no exact solution methods that are feasible, two meta-heuristics method has been employed to solve the sub-problems: Simulated Annealing (SA) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). We have provided proofs of concepts for both methods as well as explored the scalability. This is especially important as the number of employee is expected to grow significantly throughout the year. The results obtained has shown to be promising and can be built upon for further capabilities.

  • 33.
    Anderl, Daniela
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Modeling of a Cooling Airflow in an Electric Motor.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An electric motor converts electrical to mechanical energy and provides the rotational torque which is converted into linear motion. In some applications the duty is cyclic and the motor is used for both providing driving and breaking torque. In many applications today, the power to weight requirements are continuously increasing which means that the cooling is crucial. One of the major design elements in the cooling system of an electric motor is the fan. Unfortunately the current fan exceeds the noise constraints. The thesis analyses the fan in terms of noise production and performance, and proposes an improved fan design. The computation of the airflow is done with the software COMSOL. In the beginning different design guidelines and noise sources of a fan in general are summarized. Subsequently the concrete simulation procedure in COMSOL is described. After these basic issues are discussed, the different noise sources, namely the broad-band and the tonal noise, are investigated for the current fan and the improved fan design. The analysis of different design-space parameters is also done in terms of performance of the fan, i.e. the actual transported airflow together with the produced pressure difference. In the end, the results of these studies are summarized and the most improved fan design is the outcome of this.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    Strömberg, Jan-Olov
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    On the Theorem of Uniform Recovery of Random Sampling Matrices2014In: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ISSN 0018-9448, E-ISSN 1557-9654, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 1700-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider two theorems from the theory of compressive sensing. Mainly a theorem concerning uniform recovery of random sampling matrices, where the number of samples needed in order to recover an s-sparse signal from linear measurements (with high probability) is known to be m greater than or similar to s(ln s)(3) ln N. We present new and improved constants together with what we consider to be a more explicit proof. A proof that also allows for a slightly larger class of m x N-matrices, by considering what is called effective sparsity. We also present a condition on the so-called restricted isometry constants, delta s, ensuring sparse recovery via l(1)-minimization. We show that delta(2s) < 4/root 41 is sufficient and that this can be improved further to almost allow for a sufficient condition of the type delta(2s) < 2/3.

  • 35.
    Anisi, David A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Adaptive Node Distribution for Online Trajectory PlanningManuscript (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Anisi, David A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    On Cooperative Surveillance, Online Trajectory Planning and Observer Based Control2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main body of this thesis consists of six appended papers. In the  first two, different  cooperative surveillance problems are considered. The second two consider different aspects of the trajectory planning problem, while the last two deal with observer design for mobile robotic and Euler-Lagrange systems respectively.In Papers A and B,  a combinatorial optimization based framework to cooperative surveillance missions using multiple Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) is proposed. In particular, Paper A  considers the the Minimum Time UGV Surveillance Problem (MTUSP) while Paper B treats the Connectivity Constrained UGV Surveillance Problem (CUSP). The minimum time formulation is the following. Given a set of surveillance UGVs and a polyhedral area, find waypoint-paths for all UGVs such that every point of the area is visible from  a point on a waypoint-path and such that the time for executing the search in parallel is minimized.  The connectivity constrained formulation  extends the MTUSP by additionally requiring the induced information graph to be  kept recurrently connected  at the time instants when the UGVs  perform the surveillance mission.  In these two papers, the NP-hardness of  both these problems are shown and decomposition techniques are proposed that allow us to find an approximative solution efficiently in an algorithmic manner.Paper C addresses the problem of designing a real time, high performance trajectory planner for an aerial vehicle that uses information about terrain and enemy threats, to fly low and avoid radar exposure on the way to a given target. The high-level framework augments Receding Horizon Control (RHC) with a graph based terminal cost that captures the global characteristics of the environment.  An important issue with RHC is to make sure that the greedy, short term optimization does not lead to long term problems, which in our case boils down to two things: not getting into situations where a collision is unavoidable, and making sure that the destination is actually reached. Hence, the main contribution of this paper is to present a trajectory planner with provable safety and task completion properties. Direct methods for trajectory optimization are traditionally based on a priori temporal discretization and collocation methods. In Paper D, the problem of adaptive node distribution is formulated as a constrained optimization problem, which is to be included in the underlying nonlinear mathematical programming problem. The benefits of utilizing the suggested method for  online  trajectory optimization are illustrated by a missile guidance example.In Paper E, the problem of active observer design for an important class of non-uniformly observable systems, namely mobile robotic systems, is considered. The set of feasible configurations and the set of output flow equivalent states are defined. It is shown that the inter-relation between these two sets may serve as the basis for design of active observers. The proposed observer design methodology is illustrated by considering a  unicycle robot model, equipped with a set of range-measuring sensors. Finally, in Paper F, a geometrically intrinsic observer for Euler-Lagrange systems is defined and analyzed. This observer is a generalization of the observer proposed by Aghannan and Rouchon. Their contractivity result is reproduced and complemented  by  a proof  that the region of contraction is infinitely thin. Moreover, assuming a priori bounds on the velocities, convergence of the observer is shown by means of Lyapunov's direct method in the case of configuration manifolds with constant curvature.

  • 37.
    Anisi, David A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Online trajectory planning and observer based control2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The main body of this thesis consists of four appended papers. The first two consider different aspects of the trajectory planning problem, while the last two deal with observer design for mobile robotic and Euler-Lagrange systems respectively.

    The first paper addresses the problem of designing a real time, high performance trajectory planner for aerial vehicles. The main contribution is two-fold. Firstly, by augmenting a novel safety maneuver at the end of the planned trajectory, this paper extends previous results by having provable safety properties in a 3D setting. Secondly, assuming initial feasibility, the planning method is shown to have finite time task completion. Moreover, in the second part of the paper, the problem of simultaneous arrival of multiple aerial vehicles is considered. By using a time-scale separation principle, one is able to adopt standard Laplacian control to this consensus problem, which is neither unconstrained, nor first order.

    Direct methods for trajectory optimization are traditionally based on a priori temporal discretization and collocation methods. In the second paper, the problem of adaptive node distribution is formulated as a constrained optimization problem, which is to be included in the underlying nonlinear mathematical programming problem. The benefits of utilizing the suggested method for online trajectory optimization are illustrated by a missile guidance example.

    In the third paper, the problem of active observer design for an important class of non-uniformly observable systems, namely mobile robotics systems, is considered. The set of feasible configurations and the set of output flow equivalent states are defined. It is shown that the inter-relation between these two sets may serve as the basis for design of active observers. The proposed observer design methodology is illustrated by considering a unicycle robot model, equipped with a set of range-measuring sensors.

    Finally, in the fourth paper, a geometrically intrinsic observer for Euler-Lagrange systems is defined and analyzed. This observer is a generalization of the observer recently proposed by Aghannan and Rouchon. Their contractivity result is reproduced and complemented by a proof that the region of contraction is infinitely thin. However, assuming a priori bounds on the velocities, convergence of the observer is shown by means of Lyapunov's direct method in the case of configuration manifolds with constant curvature.

  • 38.
    Anisi, David A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Hamberg, Johan
    Riemannian Observers for Euler-Lagrange Systems2005In: Proceedings of the 16th IFAC World Congress: Prague, Czech Republic, July 3-8, 2005, 2005, p. 115-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a geometrically intrinsic observer for Euler-Lagrange systems is defined and analysed. This observer is an generalization of the observer recently proposed by Aghannan and Rouchon. Their contractivity result is reproduced and complemented by a proof that the region of contractivity is infinitely thin. However, assuming a priori bounds on the velocities, convergence of the observer is shown by means of Lyapunov's direct method in the case of configuration manifolds with constant curvature. The convergence properties of the observer are illustrated by an example where the configuration manifold is the three-dimensional sphere, S3.

  • 39.
    Anisi, David A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Hu, Xiaoming
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Active Observers for Mobile Robotic SystemsManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An important class of non-uniformly observable systems come from applications in mobile robotics. In this paper, the problem of active observer design for such systems is considered. The set of feasible configurations and the set of output flow equivalent states is defined. It is shown that the inter-relation between these two sets serves as the basis for design of active observers. The proposed observer design method is illustrated by considering a unicycle robot model, equipped with a set of range-measuring sensors.

  • 40.
    Anisi, David A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Ögren, Petter
    Minimum time multi-UGV surveillance2008In: OPTIMIZATION AND COOPERATIVE CONTROL STRATEGIES / [ed] Hirsch MJ; Commander CW; Pardalos PM; Murphey R, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2008, p. 31-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of concurrent task- and path planning for a number of  surveillance Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) such that a user defined area of interest is covered by the UGVs' sensors in minimum time. We first formulate the problem, and show that it is in fact  a generalization of the Multiple Traveling Salesmen Problem (MTSP), which is known to be NP-hard. We then propose a solution that decomposes the problem into three subproblems. The first is to find a maximal convex covering of the search area. Most results on static coverage  use disjoint partitions of the search area, e.g. triangulation, to convert the continuous sensor positioning problem into a  discrete one. However, by a simple example, we show that a highly overlapping set of maximal convex sets is better suited for  minimum time coverage. The second subproblem is a combinatorial assignment and ordering of the sets in the cover.  Since Tabu search algorithms are known to perform well on various routing problems,  we use it as a part of our proposed solution. Finally, the third subproblem utilizes a particular shortest path sub-routine in order to find the vehicle paths, and calculate the overall objective function used in the Tabu search. The proposed algorithm is illustrated by a number of simulation examples.

  • 41. Anisi, David A.
    et al.
    Ögren, Petter
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Hu, Xiaoming
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Cooperative Minimum Time Surveillance With Multiple Ground Vehicles2010In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 55, no 12, p. 2679-2691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we formulate and solve two different minimum time problems related to unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) surveillance. The first problem is the following. Given a set of surveillance UGVs and a polyhedral area, find waypoint-paths for all UGVs such that every point of the area is visible from a point on a path and such that the time for executing the search in parallel is minimized. Here, the sensors' field of view are assumed to have a limited coverage range and be occluded by the obstacles. The second problem extends the first by additionally requiring the induced information graph to be connected at the time instants when the UGVs perform the surveillance mission, i.e., when they gather and transmit sensor data. In the context of the second problem, we also introduce and utilize the notion of recurrent connectivity, which is a significantly more flexible connectivity constraint than, e.g., the 1-hop connectivity constraints and use it to discuss consensus filter convergence for the group of UGVs.

  • 42.
    Anisi, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Robinson, John W.C.
    Dept. of Autonomous Systems, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ögren, Petter
    Dept. of Autonomous Systems, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Online Trajectory Planning for Aerial Vehicle: A Safe Approach with Guaranteed Task CompletionManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On-line trajectory optimization in three dimensional space is the main topic of the paper at hand. The high-level framework augments on-line receding horizon control with an off-line computed terminal cost that captures the global characteristics of the environment, as well as any possible mission objectives. The first part of the paper is devoted to the single vehicle case while the second part considers the problem of simultaneous arrival of multiple aerial vehicles. The main contribution of the first part is two-fold. Firstly, by augmenting a so called safety maneuver at the end of the planned trajectory, this paper extends previous results by addressing provable safety properties in a 3D setting. Secondly, assuming initial feasibility, the planning method presented is shown to have finite time task completion. Moreover, a quantitative comparison between the two competing objectives of optimality and computational tractability is made. Finally, some other key characteristics of the trajectory planner, such as ability to minimize threat exposure and robustness, are highlighted through simulations. As for the simultaneous arrival problem considered in the second part, by using a time-scale separation principle, we are able to adopt standard Laplacian control to a consensus problem which is neither unconstrained, nor first order. 

  • 43.
    Ansanay-Alex, Guillaume
    et al.
    Institut de Sûreté et de Radioprotection Nucléaire.
    Babik, Fabrice
    Institut de Sûreté et de Radioprotection Nucléaire.
    Gastaldo, Laura
    Institut de Sûreté et de Radioprotection Nucléaire.
    Larcher, Aurélien
    Institut de Sûreté et de Radioprotection Nucléaire.
    Lapuerta, Céline
    Institut de Sûreté et de Radioprotection Nucléaire.
    Latché, Jean-Claude
    Institut de Sûreté et de Radioprotection Nucléaire.
    Vola, Didier
    Institut de Sûreté et de Radioprotection Nucléaire.
    A finite volume stability result for the convection operator in compressible flows. . . and some finite element applications2008In: Finite Volumes for Complex Applications V: Problems & Perspectives / [ed] Robert Eymard and Jean-Marc Hérard, Hermes Science Publications, 2008, p. 185-192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we build a L2-stable discretization of the non-linear convection termin Navier-Stokes equations for non-divergence-free flows, for non-conforming low order Stokesfinite elements. This discrete operator is obtained by a finite volume technique, and its stability relies on a result interesting for its own sake: the L2-stability of the natural finite volume convection operator in compressible flows, under some compatibility condition with the discrete mass balance. Then, this analysis is used to derive a boundary condition to cope with physical situations where the velocity cannot be prescribed on inflow parts of the boundary of the computational domain. We finally collect these ingredients in a pressure correction scheme for low Mach number flows, and assess the capability of the resulting algorithm to compute a natural convection flow with artificial (open) boundaries.

  • 44.
    Appelö, Daniel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Absorbing Layers and Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions for Wave Propagation Problems2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of wave motion is the defining feature in many fields of application,such as electro-magnetics, seismics, acoustics, aerodynamics,oceanography and optics. In these fields, accurate numerical simulation of wave phenomena is important for the enhanced understanding of basic phenomenon, but also in design and development of various engineering applications.

    In general, numerical simulations must be confined to truncated domains, much smaller than the physical space were the wave phenomena takes place. To truncate the physical space, artificial boundaries, and corresponding boundary conditions, are introduced. There are four main classes of methods that can be used to truncate problems on unbounded or large domains: boundary integral methods, infinite element methods, non-reflecting boundary condition methods and absorbing layer methods.

    In this thesis, we consider different aspects of non-reflecting boundary conditions and absorbing layers. In paper I, we construct discretely non-reflecting boundary conditions for a high order centered finite difference scheme. This is done by separating the numerical solution into spurious and physical waves, using the discrete dispersion relation.

    In paper II-IV, we focus on the perfectly matched layer method, which is a particular absorbing layer method. An open issue is whether stable perfectly matched layers can be constructed for a general hyperbolic system.

    In paper II, we present a stable perfectly matched layer formulation for 2 x 2 symmetric hyperbolic systems in (2 + 1) dimensions. We also show how to choose the layer parameters as functions of the coefficient matrices to guarantee stability.

    In paper III, we construct a new perfectly matched layer for the simulation of elastic waves in an anisotropic media. We present theoretical and numerical results, showing that the stability properties of the present layer are better than previously suggested layers.

    In paper IV, we develop general tools for constructing PMLs for first order hyperbolic systems. We present a model with many parameters which is applicable to all hyperbolic systems, and which we prove is well-posed and perfectly matched. We also use an automatic method, derived in paper V, for analyzing the stability of the model and establishing energy inequalities. We illustrate our techniques with applications to Maxwell s equations, the linearized Euler equations, as well as arbitrary 2 x 2 systems in (2 + 1) dimensions.

    In paper V, we use the method of Sturm sequences for bounding the real parts of roots of polynomials, to construct an automatic method for checking Petrowsky well-posedness of a general Cauchy problem. We prove that this method can be adapted to automatically symmetrize any well-posed problem, producing an energy estimate involving only local quantities.

  • 45.
    Appelö, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Hagstrom, Thomas
    Construction of stable PMLs for general 2 x 2 symmetric hyperbolic systems2004In: Proceedings of the HYP2004 conference, 2004, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perfectly matched layer (PML) has emerged as animportant tool for accurately solving certain hyperbolic systems onunbounded domains. An open issue is whether stable PMLs can beconstructed in general. In this work we consider the specializationof our general PML formulation to 2 × 2 symmetric hyperbolicsystems in 2 + 1 dimensions. We show how to choose the layerparameters as functions of the coefficient matrices to guaranteestability.

  • 46.
    Appelö, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Kreiss, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    A New Absorbing Layer for Elastic Waves2006In: Journal of Computational Physics, ISSN 0021-9991, E-ISSN 1090-2716, Vol. 215, no 2, p. 642-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new perfectly matched layer (PML) for the simulation of elastic waves in anisotropic media on an unbounded domain is constructed. Theoretical and numerical results, showing that the stability properties of the present layer are better than previously suggested layers, are presented. In addition, the layer can be formulated with fewer auxiliary variables than the split-field PML.

  • 47.
    Appelö, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Kreiss, Gunilla
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Discretely nonreflecting boundary conditions for higher order centered schemes for wave equations2003In: Proceedings of the WAVES-2003 conference, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2003, p. 130-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the framework introduced by Rawley and Colonius [2] we construct a nonreflecting boundary condition for the one-way wave equation spatially discretized with a fourth order centered difference scheme. The boundary condition, which can be extended to arbitrary order accuracy, is shown to be well posed. Numerical simulations have been performed showing promising results.

  • 48.
    Arjmand, Doghonay
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Analysis and Applications of Heterogeneous Multiscale Methods for Multiscale Partial Differential Equations2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis centers on the development and analysis of numerical multiscale methods for multiscale problems arising in steady heat conduction, heat transfer and wave propagation in heterogeneous media. In a multiscale problem several scales interact with each other to form a system which has variations over a wide range of scales. A direct numerical simulation of such problems requires resolving the small scales over a computational domain, typically much larger than the microscopic scales. This demands a tremendous computational cost. We develop and analyse multiscale methods based on the heterogeneous multiscale methods (HMM) framework, which captures the macroscopic variations in the solution at a cost much lower than traditional numerical recipes. HMM assumes that there is a macro and a micro model which describes the problem. The micro model is accurate but computationally expensive to solve. The macro model is inexpensive but incomplete as it lacks certain parameter values. These are upscaled by solving the micro model locally in small parts of the domain. The accuracy of the method is then linked to how accurately this upscaling procedure captures the right macroscopic effects. In this thesis we analyse the upscaling error of existing multiscale methods and also propose a micro model which significantly reduces the upscaling error invarious settings. In papers I and IV we give an analysis of a finite difference HMM (FD-HMM) for approximating the effective solutions of multiscale wave equations over long time scales. In particular, we consider time scales T^ε = O(ε−k ), k =1, 2, where ε represents the size of the microstructures in the medium. In this setting, waves exhibit non-trivial behaviour which do not appear over short time scales. We use new analytical tools to prove that the FD-HMM accurately captures the long time effects. We first, in Paper I, consider T^ε =O(ε−2 ) and analyze the accuracy of FD-HMM in a one-dimensional periodicsetting. The core analytical ideas are quasi-polynomial solutions of periodic problems and local time averages of solutions of periodic wave equations.The analysis naturally reveals the role of consistency in HMM for high order approximation of effective quantities over long time scales. Next, in paperIV, we consider T^ε = O(ε−1 ) and use the tools in a multi-dimensional settingto analyze the accuracy of the FD-HMM in locally-periodic media where fast and slow variations are allowed at the same time. Moreover, in papers II and III we propose new multiscale methods which substantially improve the upscaling error in multiscale elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic partial differential equations. In paper II we first propose a FD-HMM for solving elliptic homogenization problems. The strategy is to use the wave equation as the micro model even if the macro problem is of elliptic type. Next in paper III, we use this idea in a finite element HMM setting and generalize the approach to parabolic and hyperbolic problems. In a spatially fully discrete a priori error analysis we prove that the upscaling error can be made arbitrarily small for periodic media, even if we do not know the exact period of the oscillations in the media.

  • 49.
    Arjmand, Doghonay
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Analysis and Applications of the Heterogeneous Multiscale Methods for Multiscale Elliptic and Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the applications and analysis of the Heterogeneous Multiscale methods (HMM) for Multiscale Elliptic and Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations. We have gathered the main contributions in two papers.

    The first paper deals with the cell-boundary error which is present in multi-scale algorithms for elliptic homogenization problems. Typical multi-scale methods have two essential components: a macro and a micro model. The micro model is used to upscale parameter values which are missing in the macro model. Solving the micro model requires, on the other hand, imposing boundary conditions on the boundary of the microscopic domain. Imposing a naive boundary condition leads to $O(\varepsilon/\eta)$ error in the computation, where $\varepsilon$ is the size of the microscopic variations in the media and $\eta$ is the size of the micro-domain. Until now, strategies were proposed to improve the convergence rate up to fourth-order in $\varepsilon/\eta$ at best. However, the removal of this error in multi-scale algorithms still remains an important open problem. In this paper, we present an approach with a time-dependent model which is general in terms of dimension. With this approach we are able to obtain $O((\varepsilon/\eta)^q)$ and $O((\varepsilon/\eta)^q  + \eta^p)$ convergence rates in periodic and locally-periodic media respectively, where $p,q$ can be chosen arbitrarily large.     

    In the second paper, we analyze a multi-scale method developed under the Heterogeneous Multi-Scale Methods (HMM) framework for numerical approximation of wave propagation problems in periodic media. In particular, we are interested in the long time $O(\varepsilon^{-2})$ wave propagation. In the method, the microscopic model uses the macro solutions as initial data. In short-time wave propagation problems a linear interpolant of the macro variables can be used as the initial data for the micro-model. However, in long-time multi-scale wave problems the linear data does not suffice and one has to use a third-degree interpolant of the coarse data to capture the $O(1)$ dispersive effects apperaing in the long time. In this paper, we prove that through using an initial data consistent with the current macro state, HMM captures this dispersive effects up to any desired order of accuracy in terms of $\varepsilon/\eta$. We use two new ideas, namely quasi-polynomial solutions of periodic problems and local time averages of solutions of periodic hyperbolic PDEs. As a byproduct, these ideas naturally reveal the role of consistency for high accuracy approximation of homogenized quantities.

  • 50.
    Arjmand, Doghonay
    et al.
    Dep. of Math., Fatih University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ashyralyev, Allaberen
    Dep. of Elect. and Electr. Eng., Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    A note on the Taylor s decomposition on four points for a third-order differential equation2007In: Applied Mathematics and Computation, ISSN 0096-3003, E-ISSN 1873-5649, ISSN 0096-3003, Vol. 188, no 2, p. 1483-1490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taylor's decomposition on four points is presented. three-step difference schemes generated by the Taylor's decomposition on fourpoints for the numerical solutions of an initial-value problem, a boundary-value problem, and a nonlocal boundary-value problem for a third-order ordinary differential equation are constructed. Numerical examples are given.

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