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  • 1.
    Balian, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Greenhouse gas Reduction in Infrastructure Projects: With a case study of California High-Speed Rail2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Infrastructure projects are today major contributors to global warming. However, various strategies for reduction of greenhouse gas emission are available, as described in sustainability assessment schemes and performed in infrastructure projects.

    Beyond the choice of methodology, greenhouse gas reduction represents an important challenge, namely to engage involved actors. The establishment of a common sustainability policy, reflected in procurement requirements could be a solution. However, often in subject of complications such as misunderstandings or increased cost.

    Impres, a research project aiming to streamline the process of greenhouse gas reduction in the infrastructure sector, conducts case studies around the world in which useful methods and examples are assimilated. In cooperation with Impres, the present report includes the case study of California High-Speed Rail (CHSR).

    The aim of this report is to compare strategies for greenhouse gas reduction of sustainability assessment schemes for infrastructure projects, and evaluate the feasibility as procurement requirements. Furthermore, to identify corresponding processes of greenhouse gas reduction in the case study of CHSR, as well as revealing important factors towards realization.

    The course of work involves a study of the schemes Envision, BREEAM Infrastructure, CEEQUAL, IS Rating System as well as the standard PAS 2080. Regarding the case study, the sustainability policy, procurement requirements and project reports are the main used sources. Moreover, qualitative interviews with involved actors have been performed in California. Finally, to create a comparative matrix for greenhouse gas reduction processes, standards ISO and PAS 2080 have been reviewed.

    The results show that greenhouse gas criteria of the studied schemes not are mandatory to perform in anyone but PAS 2080. Which means that further requisites might be needed in order for the schemes to be useful as procurement requirements. Furthermore, the outlining of processes reveals a weakness in the setting of a greenhouse gas reference point, and while every scheme includes a greenhouse gas quantity assessment, there is a difference in the priority of reduction.

    Regarding CHSR, an exclaimed policy goal is to perform climate neutral construction. While procurement requirements are limited to quantification of emitted greenhouse gases and the use of effective construction machinery, which is insufficient to meet the goal. Nevertheless, the Authority in charge is performing CO2 compensating measures, such as planting trees.

    Finally, a variety of driving forces, success factors and challenges for realizing greenhouse gas reduction have been identified. For example, personal motivation and legislation as driving forces. Whereas, sustainability as a core mission, experience and communication are seen as success factors, and resistance to transfer sustainability goals to procurement is an exclaimed challenge.

    As a conclusion, sustainability assessment schemes do have certain processes for greenhouse gas reduction in common. However, they present criteria with different degrees of obligation, affecting feasibility as procurement requirements. In CHSR, similar processes are found, where further reduction of greenhouse gases can be achieved, especially by an optimized choice of construction materials. In the end, personal motivation seems to be an important factor for introducing and realizing greenhouse gas reduction goals in infrastructure projects.

  • 2. Ballarotta, M.
    et al.
    Brodeau, L.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Lundberg, P.
    Döös, K.
    Last Glacial Maximum world ocean simulations at eddy-permitting and coarse resolutions: do eddies contribute to a better consistency between models and palaeoproxies?2013In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 2669-2686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most state-of-the-art climate models include a coarsely resolved oceanic component, which hardly captures detailed dynamics, whereas eddy-permitting and eddy-resolving simulations are developed to reproduce the observed ocean. In this study, an eddy-permitting and a coarse resolution numerical experiment are conducted to simulate the global ocean state for the period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, similar to 26 500 to 19 000 yr ago) and to investigate the improvements due to taking into account the smaller spatial scales. The ocean state from each simulation is confronted with a data set from the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean (MARGO) sea surface temperatures (SSTs), some reconstructions of the palaeo-circulations and a number of sea-ice reconstructions. The western boundary currents and the Southern Ocean dynamics are better resolved in the high-resolution experiment than in the coarse simulation, but, although these more detailed SST structures yield a locally improved consistency between model predictions and proxies, they do not contribute significantly to the global statistical score. The SSTs in the tropical coastal upwelling zones are also not significantly improved by the eddy-permitting regime. The models perform in the mid-latitudes but as in the majority of the Paleo-climate Modelling Intercomparison Project simulations, the modelled sea-ice conditions are inconsistent with the palaeo-reconstructions. The effects of observation locations on the comparison between observed and simulated SST suggest that more sediment cores may be required to draw reliable conclusions about the improvements introduced by the high resolution model for reproducing the global SSTs. One has to be careful with the interpretation of the deep ocean state which has not reached statistical equilibrium in our simulations. However, the results indicate that the meridional overturning circulations are different between the two regimes, suggesting that the model parametrizations might also play a key role for simulating past climate states.

  • 3.
    Berger, Marit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    The sensitivity of the Arctic sea ice to orbitally induced insolation changes: a study of the mid-Holocene Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 2 and 3 simulations2013In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 969-982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work the Arctic sea ice in the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial climates are analysed and compared on the basis of climate-model results from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 2 (PMIP2) and phase 3 (PMIP3). The PMIP3 models generally simulate smaller and thinner sea-ice extents than the PMIP2 models both for the pre-industrial and the mid-Holocene climate. Further, the PMIP2 and PMIP3 models all simulate a smaller and thinner Arctic summer sea-ice cover in the mid-Holocene than in the pre-industrial control climate. The PMIP3 models also simulate thinner winter sea ice than the PMIP2 models. The winter sea-ice extent response, i.e. the difference between the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial climate, varies among both PMIP2 and PMIP3 models. Approximately one half of the models simulate a decrease in winter sea-ice extent and one half simulates an increase. The model-mean summer sea-ice extent is 11% (21 %) smaller in the mid-Holocene than in the pre-industrial climate simulations in the PMIP2 (PMIP3). In accordance with the simple model of Thorndike (1992), the sea-ice thickness response to the insolation change from the pre-industrial to the mid-Holocene is stronger in models with thicker ice in the pre-industrial climate simulation. Further, the analyses show that climate models for which the Arctic sea-ice responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are similar may simulate rather different sea-ice responses to the change in solar forcing between the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial. For two specific models, which are analysed in detail, this difference is found to be associated with differences in the simulated cloud fractions in the summer Arctic; in the model with a larger cloud fraction the effect of insolation change is muted. A sub-set of the mid-Holocene simulations in the PMIP ensemble exhibit open water off the north-eastern coast of Greenland in summer, which can provide a fetch for surface waves. This is in broad agreement with recent analyses of sea-ice proxies, indicating that beach-ridges formed on the north-eastern coast of Greenland during the early-to mid-Holocene.

  • 4.
    Berger, Marit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Struthers, Hamish
    Stockholm University.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Ekman, Annica
    Stockholm University.
    Wei, Liang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Pristine aerosol concentrations, cloud droplet size and early Holocene climateManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates how the simulated early Holocene climate is influenced by the representation of aerosols and their effect on the climate. The representations of the direct and first indirect aerosol effects in the Community Earth System Model, version1 (CESM1) are modified in two sensitivity experiments.

    In the first sensitivity experiment (CESM 9k R14), the first indirect effect on the simulated climate is modified by setting the cloud droplet effective radius, (Reff ) in the model to a constant value. This value is chosen to be representative for pristine conditions. In the second sensitivity experiment (CESM 9k CAMO), the representation of both the direct and first indirect effects is modified. An atmosphere-only model with interactive aerosols is used to simulate the early Holocene aerosol loading and the change in Reff due to the decrease in atmospheric aerosols.

    The changes in aerosol effects introduced in the two sensitivity experiments differ both in magnitude and spatial pattern. We find that despite the difference in the spatial pattern of the changes in the aerosol effects, the warming patterns in the two sensitivity experiments are similar; the surface temperature increases in both simulations, with an enhanced warming in the Arctic region. The warming is approximately twice as large in the CESM 9k R14 simulation than in the CESM 9k CAMO simulation.

  • 5. Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    Kordas, Olga
    SWOT-analys av hur artificiell intelligens och maskininlärning påverkar Viable Cities: April 2018 – Viable Cities info 2018:12018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta dokument har tagits fram som underlag till Vinnovas uppdrag från regeringen att genomföra en kartläggning och analys av hur väl artificiell intelligens och maskininlärning kommer till användning i svensk industri och i det svenska samhället.

  • 6. Bonde, Ingrid
    et al.
    Karin, Bäckstrand
    Katarina, Eckerberg
    Johan, Kyulenstierna
    Thomas, Kåberger
    Eva, Löfgren
    Markku, Rummukainen
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Det klimatpolitiska ramverket 20182018Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Brandao, Miguel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. IEA Bioenergy Task 38, Int Energy Agcy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.
    Landcare Res, Palmerston North, New Zealand..
    Cowie, Annette L.
    IEA Bioenergy Task 38, Int Energy Agcy, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ New England, NSW Dept Primary Ind, Armidale, NSW, Australia..
    Hjuler, Susanne Vedel
    Slangerup, Slangerup, Denmark.;COWI AS, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Quantifying the climate change effects of bioenergy systems: Comparison of 15 impact assessment methods2019In: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 727-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing concern over climate change has led to interest in replacing fossil energy with bioenergy. There are different approaches to quantitatively estimate the climate change effects of bioenergy systems. In the present work, we have focused on a range of published impact assessment methods that vary due to conceptual differences in the treatment of biogenic carbon fluxes, the type of climate change impacts they address and differences in time horizon and time preference. Specifically, this paper reviews fifteen different methods and applies these to three hypothetical bioenergy case studies: (a) woody biomass grown on previously forested land; (b) woody biomass grown on previous pasture land; and (b) annual energy crop grown on previously cropped land. Our analysis shows that the choice of method can have an important influence on the quantification of climate change effects of bioenergy, particularly when a mature forest is converted to bioenergy use as it involves a substantial reduction in biomass carbon stocks. Results are more uniform in other case studies. In general, results are more sensitive to specific impact assessment methods when they involve both emissions and removals at different points in time, such as for forest bioenergy, but have a much smaller influence on agricultural bioenergy systems grown on land previously used for pasture or annual cropping. The development of effective policies for climate change mitigation through renewable energy use requires consistent and accurate approaches to identification of bioenergy systems that can result in climate change mitigation. The use of different methods for the same purpose: estimating the climate change effects of bioenergy systems, can lead to confusing and contradictory conclusions. A full interpretation of the results generated with different methods must be based on an understanding that the different methods focus on different aspects of climate change and represent different time preferences.

  • 8. Castree, Noel
    et al.
    Robin, Elizabeth
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, United States .
    Wynne, Brian
    et al.,
    Changing the intellectual climate2014In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 4, no 9, p. 763-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calls for more broad-based, integrated, useful knowledge now abound in the world of global environmental change science. They evidence many scientists' desire to help humanity confront the momentous biophysical implications of its own actions. But they also reveal a limited conception of social science and virtually ignore the humanities. They thereby endorse a stunted conception of 'human dimensions' at a time when the challenges posed by global environmental change are increasing in magnitude, scale and scope. Here, we make the case for a richer conception predicated on broader intellectual engagement and identify some preconditions for its practical fulfilment. Interdisciplinary dialogue, we suggest, should engender plural representations of Earth's present and future that are reflective of divergent human values and aspirations. In turn, this might insure publics and decision-makers against overly narrow conceptions of what is possible and desirable as they consider the profound questions raised by global environmental change.

  • 9.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Adapting cities to climate change: goal conflicts and methods of conflict resolution2009In: Fifth Urban Research Symposium 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making concerning adaptation to climate change ofteninvolves choosing between different options, each of which can have importantimplications for the achievability of other goals and policies. In this article,adaptation measures and goal conflicts are investigated using the City ofStockholm as an empirical basis. The investigation shows that goal conflicts inadaptation are common phenomena. This points to the need for assessing andpredicting the environmental, social and economic impacts of adaptation measures,strategies and policies at an early stage in the decision-making process. To ensurethe coherence with other policy goals, there is a need for tools to assess and predictoutcomes, but also to balance those outcomes in situations where they are noteasily reunited.

  • 10.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Goal Conflicts in Adaptation to Climate Change. An inventory of goal conflicts tn the Swedish sectors of the built environment, tourism and outdoor recreation, and human health2009Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Englund, Oskar
    et al.
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ometto, Jean P.
    Valle, Pedro C. E. O.
    Costa, Ciniro
    Lapola, Jean
    A new high-resolution nationwide aboveground carbon map for Brazil2017In: Geo: Geography and Environment, ISSN 2352-3808, E-ISSN 1749-8198, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e00045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brazil is home to the largest tracts of tropical vegetation in the world, harbouring high levels of biodiversity and carbon. Several biomass maps have been produced for Brazil, using different approaches and methods, and for different purposes. These maps have been used to estimate historic, recent, and future carbon emissions from land use change (LUC). It can be difficult to determine which map to use for what purpose. The implications of using an unsuitable map can be significant, since the maps have large differences, both in terms of total carbon storage and its spatial distribution. This paper presents comparisons of Brazil's new ‘official’ carbon map; that is, the map used in the third national communication to the UNFCCC in 2016, with the former official map, and four carbon maps from the scientific literature. General strengths and weaknesses of the different maps are identified, including their suitability for different types of studies. No carbon map was found suitable for studies concerned with existing land use/cover (LULC) and LUC outside of existing forests, partly because they do not represent the current LULC sufficiently well, and partly because they generally overestimate carbon values for agricultural land. A new map of aboveground carbon is presented, which was created based on data from existing maps and an up-to-date LULC map. This new map reflects current LULC, has high accuracy and resolution (50 m), and a national coverage. It can be a useful alternative for scientific studies and policy initiatives concerned with existing LULC and LUC outside of existing forests, especially at local scales when high resolution is necessary, and/or outside the Amazon biome. We identify five ongoing climate policy initiatives in Brazil that can benefit from using this map.

  • 12.
    Fahlberg, Kristin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Kommuner och klimatåtgärder: En litteraturstudie av det aktuella kunskapsläget om klimatåtgärdernas potential och kostnadseffektivitet2011Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Faulwasser, T.
    et al.
    Germany.
    Nydestedt, Robin
    KTH.
    Kellett, C. M.
    Australia.
    Weller, S. R.
    Australia.
    Towards a FAIR-DICE IAM: Combining DICE and FAIR Models ⁎2018In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, ISSN 2405-8963, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 126-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of the Social Cost of Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) is one of the essential purposes of Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) used in the economics of climate change. One of the most widely used IAMs in this context is DICE. However, the DICE geophysical subsystem fails to account for feedback from the climate subsystem to the carbon subsystem, an effect recently observed in climate physics. This paper investigates how to combine the recently proposed FAIR climate model with the socioeconomic subsystem of DICE. Based on an analysis of its differential-algebraic structure, we propose an efficient discretization of FAIR that provides a new discrete-time hybrid of DICE and FAIR denoted as FAIR-DICE. Finally, we compare estimates of the SC-CO2 obtained with DICE2013 with those obtained via FAIR-DICE.

  • 14.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ovetenskapligt förneka klimatförändringar.2018In: Dagens NyheterArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Guidotti, Vinicius
    d Institute of Agricultural and Forest Management and Certification – Imaflora.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Who owns the Brazilian carbon?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Hiromiti Matsumoto, Marcelo
    A ADICIONALIDADE DO MECANISMO DE COMPENSAÇÃO DE RESERVA LEGAL DA LEI NO 12.651/2012: UMA ANÁLISE DA OFERTA E DEMANDA DE COTAS DE RESERVA AMBIENTAL2016In: Mudanças no código florestal brasileiro: desafios para a implementação da nova lei / [ed] Ana Paula Moreira da Silva, Henrique Rodrigues Marques and Regina Helena Rosa Sambuichi, Rio de Janeiro: IPEA , 2016, p. 359-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Fuso-Nerini, Francesco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Slob, Adriaan
    TNO Strateg Anal & Policy, NL-2509 The Hague, Netherlands..
    Engström, Rebecka Ericsdotter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Trutnevyte, Evelina
    Univ Geneva, Sect Earth & Environm Sci, Renewable Energy Syst Grp, Inst Environm Sci, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    A Research and Innovation Agenda for Zero-Emission European Cities2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement and SDG13 on Climate Action require a global drop in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions to stay within a "well below 2 degrees" climate change trajectory. Cities will play a key role in achieving this, being responsible for 60 to 80% of the global GHG emissions depending on the estimate. This paper describes how Research and Innovation (R&I) can play a key role in decarbonizing European cities, and the role that research and education institutions can play in that regard. The paper highlights critical R&I actions in cities based on three pillars: (1) innovative technology and integration, (2) governance innovation, and (3) social innovation. Further, the research needed to harmonize climate mitigation and adaptation in cities are investigated.

  • 18.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning. Univ Gavle, Fac Engn & Sustainable Dev, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning. Univ Gavle, Fac Engn & Sustainable Dev, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Sjoberg, Lars E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning. Univ Gavle, Fac Engn & Sustainable Dev, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Tenzer, Robert
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Dept Land Surveying & Geoinformat, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Studying permafrost by integrating satellite and in situ data in the northern high-latitude regions2019In: Acta Geophysica, ISSN 1895-6572, E-ISSN 1895-7455, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 721-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an exceptional opportunity of achieving simultaneous and complementary data from a multitude of geoscience and environmental near-earth orbiting artificial satellites to study phenomena related to the climate change. These satellite missions provide the information about the various phenomena, such as sea level change, ice melting, soil moisture variation, temperature changes and earth surface deformations. In this study, we focus on permafrost thawing and its associated gravity change (in terms of the groundwater storage), and organic material changes using the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) data and other satellite- and ground-based observations. The estimation of permafrost changes requires combining information from various sources, particularly using the gravity field change, surface temperature change, and glacial isostatic adjustment. The most significant factor for a careful monitoring of the permafrost thawing is the fact that this process could be responsible for releasing an additional enormous amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere, most importantly to mention carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane that are currently stored in the frozen ground. The results of a preliminary numerical analysis reveal a possible existence of a high correlation between the secular trends of greenhouse gases (CO2), temperature and equivalent water thickness (in permafrost active layer) in the selected regions. Furthermore, according to our estimates based on processing the GRACE data, the groundwater storage attributed due to permafrost thawing increased at the annual rates of 3.4, 3.8, 4.4 and 4.0cm, respectively, in Siberia, North Alaska and Canada (Yukon and Hudson Bay). Despite a rather preliminary character of our results, these findings indicate that the methodology developed and applied in this study should be further improved by incorporating the in situ permafrost measurements.

  • 19.
    Haas, Tigran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Sustainable Urbanism and Beyond: Rethinking Cities for the Future2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Physics.
    Karlberg, Louise
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Physics.
    Theory and practice of coupled heat and mass transfer model for soil-plant-atmosphere system2009Book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in Nepal2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to modern energy services derived from renewable sources is a prerequisite, not only for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development, but also for energy security and climate change mitigation. The least developed countries (LDCs) primarily use traditional biomass and have little access to commercial energy sources. They are more vulnerable to problems relating to energy security, air pollution, and the need for hard-cash currency to import fossil fuels. This thesis evaluates sugarcane-molasses bioethanol, a renewable energy source with the potential to be used as a transport fuel in Nepal.

    Sustainability aspects of molasses-based ethanol have been analyzed. Two important indicators for sustainability, viz. net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances have been used to assess the appropriateness of bioethanol in the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. This thesis has found that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce it. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and combustion are also lower than those of gasoline. The impacts of important physical and market parameters, such as sugar cane productivity, the use of fertilizers, energy consumption in different processes, and price have been observed in evaluating the sustainability aspects of bioethanol production.

    The production potential of bioethanol has been assessed. Concerns relating to the fuel vs. food debate, energy security, and air pollution have also been discussed. The thesis concludes that the major sustainability indicators for molasses ethanol in Nepal are in line with the goals of sustainable development. Thus, Nepal could be a good example for other LDCs when favorable governmental policy, institutional set-ups, and developmental cooperation from donor partners are in place to strengthen the development of renewable energy technologies.

  • 22. Larsson, Allan
    et al.
    Kordas, Olga
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Anneroth, Mikael
    Rapport från möten i EU-kommissionen och Europaparlamentet: 9-10 April 2018 Info 2018:22018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta dokument är en reserapport från besök i EU-kommissionen och Europaparlamentet av en delegation från programkontor och programstyrelse i Viable Cities.

  • 23.
    Lidström, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Position paper: JPI Climate Future Research Leaders Forum2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24. Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Weather variability and travel behaviour - what we know and what we do not know2017In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 715-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that severe weather conditions are becoming more frequent, it is important to understand the influence of weather on an individual's daily activity-travel pattern. While some previously rare events are becoming more common, such as heavy rain, unpredicted snow, higher temperatures, it is still largely unknown how individuals will change and adapt their travel patterns in future climate conditions. Because of this concern, the number of research studies on weather and travel behaviour has increased in recent decades. Most of these empirical studies, however, have not used a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework, which serves as the the main tool for policy evaluation and project selection by stakeholders. This study summarises the existing findings regarding relationships between weather variability and travel behaviour, and critically assesses the methodological issues in these studies. Several further research directions are suggested to bridge the gap between empirical evidence and current practices in CBA.

  • 25.
    Liu, Xiaoxuan
    et al.
    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Earth Syst Sci, Key Lab Earth Syst Modeling, Minist Educ, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Joint Ctr Global Change Studies, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yu, Le
    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Earth Syst Sci, Key Lab Earth Syst Modeling, Minist Educ, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Joint Ctr Global Change Studies, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Si, Yali
    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Earth Syst Sci, Key Lab Earth Syst Modeling, Minist Educ, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Joint Ctr Global Change Studies, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Chi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Lu, Hui
    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Earth Syst Sci, Key Lab Earth Syst Modeling, Minist Educ, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Joint Ctr Global Change Studies, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yu, Chaoqing
    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Earth Syst Sci, Key Lab Earth Syst Modeling, Minist Educ, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Joint Ctr Global Change Studies, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Gong, Peng
    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Earth Syst Sci, Key Lab Earth Syst Modeling, Minist Educ, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Joint Ctr Global Change Studies, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Identifying patterns and hotspots of global land cover transitions using the ESA CCI Land Cover dataset2018In: Remote Sensing Letters, ISSN 2150-704X, E-ISSN 2150-7058, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 972-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use/land cover change is a continuing research focus, not only because of its ecological and environmental effects but also because of the difficulties with accurate change detection and analysis uncertainty. The principal difficulty is the lack of a long time series of annual global land cover maps at a fine resolution. A new global long-term time series of annual datasets called the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI-LC) has been published, making it possible to detect the global land cover changes. Using this ESA CCI-LC product from 1992-2015, we quantified the annual transitions of land cover change globally with the trajectory analysis method, analyzed the changes patterns and identified the land cover change hotspots. The total land cover change area for the world was 5.99 million km(2), amounting to only 3.36% of the total continental area. Most changes happened in forest and cropland, accounting 32% of all the land cover changes. Most land cover changes happened in tropical ecoregions. Grassland changes were mainly distributed in the temperate ecoregions, while cropland expansion occurred mainly in the tropical or subtropical ecoregions. The hotspots identified in this paper could provide target areas for further research.

  • 26. Moon, W.
    et al.
    Wettlaufer, John S.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Yale University, United States.
    A stochastic dynamical model of arctic sea ice2017In: Journal of Climate, ISSN 0894-8755, E-ISSN 1520-0442, Vol. 30, no 13, p. 5119-5140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The noise forcing underlying the variability in the Arctic ice cover has a wide range of principally unknown origins. For this reason, the analytical and numerical solutions of a stochastic Arctic sea ice model are analyzed with both additive and multiplicative noise over a wide range of external heat fluxes ΔF0, corresponding to greenhouse gas forcing. The stochastic variability fundamentally influences the nature of the deterministic steady-state solutions corresponding to perennial and seasonal ice and ice-free states. Thus, the results are particularly relevant for the interpretation of the state of the system as the ice cover thins with ΔF0, allowing a thorough examination of the differing effects of additive versus multiplicative noise. In the perennial ice regime, the principal stochastic moments are calculated and compared to those determined from a stochastic perturbation theory described previously. As ΔF0 increases, the competing contributions to the variability of the destabilizing sea ice-albedo feedback and the stabilizing longwave radiative loss are examined in detail. At the end of summer the variability of the stochastic paths shows a clear maximum, which is due to the combination of the increasing influence of the albedo feedback and an associated "memory effect," in which fluctuations accumulate from early spring to late summer. This is counterbalanced by the stabilization of the ice cover resulting from the longwave loss of energy from the ice surface, which is enhanced during winter, thereby focusing the stochastic paths and decreasing the variability. Finally, common examples in stochastic dynamics with multiplicative noise are discussed wherein the choice of the stochastic calculus (Itô or Stratonovich) is not necessarily determinable a priori from observations alone, which is why both calculi are treated on equal footing herein.

  • 27. Moon, W.
    et al.
    Wettlaufer, John S.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    A unified nonlinear stochastic time series analysis for climate science2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 44228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth's orbit and axial tilt imprint a strong seasonal cycle on climatological data. Climate variability is typically viewed in terms of fluctuations in the seasonal cycle induced by higher frequency processes. We can interpret this as a competition between the orbitally enforced monthly stability and the fluctuations/noise induced by weather. Here we introduce a new time-series method that determines these contributions from monthly-averaged data. We find that the spatio-temporal distribution of the monthly stability and the magnitude of the noise reveal key fingerprints of several important climate phenomena, including the evolution of the Arctic sea ice cover, the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic Nio and the Indian Dipole Mode. In analogy with the classical destabilising influence of the ice-albedo feedback on summertime sea ice, we find that during some time interval of the season a destabilising process operates in all of these climate phenomena. The interaction between the destabilisation and the accumulation of noise, which we term the memory effect, underlies phase locking to the seasonal cycle and the statistical nature of seasonal predictability.

  • 28.
    Nerini, Francesco Fuso
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. Colorado Sch Mines, Payne Inst, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Sovacool, Benjamin
    Univ Sussex, Sch Business Management & Econ, Sci Policy Res Unit, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Hughes, Nick
    UCL, Inst Sustainable Resources, London, England..
    Cozzi, Laura
    Int Energy Agcy, World Energy Outlook Team, Paris, France..
    Cosgrave, Ellie
    UCL, Dept Sci Technol Engn & Publ Policy, London, England..
    Howells, Mark I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Tavoni, Massimo
    Politecn Milan, Dept Management Econ & Ind Engn, Milan, Italy.;Ctr Euromediterraneo Cambiamenti Climat, RFF CMCC European Inst Econ & Environm, Milan, Italy..
    Tomei, Julia
    UCL, Inst Sustainable Resources, London, England..
    Zerriffi, Hisham
    Colorado Sch Mines, Payne Inst, Golden, CO 80401 USA.;Univ British Columbia, Forest Sci Ctr, Dept Forest Resources Management, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Milligan, Ben
    Univ New South Wales, Fac Law, Kingsford, NSW, Australia..
    Connecting climate action with other Sustainable Development Goals2019In: Nature Sustainability, ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 2, no 8, p. 674-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The international community has committed to combat climate change and achieve 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Here we explore (dis)connections in evidence and governance between these commitments. Our structured evidence review suggests that climate change can undermine 16 SDGs, while combatting climate change can reinforce all 17 SDGs but undermine efforts to achieve 12. Understanding these relationships requires wider and deeper interdisciplinary collaboration. Climate change and sustainable development governance should be better connected to maximize the effectiveness of action in both domains. The emergence around the world of new coordinating institutions and sustainable development planning represents promising progress.

  • 29. Nordeng, Torill
    Polarforskning: Jordkloden på vippepunktet2010In: Aftenposten, ISSN 0804-3116, no 2010-06-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30. Oni, S. K.
    et al.
    Mieres Dinamarca, Francisco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Futter, M. N.
    Laudon, H.
    Soil temperature responses to climate change along a gradient of upland–riparian transect in boreal forest2017In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 143, no 1-2, p. 27-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing evidence of climate change impacts on northern ecosystems. While most climate change studies base their assessments on air temperature, spatial variation of soil temperature responses have not been fully examined as a metric of climate change. Here we examined spatial variations of soil temperature responses to an ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) projections at multiple depths in upland and riparian zones in the Swedish boreal forest. Modeling showed a stronger influence of air temperature on riparian soil temperature than was simulated for upland soils. The RCM ensemble projected a warming range of 4.7–6.0 °C in riparian and 4.3–5.7 °C in upland soils. However, soils were slightly colder in the riparian zone during winter. While the historical record showed that upland soils are about 0.4 °C warmer than the riparian soils, this may be reversed in the future as model projections showed that on an annual basis, riparian soils might be slightly warmer by 0.2 to 0.4 °C than upland soils. However, upland soils could warm up earlier (April) compared to riparian soils (May).

  • 31.
    Otosaka, Inès
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    A Historic Record of Sea Ice Extents from Scatterometer Data2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sea ice is a vital component of the cryosphere and does not only influence the polar regions but has a more global influence. Indeed, sea ice plays a major role in the regulation of the global climate system as the sea ice cover reflects the sun radiation back to the atmosphere keeping the polar regions cool. The shrinkage of the sea ice cover entails the warming up of the oceans and as a consequence, a further amplification of the melting of sea ice. Therefore, the polar regions are sensitive to climate change and monitoring the sea ice cover is very important.

    To assess sea ice change in the polar regions, satellite active microwave sensors, scatterometers, are used to observe the evolution of sea ice extent and sea ice types. Thus, this research aims at creating a historic record of daily global Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents and analysing the change in sea ice types with scatterometer data.

    A Bayesian sea ice detection algorithm, developed for the Advanced scatterometer (ASCAT), is applied and tuned to the configurations of the scatterometers on board the European Remote Sensing satellites, ERS\textendash 1 and ERS\textendash 2. The sea ice geophysical model functions (GMFs) of ERS and ASCAT are studied together to validate the use of ASCAT sea ice GMF extrapolated to the lower incidence angles of ERS. The main adaptations from the initial algorithm aim at compensating for the lower observation densities afforded by ERS with a refined spatial filter and time\textendash variable detection thresholds. To further analyse the backscatter response from sea ice and derive information on the different sea ice types, a new model of sea ice backscattering at C\textendash band is proposed in this study. This model has been derived using ERS and ASCAT backscatter data and describes the variation of sea ice backscatter with incidence angle as a function of sea ice type.

    The improvement of the sea ice detection algorithm for ERS\textendash 1 and ERS\textendash 2, operating between 1992 and 2001, leads to the extension of the existing records of daily global sea ice extents from the Quick scatterometer (QuikSCAT) which operated from 1999 to 2009 and ASCAT operating from 2007 onwards. The sea ice extents from ERS, QuikSCAT and ASCAT show excellent agreement during the overlapping periods, attesting to the consistency and homogeneity of the long\textendash term scatterometer sea ice record. The new climate record is compared against passive microwave derived sea ice extents, revealing consistent differences between spring and summer which are attributed to the lower sensitivity of the passive microwave technique to melting sea ice. The climate record shows that the minimum Arctic summer sea ice extent has been declining, reaching the lowest record of sea ice extent in 2012.

    The new model for sea ice backscatter is used on ERS and ASCAT backscatter data and provides a more precise normalization of sea ice backscatter than was previously available. An application of this model in sea ice change analysis is performed by classifying sea ice types based on their normalized backscatter values. This analysis reveals that the extent of multi\textendash year Arctic sea ice has been declining remarkably over the period covered by scatterometer observations.

  • 32.
    Pechsiri, Joseph Santhi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sattari, Amir
    Division of Indoor Environment, Department of Technology and Built Environment, KTH Research School, University of Gävle .
    Martinez, Paulina Garza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Xuan, Liu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    A Review of the Climate-Change-Impacts’ Rates of Change in the Arctic2010In: Journal of Environmental Protection, ISSN 2152-2197, E-ISSN 2152-2219, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate Change is a global phenomenon that has a global scale impact. The current trend of climate change towards the warming of the globe has resulted in various changes in the geological, climatology, social, economical, and bio- logical processes worldwide. Temperature of the globe has increased due to various factors, but anthropogenic plays a major contribution through the heavy input of Greenhouse gases. One of the world’s most remote regions that have been affected by most of the anthropogenic stresses on environmental services is the Arctic Region. The Arctic Region has shown various drastic changes and has shown to be effected by various anthropogenic activities that take place elsewhere. These changes include the ozone hole (resulting from ozone degrading compound emitted heavily by an- thropogenic demands), the accumulation of various persistent and volatile pollutants (i.e. POPs), and the meltdown of the polar ice (among others). These drastic changes are well perceived and well projected for future preparations. However, the question still remains if these impacts would only accelerate change. This paper aims to discuss if these changes are accelerating or happening at a constant rate. In addition, this paper aims to only focus on changes due to global warming and climate changes phenomenon. 

  • 33. Rasmus, Sirpa
    et al.
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lundell, Robin
    Saarinen, Timo
    Observations and snow model simulations of winter energy balance terms within and between different coniferous forests in southern boreal Finland2016In: Hydrology Research, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 201-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation of canopy properties between different forest types is seldom taken into account in hydrological and climate models, and consideration of variation inside a forest is normally omitted. In this work, three data sets on near surface energy balance terms (incoming shortwave and longwave radiation; air and snow-soil interface temperatures) were collected in the southern boreal coniferous zone in Finland during three winters below different types of forest canopies. The aim was to evaluate the ability of a snow mass and energy balance model with a canopy module to reproduce the observed differences in below-canopy incoming radiations and snow-soil interface temperature. Clear differences were seen between pine and spruce forest sites (higher snow-soil interface temperatures and incoming shortwave fluxes, and lower incoming longwave fluxes at the pine site). Differences were also observed between the sparse and dense pine canopy locations. Canopy parameter values had a great effect on the quality of the model simulations. The combination of optically obtained leaf area index (LAI) values with a needle clumping correction and either optical or empirical sky view fraction (SVF) values as a canopy parameterization gave better correspondence to observations than the use of uncorrected effective LAI and any SVF.

  • 34.
    Risén, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sustainable production of biogas from maritime biomass2010Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Robin, Libby
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    The Global Challenge of Climate Change: Reflections from Australian and Nordic Museums2011In: reCollections, ISSN 1833-4946, Vol. 6, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Robin, Libby
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sörlin, SverkerKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.Warde, Paul
    The Future of Nature: Documents of Global Change2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This anthology provides an historical overview of the scientific ideas behind environmental prediction and how, as predictions about environmental change have been taken more seriously and widely, they have affected politics, policy, and public perception. Through an array of texts and commentaries that examine the themes of progress, population, environment, biodiversity and sustainability from a global perspective, it explores the meaning of the future in the twenty-first century. Providing access and reference points to the origins and development of key disciplines and methods, it will encourage policy makers, professionals, and students to reflect on the roots of their own theories and practices.

  • 37.
    Ruiz-Alejos, Carlos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Sustainability Assessment of Scenarios: Beyond GDP growth2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of futures scenarios is a tool to addresschallenges towards sustainability in planning and thebuilt environment. Scenarios in the project BeyondGDP growth explore futures where priority is givento social and environmental aspects and economicgrowth is regarded as uncertain. When futures areused as an input to planning, there has to be anawareness of the possible consequences of those.Sustainability assessment for futures scenarios aimsto give a comprehensive assessment of how differentscenarios can affect relevant aspects.

    This thesis gives an overview of current methods forsustainability assessment of futures scenarios. It alsoproposes improvements to one of them and tests iton the Beyond GDP growth scenarios. SAFS (SustainabilityAssessment Framework for Scenarios) isthe method selected. SAFS considers environmentaland social aspects providing qualitative results anduses consumption perspective and life cycle approach.

    Improvements to SAFS are proposed in two directions.First, the Doughnut developed by Raworth(2012) is integrated in the method. It gives a graphicrepresentation, putting each aspect in context withthe others and facilitate the communication of theassessment results. Second, an alternative approachis suggested to evaluate the consequences of environmentaldeprivation on social conditions. Thisalternative approach can also help communicateuncertainties.

  • 38.
    Schenk, Frederik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Svante Arrhenius Vag 8, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Svante Arrhenius Vag 8, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Valiranta, Minna
    Univ Helsinki, Ecosyst & Environm Res Programme, Fac Biol & Environm Sci, ECRU, POB 65, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Helsinki Inst Sustainabil Sci HELSUS, POB 65, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Muschitiello, Francesco
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Svante Arrhenius Vag 8, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Svante Arrhenius Vag 8, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Geog, Cambridge CB2 3EN, England.;Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, 61 Route 9 W, New York, NY 10964 USA..
    Tarasov, Lev
    Mem Univ Newfoundland, Dept Phys & Phys Oceanog, St John, NF A1B 3X7, Canada..
    Heikkila, Maija
    Univ Helsinki, Ecosyst & Environm Res Programme, Fac Biol & Environm Sci, ECRU, POB 65, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Helsinki Inst Sustainabil Sci HELSUS, POB 65, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Björck, Svante
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Svante Arrhenius Vag 8, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Svante Arrhenius Vag 8, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Quaternary Sci, Box 117, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    Swedish Nucl Fuel & Waste Management Co SKB, Box 250, SE-10124 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Näslund, Jens-Ove
    Swedish Nucl Fuel & Waste Management Co SKB, Box 250, SE-10124 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog & Quaternary Geol, Svante Arrhenius Vag 8, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Svante Arrhenius Vag 8, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Svante Arrhenius Vag 8, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Warm summers during the Younger Dryas cold reversal2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 1634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Younger Dryas (YD) cold reversal interrupts the warming climate of the deglaciation with global climatic impacts. The sudden cooling is typically linked to an abrupt slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in response to meltwater discharges from ice sheets. However, inconsistencies regarding the YD-response of European summer temperatures have cast doubt whether the concept provides a sufficient explanation. Here we present results from a high-resolution global climate simulation together with a new July temperature compilation based on plant indicator species and show that European summers remain warm during the YD. Our climate simulation provides robust physical evidence that atmospheric blocking of cold westerly winds over Fennoscandia is a key mechanism counteracting the cooling impact of an AMOC-slowdown during summer. Despite the persistence of short warm summers, the YD is dominated by a shift to a continental climate with extreme winter to spring cooling and short growing seasons.

  • 39.
    Singh, Jagdeep
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Towards a Sustainable Resource Management: A Broader Systems Approach to Product Design and Waste Management2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid economic growth, urbanisation and increasing population have caused (materially intensive) resource consumption to increase, and consequently the release of large amounts of waste to the environment. Numerous technological and operational approaches to resource management have been introduced throughout the system of production, consumption and waste management. This thesis concludes that the current, rather isolated, efforts to influence different systems for waste management, waste reduction and resource management are indeed not sufficient from a long-term sustainability perspective. To manage resources and waste sustainably, resource management requires a more systems-oriented approach, which addresses the root causes of the problems.

    This thesis identifies and discusses different sustainability challenges facing the global waste management system. To address these challenges a broader systems approach to waste management is proposed. The thesis argues that there is a need to recognise the multitudes of perspectives, cross-scale dynamics and actors’ interactions at various levels. The barriers and limitations to a systems-oriented management of waste generation including design, production, consumption and waste management are discussed. The study utilises soft systems methodology (by Checkland (2000)) within which different concepts and methods are utilised to present a worldwide view on resource dynamics and develop a research heuristic for sustainable resource management. The study emphasises the need for a shared vision among various actors across the chain of production and consumption. To assist better planning, the need for improved databases on resource use and wastes is emphasised.

  • 40.
    Singh, Jagdeep
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    From waste disposal to a global resource management paradigm: a conceptual discussionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 41. Sjors, Camilla
    et al.
    Raposo, Sara E.
    Sjolander, Arvid
    Bälter, Olle
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Stanford University, USA.
    Hedenus, Fredrik
    Balter, Katarina
    Diet-related greenhouse gas emissions assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and validated using 7-day weighed food records2016In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 15, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The current food system generates about 25 % of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), including deforestation, and thereby substantially contributes to the warming of the earth's surface. To understand the association between food and nutrient intake and GHGE, we therefore need valid methods to assess diet-related GHGE in observational studies. Methods: Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies assess the environmental impact of different food items. We linked LCA data expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO(2)e) per kg food product to data on food intake assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) Meal-Q and validated it against a 7-day weighed food record (WFR). 166 male and female volunteers aged 20-63 years completed Meal-Q and the WFR, and their food intake was linked to LCA data. Results: The mean GHGE assessed with Meal-Q was 3.76 kg CO(2)e per day and person, whereas it was 5.04 kg CO(2)e using the WFR. The energy-adjusted and deattenuated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.70, respectively. Moreover, compared to the WFR, Meal-Q provided a good ranking ability, with 90 % of the participants classified into the same or adjacent quartile according to their daily average CO(2)e. The Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable level of agreement between the two methods and the reproducibility of Meal-Q was high. Conclusions: This is the first study validating the assessment of diet-related GHGE by a questionnaire. The results suggest that Meal-Q is a useful tool for studying the link between food habits and CO(2)e in future epidemiological studies.

  • 42. Stigson, Peter
    et al.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Negotiated Agreements as a vehicle for Policy Learning2010In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GLOBAL WARMING, ISSN 1758-2083, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 97-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper evaluates to which extent that different designs of Voluntary Agreements (VAs) can work as catalysts for Policy Learning (PL) and thus contribute to improved policy design and management processes. Through a literature study, it is found that VAs in the form of Negotiated Agreements (NAs) are more successful in promoting PL than other types of VAs that have less focus on the participatory aspect of the policy processes. The paper contributes to the existing VA policy literature through highlighting the predominately overseen learning values of implementing NA as well as providing policy recommendations on VA learning processes.

  • 43.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Angelägen naturvetenskap: Al Gore börjar med det viktigaste2007In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2007-10-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Befriande klarpsråk om klimatet: review of Naomi Klein, This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. Climate2014In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Dags för världen att gå från kunskap till handling2009In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2009-11-30, p. 7-8Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    De intellektuella i klimatpolitiken2013In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, Vol. 5/4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Det blåser upp till klimatrevolution2007In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2007-11-02Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Därför bör vi tro på klimatförändringen2009In: Osäkrat klimat - laddad utmaning / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Formas , 2009, p. 163-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Framtiden som affärsidé2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Gör USA koldioxidfritt2008In: Fokus, ISSN 1653-4670, no 45, p. 46-48Article in journal (Other academic)
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