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  • 1.
    Adodoadji-Dogbe, Catherine Doe
    et al.
    SOAS, University of London, UK.
    Urban, Frauke
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability, Industrial Dynamics & Entrepreneurship.
    Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in coastal fishing communities2023In: Handbook on Climate Change and Technology, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. , 2023, p. 373-388Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Almulla, Youssef
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems.
    Energy-Water and Agriculture Nexus to Support the Sustainable Management of Shared Water Resources2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout history, major rivers and shared water bodies have allowed civilizations to flourish, and the effective management of shared water bodies has always been a priority for societies and nations. Today, about 40% of the world’s population lives in proximity to the 286 transboundary river and lake basins that supply 60% of the world’s freshwater flows and make up about half of the Earth’s land area. Moreover, around 2 billion people in the world depend on groundwater sources, which include over 460 transboundary aquifer systems.

    The mismanagement of water resources can result in catastrophic disasters that are often exacerbated by a domino effect so that the impacts of poor water management often extend beyond the water system. The interdependency of the water system with other systems such as energy and food, or with land-use, highlights the importance of ”systems thinking and planning” in resource management. Such a concept is not easily encapsulated into policy-making processes in many parts of the world because consideration of the resource systems in isolation as individual entities and ‘silo” thinking still dominate. Climate change adds another layer of complexity and exacerbates the issue of water management. Another important factor is geographical location because precipitation varies among and within continents. This results in some regions suffering from water shortages and some regions facing the risks of water redundancy and floods. 

    The concept of the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) nexus was introduced in 2011 as a response to help address some of the issues mentioned above. Over the last decade, research on the WEF nexus has gained momentum in both the policy and academic areas and several methods have been introduced to operationalize the nexus in different contexts. One of the flagship methodologies is the Transboundary Basins Nexus Approach (TBNA) introduced by the United Nations Economic Commission of Europe (UNECE) in 2015 and designed to assess the nexus in shared (transboundary) water basins.

    The aim of this thesis is to support shared water management by using the WEF-nexus approach to quantify the benefits of coordinated management, motivate cooperation, and identify trade-offs in the optimal use of resources. To achieve this aim, four research questions are explored over the course of four academic publications.  

    The first question explores the role of the energy sector in motivating shared water cooperation. The second question studies the risks and opportunities emerging from the interplay between climate and renewable energy in shared basins. The third question focuses on groundwater management and explores what benefits the consideration of the energy-water-agriculture nexus could bring to shared groundwater management in water-scarce areas. The fourth question examines how consideration of the energy-water-agriculture nexus could accelerate the low-carbon transition in the agricultural sector. 

    These research questions are examined in two different, yet complementing, geographic locations. One is the Balkans in Southeastern Europe, which faces water redundancy and flood issues and the other is the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region which suffers from water scarcity. In the first region, the Drina and the Drin River Basins represent the characteristics of Southeastern Europe while the North Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) and the Souss-Massa basin represent the characteristics of the MENA region. Three of the case applications are transboundary (Drina, Drin and NWSAS) while the last application (Souss-Massa Basin) is a subnational basin.  

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  • 3. Alshaigy, B.
    et al.
    Krogstie, B. R.
    Peters, Anne-Kathrin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning, Learning in Stem.
    Pollock, I.
    Are We There Yet?: Incorporating Climate Change into CSEd2022In: Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, ITiCSE, Association for Computing Machinery , 2022, p. 664-665Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is the "biggest threat modern humans have ever faced". The implications of the crisis are imminent and grave. As part of COP26, leaders from all over the world agreed to the Glasgow Climate Pact with the goal of limiting the increased rise of global temperature by 1.5 degrees. With less than 8 years left until the 2030 UN deadline in which the climate effects become irreversible, how do we prepare learners for what might be an inevitable reality? How do we equip computing students with crucial technical, ethical, and leadership skills to mitigate its effect? More importantly, how do people in positions of power, departmental and institutional, be involved? In 2019, we formed an internal working group as part of ITiCSE conference to examine how computing institutions, departments, and faculty members dealt with, if at all, the climate emergency within CS education. Our efforts included conducting a literature review, interviewing CSEd climate experts, leading a world cafe session, and collating and publishing resources from various sources for the benefit of educators interested in incorporating climate change in the curriculum. And yet, there are still struggles reported with adopting these solutions, particularly in light of the global pandemic. This panel will serve as a public forum to express institutional, departmental, and individual challenges associated with tackling the climate crisis and share successful strategies, ideas, and experiences to support the CS community. The discussions will centre over five themes previously identified in the world cafe. 

  • 4.
    Aravind, P. V.
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Climate Inst, Delft, Netherlands.;Delft Univ Technol, Dept Water Management, Delft, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Energy & Sustainabil Res Inst Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Champatan, Vipin
    APJ Abdul Kalam Technol Univ, Ctr Excellence Syst Energy & Environm, Kannur, Kerala, India..
    Gopi, Girigan
    MS Swaminathan Res Fdn, Chennai, India..
    Vijay, Vandit
    Delft Univ Technol, Climate Inst, Delft, Netherlands.;Sardar Swaran Singh Natl Inst Bioenergy SSS NIBE, Kapurthala, India..
    Smit, C.
    Univ Groningen, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Pande, S.
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Water Management, Delft, Netherlands..
    van den Broeke, L. J. P.
    Delft Univ Technol, Climate Inst, Delft, Netherlands..
    John, T. D.
    APJ Abdul Kalam Technol Univ, Ctr Excellence Syst Energy & Environm, Kannur, Kerala, India..
    Illathukandy, Biju
    APJ Abdul Kalam Technol Univ, Ctr Excellence Syst Energy & Environm, Kannur, Kerala, India..
    Sukesh, A.
    APJ Abdul Kalam Technol Univ, Ctr Excellence Syst Energy & Environm, Kannur, Kerala, India..
    Shreedhar, Sowmya
    Delft Univ Technol, Climate Inst, Delft, Netherlands..
    Nandakishor, T. M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Univ Bundeswehr Munchen, Inst Mat Sci, Neubiberg, Germany..
    Purushothaman, Sachin J.
    APJ Abdul Kalam Technol Univ, Ctr Excellence Syst Energy & Environm, Kannur, Kerala, India..
    Posada, John
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Biotechnol, Delft, Netherlands..
    Lindeboom, R. E. F.
    Delft Univ Technol, Climate Inst, Delft, Netherlands..
    Nampoothiri, K. U. K.
    Cent Plantat Crops Res Inst, Kasaragod, Kerala, India..
    Negative emissions at negative cost-an opportunity for a scalable niche2022In: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 10, article id 806435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the face of the rapidly dwindling carbon budgets, negative emission technologies are widely suggested as required to stabilize the Earth's climate. However, finding cost-effective, socially acceptable, and politically achievable means to enable such technologies remains a challenge. We propose solutions based on negative emission technologies to facilitate wealth creation for the stakeholders while helping to mitigate climate change. This paper comes up with suggestions and guidelines on significantly increasing carbon sequestration in coffee farms. A coffee and jackfruit agroforestry-based case study is presented along with an array of technical interventions, having a special focus on bioenergy and biochar, potentially leading to "negative emissions at negative cost. " The strategies for integrating food production with soil and water management, fuel production, adoption of renewable energy systems and timber management are outlined. The emphasis is on combining biological and engineering sciences to devise a practically viable niche that is easy to adopt, adapt and scale up for the communities and regions to achieve net negative emissions. The concerns expressed in the recent literature on the implementation of emission reduction and negative emission technologies are briefly presented. The novel opportunities to alleviate these concerns arising from our proposed interventions are then pointed out. Our analysis indicates that 1 ha coffee jackfruit-based agroforestry can additionally sequester around 10 tonnes of CO2-eq and lead to an income enhancement of up to 3,000-4,000 Euros in comparison to unshaded coffee. Finally, the global outlook for an easily adoptable nature-based approach is presented, suggesting an opportunity to implement revenue-generating negative emission technologies on a gigatonne scale. We anticipate that our approach presented in the paper results in increased attention to the development of practically viable science and technology-based interventions in order to support the speeding up of climate change mitigation efforts.

  • 5.
    Balian, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Greenhouse gas Reduction in Infrastructure Projects: With a case study of California High-Speed Rail2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Infrastructure projects are today major contributors to global warming. However, various strategies for reduction of greenhouse gas emission are available, as described in sustainability assessment schemes and performed in infrastructure projects.

    Beyond the choice of methodology, greenhouse gas reduction represents an important challenge, namely to engage involved actors. The establishment of a common sustainability policy, reflected in procurement requirements could be a solution. However, often in subject of complications such as misunderstandings or increased cost.

    Impres, a research project aiming to streamline the process of greenhouse gas reduction in the infrastructure sector, conducts case studies around the world in which useful methods and examples are assimilated. In cooperation with Impres, the present report includes the case study of California High-Speed Rail (CHSR).

    The aim of this report is to compare strategies for greenhouse gas reduction of sustainability assessment schemes for infrastructure projects, and evaluate the feasibility as procurement requirements. Furthermore, to identify corresponding processes of greenhouse gas reduction in the case study of CHSR, as well as revealing important factors towards realization.

    The course of work involves a study of the schemes Envision, BREEAM Infrastructure, CEEQUAL, IS Rating System as well as the standard PAS 2080. Regarding the case study, the sustainability policy, procurement requirements and project reports are the main used sources. Moreover, qualitative interviews with involved actors have been performed in California. Finally, to create a comparative matrix for greenhouse gas reduction processes, standards ISO and PAS 2080 have been reviewed.

    The results show that greenhouse gas criteria of the studied schemes not are mandatory to perform in anyone but PAS 2080. Which means that further requisites might be needed in order for the schemes to be useful as procurement requirements. Furthermore, the outlining of processes reveals a weakness in the setting of a greenhouse gas reference point, and while every scheme includes a greenhouse gas quantity assessment, there is a difference in the priority of reduction.

    Regarding CHSR, an exclaimed policy goal is to perform climate neutral construction. While procurement requirements are limited to quantification of emitted greenhouse gases and the use of effective construction machinery, which is insufficient to meet the goal. Nevertheless, the Authority in charge is performing CO2 compensating measures, such as planting trees.

    Finally, a variety of driving forces, success factors and challenges for realizing greenhouse gas reduction have been identified. For example, personal motivation and legislation as driving forces. Whereas, sustainability as a core mission, experience and communication are seen as success factors, and resistance to transfer sustainability goals to procurement is an exclaimed challenge.

    As a conclusion, sustainability assessment schemes do have certain processes for greenhouse gas reduction in common. However, they present criteria with different degrees of obligation, affecting feasibility as procurement requirements. In CHSR, similar processes are found, where further reduction of greenhouse gases can be achieved, especially by an optimized choice of construction materials. In the end, personal motivation seems to be an important factor for introducing and realizing greenhouse gas reduction goals in infrastructure projects.

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  • 6. Ballarotta, M.
    et al.
    Brodeau, L.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Lundberg, P.
    Döös, K.
    Last Glacial Maximum world ocean simulations at eddy-permitting and coarse resolutions: do eddies contribute to a better consistency between models and palaeoproxies?2013In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 2669-2686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most state-of-the-art climate models include a coarsely resolved oceanic component, which hardly captures detailed dynamics, whereas eddy-permitting and eddy-resolving simulations are developed to reproduce the observed ocean. In this study, an eddy-permitting and a coarse resolution numerical experiment are conducted to simulate the global ocean state for the period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, similar to 26 500 to 19 000 yr ago) and to investigate the improvements due to taking into account the smaller spatial scales. The ocean state from each simulation is confronted with a data set from the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean (MARGO) sea surface temperatures (SSTs), some reconstructions of the palaeo-circulations and a number of sea-ice reconstructions. The western boundary currents and the Southern Ocean dynamics are better resolved in the high-resolution experiment than in the coarse simulation, but, although these more detailed SST structures yield a locally improved consistency between model predictions and proxies, they do not contribute significantly to the global statistical score. The SSTs in the tropical coastal upwelling zones are also not significantly improved by the eddy-permitting regime. The models perform in the mid-latitudes but as in the majority of the Paleo-climate Modelling Intercomparison Project simulations, the modelled sea-ice conditions are inconsistent with the palaeo-reconstructions. The effects of observation locations on the comparison between observed and simulated SST suggest that more sediment cores may be required to draw reliable conclusions about the improvements introduced by the high resolution model for reproducing the global SSTs. One has to be careful with the interpretation of the deep ocean state which has not reached statistical equilibrium in our simulations. However, the results indicate that the meridional overturning circulations are different between the two regimes, suggesting that the model parametrizations might also play a key role for simulating past climate states.

  • 7.
    Barjot, Zoé
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management. lm, Sweden.
    Limit values in LCA-based regulations for buildings – System boundaries and implications on practice2024In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 259, article id 111658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly reducing the climate impacts of the construction and use of buildings is acknowledged as a key lever to meet European and national climate goals. Life cycle-based regulations, in the form of mandatory declaration of the climate impact of new-build, are being introduced, often planned to be or already complemented with performance-based limit values. This development has increasingly raised questions on how different system boundaries for similar limit values applied in various countries might lead to diverging implications in practice. A sample of 50 real-life case buildings of different typologies, representative of contemporary Swedish construction, is used to compare implications of two different system boundaries for embodied GHGe assessment: SB1) life cycle modules A1-A5 i.e. initial, that is upfront GHGe and SB2) life cycle modules A1-A5 + B2–B4, i.e. adding recurring GHGe, according to the European EN 15978 standard. The results show that for the two system boundaries applied, no difference is seen concerning the sample buildings' ability to perform below a limit value as defined in current Swedish regulatory plans, nor would it lead to different design choices to ensure that a building performs below the limit value. The results of sensitivity analyses along with the relative nature of the results, suggest these conclusions are also relevant for other regulatory contexts. As a conclusion, this study shows that implementing LCA-based regulations focusing on initial embodied GHGe is an important step to rapidly and effectively address GHGe associated with new-build.

  • 8.
    Berger, Marit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    The sensitivity of the Arctic sea ice to orbitally induced insolation changes: a study of the mid-Holocene Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 2 and 3 simulations2013In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 969-982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work the Arctic sea ice in the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial climates are analysed and compared on the basis of climate-model results from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 2 (PMIP2) and phase 3 (PMIP3). The PMIP3 models generally simulate smaller and thinner sea-ice extents than the PMIP2 models both for the pre-industrial and the mid-Holocene climate. Further, the PMIP2 and PMIP3 models all simulate a smaller and thinner Arctic summer sea-ice cover in the mid-Holocene than in the pre-industrial control climate. The PMIP3 models also simulate thinner winter sea ice than the PMIP2 models. The winter sea-ice extent response, i.e. the difference between the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial climate, varies among both PMIP2 and PMIP3 models. Approximately one half of the models simulate a decrease in winter sea-ice extent and one half simulates an increase. The model-mean summer sea-ice extent is 11% (21 %) smaller in the mid-Holocene than in the pre-industrial climate simulations in the PMIP2 (PMIP3). In accordance with the simple model of Thorndike (1992), the sea-ice thickness response to the insolation change from the pre-industrial to the mid-Holocene is stronger in models with thicker ice in the pre-industrial climate simulation. Further, the analyses show that climate models for which the Arctic sea-ice responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are similar may simulate rather different sea-ice responses to the change in solar forcing between the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial. For two specific models, which are analysed in detail, this difference is found to be associated with differences in the simulated cloud fractions in the summer Arctic; in the model with a larger cloud fraction the effect of insolation change is muted. A sub-set of the mid-Holocene simulations in the PMIP ensemble exhibit open water off the north-eastern coast of Greenland in summer, which can provide a fetch for surface waves. This is in broad agreement with recent analyses of sea-ice proxies, indicating that beach-ridges formed on the north-eastern coast of Greenland during the early-to mid-Holocene.

  • 9.
    Berger, Marit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Struthers, Hamish
    Stockholm University.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Ekman, Annica
    Stockholm University.
    Wei, Liang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Pristine aerosol concentrations, cloud droplet size and early Holocene climateManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates how the simulated early Holocene climate is influenced by the representation of aerosols and their effect on the climate. The representations of the direct and first indirect aerosol effects in the Community Earth System Model, version1 (CESM1) are modified in two sensitivity experiments.

    In the first sensitivity experiment (CESM 9k R14), the first indirect effect on the simulated climate is modified by setting the cloud droplet effective radius, (Reff ) in the model to a constant value. This value is chosen to be representative for pristine conditions. In the second sensitivity experiment (CESM 9k CAMO), the representation of both the direct and first indirect effects is modified. An atmosphere-only model with interactive aerosols is used to simulate the early Holocene aerosol loading and the change in Reff due to the decrease in atmospheric aerosols.

    The changes in aerosol effects introduced in the two sensitivity experiments differ both in magnitude and spatial pattern. We find that despite the difference in the spatial pattern of the changes in the aerosol effects, the warming patterns in the two sensitivity experiments are similar; the surface temperature increases in both simulations, with an enhanced warming in the Arctic region. The warming is approximately twice as large in the CESM 9k R14 simulation than in the CESM 9k CAMO simulation.

  • 10. Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    Kordas, Olga
    SWOT-analys av hur artificiell intelligens och maskininlärning påverkar Viable Cities: April 2018 – Viable Cities info 2018:12018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta dokument har tagits fram som underlag till Vinnovas uppdrag från regeringen att genomföra en kartläggning och analys av hur väl artificiell intelligens och maskininlärning kommer till användning i svensk industri och i det svenska samhället.

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    SWOT-analys
  • 11. Bonde, Ingrid
    et al.
    Karin, Bäckstrand
    Katarina, Eckerberg
    Johan, Kyulenstierna
    Thomas, Kåberger
    Eva, Löfgren
    Markku, Rummukainen
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Det klimatpolitiska ramverket 20182018Report (Other academic)
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  • 12.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Hedling, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Rieser, Anja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Urban nature does not stop at the waterfront, neither should urban planning: A case study of street fishing in Stockholm2023In: Climate-Proof Planning: Creative Design Solutions in Stockholm / [ed] Ressano Garcia, Pedro; Suleiman, Lina; Larsen, Katarina, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2023Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While research on green urban spaces has established their important values and functions, less attention has been given to blue urban spaces and its importance for wellbeing of urban residents. With the project “Blue Urban Commons” (2020-2023) we wish to gain more knowledge about these blue spaces through a case study of Stockholm, Sweden. The aim with this project is to understand how urban dwellers use and depend on city waters for recreation, food, and general well-being, with a specific focus on recreational fishing. This paper consists of four parts highlighting research strands, preliminary findings and reflections concerning what issues are important for planning blue urban spaces. The first part provides an understanding of the various conditions that enables Stockholm to be an attractive city for fishing. In the second part, we present some preliminary findings regarding the diversity of fishers in Stockholm, using an ideal typical distinction between fishing for fun and fishing for food. The fact that many people fish for food in Stockholm raises several questions, such as e.g. on water pollution and their potential health consequences for fishers and the fish, which we present in the third part. We conclude with some reflections on the various goals of planning urban waterfronts and the trade-offs that it includes between food safety and security, equal access, and human and non-human wellbeing.

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  • 13.
    Brandao, Miguel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Indirect Effects Negate Global Climate Change Mitigation Potential of Substituting Gasoline With Corn Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel in the USA2022In: Frontiers in Climate, ISSN 2624-9553, Vol. 4, article id 814052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns over climate change have led to the promotion of biofuels for transport, particularly biodiesel from oilseed crops and ethanol from sugar and starch crops. However, additional concerns arose on whether the climate change mitigation potential of biofuels is negated by the associated direct land requirements (dLUC) for growing biofuel feedstocks, or by the indirect land requirements (iLUC) that compensate for the diversion of food/feed crops into biofuels, both cases leading to greenhouse gas emissions. We investigated data over the last 20-year period to estimate the magnitude of the effects ethanol production in the USA has had on land use domestically and abroad. The data analyzed suggests that, over the period, the use of corn for ethanol increased by 118 Mt per year, most of it coming from displacement of other uses of corn, mainly feed, which were compensated by increased feed production elsewhere. Results suggest a relatively low dLUC but a significant iLUC effect, mainly due to the compensation for the foregone feed production as a result of diverting corn into ethanol production. The resulting 18.0 Mt CO2-eq. associated with meeting the renewable-energy target of 15 billion gallons of corn ethanol more than negates the climate benefits from avoided use of gasoline, indicating that promoting corn ethanol for global climate change mitigation may be counter-productive as, despite decreasing domestic emissions, global emissions increase. We suggest that the policy be revised accordingly. 

  • 14.
    Brandao, Miguel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. IEA Bioenergy Task 38, Int Energy Agcy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.
    Landcare Res, Palmerston North, New Zealand..
    Cowie, Annette L.
    IEA Bioenergy Task 38, Int Energy Agcy, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ New England, NSW Dept Primary Ind, Armidale, NSW, Australia..
    Hjuler, Susanne Vedel
    Slangerup, Slangerup, Denmark.;COWI AS, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Quantifying the climate change effects of bioenergy systems: Comparison of 15 impact assessment methods2019In: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 727-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing concern over climate change has led to interest in replacing fossil energy with bioenergy. There are different approaches to quantitatively estimate the climate change effects of bioenergy systems. In the present work, we have focused on a range of published impact assessment methods that vary due to conceptual differences in the treatment of biogenic carbon fluxes, the type of climate change impacts they address and differences in time horizon and time preference. Specifically, this paper reviews fifteen different methods and applies these to three hypothetical bioenergy case studies: (a) woody biomass grown on previously forested land; (b) woody biomass grown on previous pasture land; and (b) annual energy crop grown on previously cropped land. Our analysis shows that the choice of method can have an important influence on the quantification of climate change effects of bioenergy, particularly when a mature forest is converted to bioenergy use as it involves a substantial reduction in biomass carbon stocks. Results are more uniform in other case studies. In general, results are more sensitive to specific impact assessment methods when they involve both emissions and removals at different points in time, such as for forest bioenergy, but have a much smaller influence on agricultural bioenergy systems grown on land previously used for pasture or annual cropping. The development of effective policies for climate change mitigation through renewable energy use requires consistent and accurate approaches to identification of bioenergy systems that can result in climate change mitigation. The use of different methods for the same purpose: estimating the climate change effects of bioenergy systems, can lead to confusing and contradictory conclusions. A full interpretation of the results generated with different methods must be based on an understanding that the different methods focus on different aspects of climate change and represent different time preferences.

  • 15. Castree, Noel
    et al.
    Robin, Elizabeth
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, United States .
    Wynne, Brian
    et al.,
    Changing the intellectual climate2014In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 4, no 9, p. 763-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calls for more broad-based, integrated, useful knowledge now abound in the world of global environmental change science. They evidence many scientists' desire to help humanity confront the momentous biophysical implications of its own actions. But they also reveal a limited conception of social science and virtually ignore the humanities. They thereby endorse a stunted conception of 'human dimensions' at a time when the challenges posed by global environmental change are increasing in magnitude, scale and scope. Here, we make the case for a richer conception predicated on broader intellectual engagement and identify some preconditions for its practical fulfilment. Interdisciplinary dialogue, we suggest, should engender plural representations of Earth's present and future that are reflective of divergent human values and aspirations. In turn, this might insure publics and decision-makers against overly narrow conceptions of what is possible and desirable as they consider the profound questions raised by global environmental change.

  • 16.
    Chen, Haorui
    et al.
    China Inst Water Resources & Hydropower Res, State Key Lab Simulat & Regulat Water Cycle River, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Natl Ctr Efficient Irrigat Engn & Technol Res Beij, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Mousong
    Nanjing Univ, Int Inst Earth Syst Sci, Nanjing, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Frozen Soil Engn, Lanzhou, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Univ, Int Inst Earth Syst Sci, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Duan, Zheng
    Lund Univ, Dept Phys Geog & Ecosyst Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Zha, Yuanyuan
    Wuhan Univ, State Key Lab Water Resources & Hydropower Engn Sc, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Songhan
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Coll Agr, Nanjing, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Long
    Nanjing Univ, Sch Geog & Ocean Sci, Nanjing, Peoples R China..
    Zou, Liangchao
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zheng, Minjie
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Chen, Peng
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul Eng, Nanjing, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Sch Earth Sci & Engn, Nanjing, Peoples R China..
    Cao, Wei
    State Key Lab Frozen Soil Engn, Lanzhou, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Wenxin
    Lund Univ, Dept Phys Geog & Ecosyst Sci, Lund, Sweden.;Univ Copenhagen, Ctr Permafrost CENPERM, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Lund Univ, Dept Phys Geog & Ecosyst Sci, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Forecasting the human and climate impacts on groundwater resources in the irrigated agricultural region of North China Plain2023In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 37, no 3, article id e14853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has caused significant impacts on water resource redistribution around the world and posed a great threat in the last several decades due to intensive human activities. The impacts of human water use and management on regional water resources remain unclear as they are intertwined with the impacts of climate change. In this study, we disentangled the impact of climate-induced human activities on groundwater resources in a typical region of the semi-arid North China Plain based on a process-oriented groundwater modelling approach accounting for climate-human-groundwater interactions. We found that the climate-induced human effect is amplified in water resources management ('amplifying effect') for our study region under future climate scenarios. We specifically derived a tipping point for annual precipitation of 350 mm, below which the climate-induced human activities on groundwater withdrawal will cause significant 'amplifying effect' on groundwater depletion. Furthermore, we explored the different pumping scenarios under various climate conditions and investigated the pumping thresholds, which the pumping amount should not exceed (4 x 10(7) m(3)) in order to control future groundwater level depletion. Our results highlight that it is critical to implement adaptive water use practices, such as water-saving irrigation technologies in the semi-arid regions, in order to mitigate the negative impacts of groundwater overexploitation, particularly when annual precipitation is anomalously low.

  • 17. Cowie, A. L.
    et al.
    Berndes, G.
    Bentsen, N. S.
    Brandao, Miguel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Cherubini, F.
    Egnell, G.
    George, B.
    Gustavsson, L.
    Hanewinkel, M.
    Harris, Z. M.
    Johnsson, F.
    Junginger, M.
    Kline, K. L.
    Koponen, K.
    Koppejan, J.
    Kraxner, F.
    Lamers, P.
    Majer, S.
    Marland, E.
    Nabuurs, G. -J
    Pelkmans, L.
    Sathre, R.
    Schaub, M.
    Smith, C.T., Jr.
    Soimakallio, S.
    Van Der Hilst, F.
    Woods, J.
    Ximenes, F. A.
    Applying a science-based systems perspective to dispel misconceptions about climate effects of forest bioenergy2021In: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 1210-1231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scientific literature contains contrasting findings about the climate effects of forest bioenergy, partly due to the wide diversity of bioenergy systems and associated contexts, but also due to differences in assessment methods. The climate effects of bioenergy must be accurately assessed to inform policy-making, but the complexity of bioenergy systems and associated land, industry and energy systems raises challenges for assessment. We examine misconceptions about climate effects of forest bioenergy and discuss important considerations in assessing these effects and devising measures to incentivize sustainable bioenergy as a component of climate policy. The temporal and spatial system boundary and the reference (counterfactual) scenarios are key methodology choices that strongly influence results. Focussing on carbon balances of individual forest stands and comparing emissions at the point of combustion neglect system-level interactions that influence the climate effects of forest bioenergy. We highlight the need for a systems approach, in assessing options and developing policy for forest bioenergy that: (1) considers the whole life cycle of bioenergy systems, including effects of the associated forest management and harvesting on landscape carbon balances; (2) identifies how forest bioenergy can best be deployed to support energy system transformation required to achieve climate goals; and (3) incentivizes those forest bioenergy systems that augment the mitigation value of the forest sector as a whole. Emphasis on short-term emissions reduction targets can lead to decisions that make medium- to long-term climate goals more difficult to achieve. The most important climate change mitigation measure is the transformation of energy, industry and transport systems so that fossil carbon remains underground. Narrow perspectives obscure the significant role that bioenergy can play by displacing fossil fuels now, and supporting energy system transition. Greater transparency and consistency is needed in greenhouse gas reporting and accounting related to bioenergy. 

  • 18.
    Cowie, Annette
    et al.
    NSW Department of Primary Industries / University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.
    Azzi, Elias Sebastian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Weng, Zhe Han
    Animal Plant & Soil Sciences, Latrobe University, Australia.
    Woolf, Dominic
    Soil and Crop Sciences, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Biochar, greenhouse gas accounting, and climate change mitigation2024In: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science, Technology and Implementation, Informa UK Limited , 2024, p. 759-784Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Adapting cities to climate change: goal conflicts and methods of conflict resolution2009In: Fifth Urban Research Symposium 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making concerning adaptation to climate change ofteninvolves choosing between different options, each of which can have importantimplications for the achievability of other goals and policies. In this article,adaptation measures and goal conflicts are investigated using the City ofStockholm as an empirical basis. The investigation shows that goal conflicts inadaptation are common phenomena. This points to the need for assessing andpredicting the environmental, social and economic impacts of adaptation measures,strategies and policies at an early stage in the decision-making process. To ensurethe coherence with other policy goals, there is a need for tools to assess and predictoutcomes, but also to balance those outcomes in situations where they are noteasily reunited.

  • 20.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Goal Conflicts in Adaptation to Climate Change. An inventory of goal conflicts tn the Swedish sectors of the built environment, tourism and outdoor recreation, and human health2009Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Englund, Oskar
    et al.
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ometto, Jean P.
    Valle, Pedro C. E. O.
    Costa, Ciniro
    Lapola, Jean
    A new high-resolution nationwide aboveground carbon map for Brazil2017In: Geo: Geography and Environment, E-ISSN 2054-4049, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e00045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brazil is home to the largest tracts of tropical vegetation in the world, harbouring high levels of biodiversity and carbon. Several biomass maps have been produced for Brazil, using different approaches and methods, and for different purposes. These maps have been used to estimate historic, recent, and future carbon emissions from land use change (LUC). It can be difficult to determine which map to use for what purpose. The implications of using an unsuitable map can be significant, since the maps have large differences, both in terms of total carbon storage and its spatial distribution. This paper presents comparisons of Brazil's new ‘official’ carbon map; that is, the map used in the third national communication to the UNFCCC in 2016, with the former official map, and four carbon maps from the scientific literature. General strengths and weaknesses of the different maps are identified, including their suitability for different types of studies. No carbon map was found suitable for studies concerned with existing land use/cover (LULC) and LUC outside of existing forests, partly because they do not represent the current LULC sufficiently well, and partly because they generally overestimate carbon values for agricultural land. A new map of aboveground carbon is presented, which was created based on data from existing maps and an up-to-date LULC map. This new map reflects current LULC, has high accuracy and resolution (50 m), and a national coverage. It can be a useful alternative for scientific studies and policy initiatives concerned with existing LULC and LUC outside of existing forests, especially at local scales when high resolution is necessary, and/or outside the Amazon biome. We identify five ongoing climate policy initiatives in Brazil that can benefit from using this map.

  • 22.
    Engström, Rebecka Ericsdotter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems.
    Fuso-Nerini, Francesco
    Cassen, Christophe
    Luh, Sandro
    Viguié, Vincent
    Kober, Tom
    Deane, Paul
    Hamdi-Chérif, Meriem
    Research and Innovation Needs to Decarbonise European Cities: DEEDS Policy Brief Number 42020Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable and inclusive decarbonisation of European cities is a pre-requisite for achieving carbon neutrality at the EU level. As melting pots and demand hubs, cities are responsible for a majority of greenhouse gas emissions. For a transition towards zero-carbon cities, in the EU as elsewhere, a holistic approach and extensive collaboration is needed that can move city action beyond simply increasing the number of localized low-carbon solutions. This DEEDS Policy Brief outlines key features of EU research and innovation needs and proposes policy measures to promote zero-carbon European cities.

    Download full text (pdf)
    DEEDS Policy Brief on Cities
  • 23.
    Evengard, B.
    et al.
    Umeå Univ, Dept Clin Microbiol, S-90187 Umeå, Sweden..
    Destouni, G.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Albihn, A.
    Natl Vet Inst, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bjorkman, C.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bylund, H.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jenkins, E.
    Univ Saskatchewan, Western Coll Vet Med, Dept Vet Microbiol, Saskatoon, SK, Canada..
    Koch, A.
    Ilisimatusarfik Univ Greenland, Greenland Ctr Hlth Res, Nuuk 3905, Greenland.;Statens Serum Inst, Dept Epidemiol Res, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kukarenko, N.
    Northern Arctic Fed Univ, Dept Philosophy & Sociol, Arkhangelsk 163002, Russia..
    Leibovici, D.
    Univ Sheffield, Sch Math & Stat, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Lemmityinen, J.
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland..
    Menshakova, M.
    Murmansk Arctic State Univ, Dept Nat Sci, Murmansk 183038, Russia..
    Mulvad, G.
    Ilisimatusarfik Univ Greenland, Greenland Ctr Hlth Res, Nuuk 3905, Greenland..
    Nilsson, L. M.
    Umeå Univ, Ctr Sami Res, Vardduo, S-90187 Umeå, Sweden.;Umeå Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Global Hlth, S-90187 Umeå, Sweden..
    Omazic, A.
    Natl Vet Inst, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pshenichnaya, N.
    Cent Res Inst Epidemiol, Moscow 111123, Russia..
    Quegan, S.
    Univ Sheffield, Sch Math & Stat, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Rautio, A.
    Univ Oulu, Fac Med, Arctic Hlth, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.;Univ Arctic, Thule Inst, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    Revich, B.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Econ Forecasting, Moscow 117418, Russia..
    Ryden, P.
    Umeå Univ, Dept Math & Math Stat, S-90187 Umeå, Sweden..
    Sjostedt, A.
    Umeå Univ, Dept Clin Microbiol, S-90187 Umeå, Sweden..
    Tokarevich, N.
    St Petersburg Pasteur Inst, Lab Zoonoses, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Thierfelder, T.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Energy & Technol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Orlov, D.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Fac Geog, Moscow 119991, Russia..
    Healthy ecosystems for human and animal health: Science diplomacy for responsible development in the Arctic The Nordic Centre of Excellence, Clinf.org (Climate-change effects on the epidemiology of infectious diseases and the impacts on Northern societies)2021In: Polar Record, ISSN 0032-2474, E-ISSN 1475-3057, Vol. 57, article id e39Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate warming is occurring most rapidly in the Arctic, which is both a sentinel and a driver of further global change. Ecosystems and human societies are already affected by warming. Permafrost thaws and species are on the move, bringing pathogens and vectors to virgin areas. During a five-year project, the CLINF - a Nordic Center of Excellence, funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, has worked with the One Health concept, integrating environmental data with human and animal disease data in predictive models and creating maps of dynamic processes affecting the spread of infectious diseases. It is shown that tularemia outbreaks can be predicted even at a regional level with a manageable level of uncertainty. To decrease uncertainty, rapid development of new and harmonised technologies and databases is needed from currently highly heterogeneous data sources. A major source of uncertainty for the future of contaminants and infectious diseases in the Arctic, however, is associated with which paths the majority of the globe chooses to follow in the future. Diplomacy is one of the most powerful tools Arctic nations have to influence these choices of other nations, supported by Arctic science and One Health approaches that recognise the interconnection between people, animals, plants and their shared environment at the local, regional, national and global levels as essential for achieving a sustainable development for both the Arctic and the globe.

  • 24.
    Fahlberg, Kristin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Kommuner och klimatåtgärder: En litteraturstudie av det aktuella kunskapsläget om klimatåtgärdernas potential och kostnadseffektivitet2011Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Faulwasser, T.
    et al.
    Germany.
    Nydestedt, Robin
    KTH.
    Kellett, C. M.
    Australia.
    Weller, S. R.
    Australia.
    Towards a FAIR-DICE IAM: Combining DICE and FAIR Models ⁎2018In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, E-ISSN 2405-8963, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 126-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of the Social Cost of Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) is one of the essential purposes of Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) used in the economics of climate change. One of the most widely used IAMs in this context is DICE. However, the DICE geophysical subsystem fails to account for feedback from the climate subsystem to the carbon subsystem, an effect recently observed in climate physics. This paper investigates how to combine the recently proposed FAIR climate model with the socioeconomic subsystem of DICE. Based on an analysis of its differential-algebraic structure, we propose an efficient discretization of FAIR that provides a new discrete-time hybrid of DICE and FAIR denoted as FAIR-DICE. Finally, we compare estimates of the SC-CO2 obtained with DICE2013 with those obtained via FAIR-DICE.

  • 26.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ovetenskapligt förneka klimatförändringar.2018In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Life Cycle Assessment2014In: Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Third Edition, Elsevier BV , 2014, p. 74-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess potential environmental impacts throughout a product's life cycle, i.e., from natural resource acquisition, via production and use stage to waste management (including disposal and recycling). The term 'product' includes goods, technologies, and services. LCA is a comprehensive assessment that takes a product life cycle perspective, and covers a range of environmental impacts. These unique features of LCA facilitate avoiding problem shifting from one life cycle stage to another stage, or from one environmental impact to another impact. This article gives a short methodological overview. 

  • 28.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Guidotti, Vinicius
    d Institute of Agricultural and Forest Management and Certification – Imaflora.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Who owns the Brazilian carbon?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Hiromiti Matsumoto, Marcelo
    A ADICIONALIDADE DO MECANISMO DE COMPENSAÇÃO DE RESERVA LEGAL DA LEI NO 12.651/2012: UMA ANÁLISE DA OFERTA E DEMANDA DE COTAS DE RESERVA AMBIENTAL2016In: Mudanças no código florestal brasileiro: desafios para a implementação da nova lei / [ed] Ana Paula Moreira da Silva, Henrique Rodrigues Marques and Regina Helena Rosa Sambuichi, Rio de Janeiro: IPEA , 2016, p. 359-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Fuldauer, Lena I.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Environm Change Inst, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QY, England..
    Thacker, Scott
    Univ Oxford, Environm Change Inst, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QY, England..
    Haggis, Robyn A.
    Univ Oxford, Environm Change Inst, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QY, England..
    Nerini, Francesco Fuso
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems.
    Nicholls, Robert J.
    Univ East Anglia, Tyndall Ctr Climate Change Res, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England..
    Hall, Jim W.
    Univ Oxford, Environm Change Inst, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QY, England..
    Targeting climate adaptation to safeguard and advance the Sustainable Development Goals2022In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 3579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The international community has committed to achieve 169 Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets by 2030 and to enhance climate adaptation under the Paris Agreement. Despite the potential for synergies, aligning SDG and climate adaptation efforts is inhibited by an inadequate understanding of the complex relationship between SDG targets and adaptation to impacts of climate change. Here we propose a framework to conceptualise how ecosystems and socio-economic sectors mediate this relationship, which provides a more nuanced understanding of the impacts of climate change on all 169 SDG targets. Global application of the framework reveals that adaptation of wetlands, rivers, cropland, construction, water, electricity, and housing in the most vulnerable countries is required to safeguard achievement of 68% of SDG targets from near-term climate risk by 2030. We discuss how our framework can help align National Adaptation Plans with SDG targets, thus ensuring that adaptation advances, rather than detracts from, sustainable development. Without targeted climate adaptation, impacts of climate change threaten achievement of all 169 SDG targets. Fuldauer et al. provide an actionable framework to assess these impacts and help systematically align national adaptation plans with the SDGs.

  • 31.
    Fuso-Nerini, Francesco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. Payne Institute, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA.
    Slob, Adriaan
    TNO Strateg Anal & Policy, NL-2509 The Hague, Netherlands..
    Engström, Rebecka Ericsdotter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Trutnevyte, Evelina
    Univ Geneva, Sect Earth & Environm Sci, Renewable Energy Syst Grp, Inst Environm Sci, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    A Research and Innovation Agenda for Zero-Emission European Cities2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement and SDG13 on Climate Action require a global drop in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions to stay within a "well below 2 degrees" climate change trajectory. Cities will play a key role in achieving this, being responsible for 60 to 80% of the global GHG emissions depending on the estimate. This paper describes how Research and Innovation (R&I) can play a key role in decarbonizing European cities, and the role that research and education institutions can play in that regard. The paper highlights critical R&I actions in cities based on three pillars: (1) innovative technology and integration, (2) governance innovation, and (3) social innovation. Further, the research needed to harmonize climate mitigation and adaptation in cities are investigated.

  • 32.
    Garofalo, Danilo F. Trovo
    et al.
    Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Rodovia SP 340,km 127,5, BR-13918110 Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil..
    Novaes, Renan Milagres L.
    Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Rodovia SP 340,km 127,5, BR-13918110 Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil..
    Pazianotto, Ricardo A. A.
    Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Rodovia SP 340,km 127,5, BR-13918110 Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil..
    Maciel, Vinicius Gonsalves
    Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Rodovia SP 340,km 127,5, BR-13918110 Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil..
    Brandao, Miguel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Shimbo, Julia Zanin
    Inst Pesquisa Ambiental Amazonia IPAM, BR-70863520 Brasilia, Brazil..
    Folegatti-Matsuura, Marilia I. S.
    Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Rodovia SP 340,km 127,5, BR-13918110 Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil..
    Land-use change CO2 emissions associated with agricultural products at municipal level in Brazil2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 364, article id 132549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land-use change (LUC) accounted for approximately 66% of CO2 emissions in Brazil in 2020, with significant implications for carbon footprint of Brazilian agricultural products. Accurate LUC estimates associated with agriculture are critical to carbon footprint (CF) and life cycle assessment (LCA) studies and derived measures towards low-carbon supply chains. The aim of the study was to provide direct LUC (dLUC) estimates of CO2 emissions associated with a comprehensive set of agricultural products in Brazil at municipal-level and based on spatially-explicit land conversion data, appropriate for CF and LCA studies. The effect of different dLUC modeling choices on the results are also presented. The modeling followed IPCC guidelines and improved the BRLUC method. MapBiomas spatially-explicit data, municipality-level statistics, regionalized carbon stocks and a shared responsibility approach were combined to obtain dLUC emission rates for 64 crops, plus forestry and planted pastures, in the 5,570 Brazilian municipalities, as well as at state and national levels. It will be open access at www.embrapa.br. The most recent version led to an estimated 911 Mtons of CO2 associated with agriculture in 2019, 81% of that associated with planted pastures. National level dLUC emission rates for corn, pastures, soybean and sugarcane were estimated as 2.0, 4.1, 2.3 and 0.3 tCO(2).ha(-1).yr(-1), respectively. The dLUC emissions are highly heterogeneous across the country and land uses, ranging from positive to negative. In general, they were higher in the Amazon biome, due to deforestation, and lower in Eastern Brazil, where agricultural areas are more consolidated. The resulting data is more consistent with dLUC rationale, IPCC guidelines and PAS2050 when previous land use is known and is recommended to be used, whenever data at farm level are not available. The study also shows the strong effect of different dLUC modeling choices on results and reinforces recommendations for further mitigation options.

  • 33.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning. Univ Gavle, Fac Engn & Sustainable Dev, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning. Univ Gavle, Fac Engn & Sustainable Dev, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Sjoberg, Lars E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning. Univ Gavle, Fac Engn & Sustainable Dev, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Tenzer, Robert
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Dept Land Surveying & Geoinformat, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Studying permafrost by integrating satellite and in situ data in the northern high-latitude regions2019In: Acta Geophysica, ISSN 1895-6572, E-ISSN 1895-7455, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 721-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an exceptional opportunity of achieving simultaneous and complementary data from a multitude of geoscience and environmental near-earth orbiting artificial satellites to study phenomena related to the climate change. These satellite missions provide the information about the various phenomena, such as sea level change, ice melting, soil moisture variation, temperature changes and earth surface deformations. In this study, we focus on permafrost thawing and its associated gravity change (in terms of the groundwater storage), and organic material changes using the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) data and other satellite- and ground-based observations. The estimation of permafrost changes requires combining information from various sources, particularly using the gravity field change, surface temperature change, and glacial isostatic adjustment. The most significant factor for a careful monitoring of the permafrost thawing is the fact that this process could be responsible for releasing an additional enormous amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere, most importantly to mention carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane that are currently stored in the frozen ground. The results of a preliminary numerical analysis reveal a possible existence of a high correlation between the secular trends of greenhouse gases (CO2), temperature and equivalent water thickness (in permafrost active layer) in the selected regions. Furthermore, according to our estimates based on processing the GRACE data, the groundwater storage attributed due to permafrost thawing increased at the annual rates of 3.4, 3.8, 4.4 and 4.0cm, respectively, in Siberia, North Alaska and Canada (Yukon and Hudson Bay). Despite a rather preliminary character of our results, these findings indicate that the methodology developed and applied in this study should be further improved by incorporating the in situ permafrost measurements.

  • 34.
    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara
    et al.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, CRETUS Inst, Dept Chem Engn, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Almeida, Fernando
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, High Polytechnich Sch Engn, Dept Crop Prod & Engn Projects, Lugo 27002, Spain..
    Brandao, Miguel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Do Carbon Footprint Estimates Depend on the LCA Modelling Approach Adopted?: A Case Study of Bread Wheat Grown in a Crop-Rotation System2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 4941-, article id 4941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the impact of global warming on winter wheat cultivation under different rotation systems with potato, maize or oilseed rape over a six-year period in the region of Galicia, Spain, to identify the rotation system most favorable from a climate change perspective. An attributional life cycle assessment (ALCA) with economic allocation (retrospective assessment of impacts) and a consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) with system expansion (impacts of a change) were performed to identify discrepancies and differences in the results in this impact category and thus in the decision supported by the farmers, whose main goal is to produce wheat grain for bread purposes with the lowest carbon footprint. The global warming results modelled with ALCA and CLCA can be contradictory. In general, the climate change impact was considerably higher when modelled with CLCA than with ALCA. Farming activities were consistently identified as hotspots when using both CLCA and ALCA, but other hotspots differed in terms of their contributions. Concerning the ranking of cropping systems that produce grain with the lowest greenhouse gases emission levels, contradictory results were identified in some cases between the LCA modelling approaches. Nevertheless, the cultivation of native winter wheat under ecological management is always the preferred choice, regardless of the approach. However, wheat rotation with potato is preferrable in the ALCA, and with maize in the CLCA. The assumptions required to perform a CLCA have a large impact on results. The allocation of burdens between the co-products in the ALCA involves a level of uncertainty since discrepancies arise with the selection of the allocation procedure. Thus, the assumptions made affect the results considerably and have a direct effect on the final conclusions.

  • 35.
    Haas, Tigran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Sustainable Urbanism and Beyond: Rethinking Cities for the Future2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Anthroposophical Climate Science Denial2022In: Critical Research on Religion, ISSN 2050-3032, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 281-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate science denial has a perhaps surprisingly strong standing in anthroposophy. Anthroposophical deniers of climate science usually do not contest the existence of global warming, but they ascribe it to “cosmic” processes that are largely described in astrological terms. Thoroughly refuted claims that ongoing global warming depends on variations in solar activity have been adopted by anthroposophists. This article proposes three major explanations for the persistence of climate science denial in the anthroposophical movement: Anthroposophists constantly look for guidance on scientific issues in the writings of their founder Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925), who made claims far off from the mainstream science of his time. They consider the material world to be constantly influenced by “spiritual” factors, including astrological constellations and a host of supernatural beings. Finally, they cherish ideas on a predetermined, largely cyclic, cosmic plan, of which humanity is a part. 

  • 37.
    Hasselström, Linus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    A critical review of the life cycle climate impact in seaweed value chains to support carbon accounting and blue carbon financing2022In: CLEANER ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, ISSN 2666-7894, Vol. 6, article id 100093Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seaweed is often touted as a blue economy resource with climate benefits. Several calls are made to scale the industry up and to use blue carbon financing to create additional incentives for the sector to expand. But how much of a climate crisis panacea is seaweed, and under which conditions can climate benefits be realized? The article reviews the literature on climate impacts from seaweed value chains and proposes a cradle-to-grave structure for carbon accounting in seaweed value chains. While the literature points towards several ways in which climate benefits can be generated, the evidence base for net negative emissions across the value chain is not robust enough to suggest seaweed value chains, by default, are a climate solution. Instead, climate effects depend on the specific production setup, product choice and the fate of the product on the market. Climate benefits can only be claimed by tracking blue carbon flows across whole life cycles and over time. Knowledge gaps relate to effects at sea, the role of temporarily locking carbon into products and the effects of introducing this resource to the market. Blue carbon financing should be directed only to setups proven to lead to additional and permanent carbon storage.

  • 38.
    Hedin, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Grönborg, Lucas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Johansson, Gustav
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Food Carbon Literacy: A Definition and Framework Exemplified by Designing and Evaluating a Digital Grocery List for Increasing Food Carbon Literacy and Changing Behavior2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 19, p. 12442-, article id 12442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public knowledge about the differences in greenhouse gas emissions caused by the production and transportation of different kinds of food are generally low. People with an interest in choosing food with low greenhouse gas emissions must therefore either increase this "food carbon literacy" or be provided with such information when they decide what food to buy. Research about this specific kind of food literacy is, however, scarce, lacking both well-defined terminology and interventions attempting to increase food carbon literacy. In this paper we provide a framework for future research in the area by defining "food carbon literacy", serving as a starting point for categorizing, comparing, and generalizing future research findings. Drawing on previous work on other kinds of literacies, we distinguish between (1) food carbon literacy, (2) food product carbon literacy, (3) food handling carbon literacy, and (4) financial food carbon literacy. We have furthermore developed and tested a digital behavior change intervention in the form of a digital grocery list used on mobile phones. The list works as other digital grocery shopping lists, but also displays the CO(2)e footprint of the food added to the list, thereby enabling the user to change products at the planning stage and increase their food carbon literacy. It was tested on a group of 38 people for a duration of 2 weeks. The goals of the pilot study were to investigate quantitatively whether such a tool would increase food carbon literacy, and to investigate qualitatively how such a tool could be used and designed. The results show a strong increase in food carbon literacy for food the respondents had added to their grocery lists, but also for food that had not been added to their lists, indicating a generalization of the knowledge. Finally, we provide implications for the design of such systems, based on the qualitative evaluation.

  • 39.
    Huang, Y.
    et al.
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China.
    Ge, F.
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Hu, Z.
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China.
    Numerical study on the heat and mass transfer characteristics of the open-type cross-flow heat-source tower at low ambient temperature2019In: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, ISSN 0017-9310, E-ISSN 1879-2189, Vol. 145, article id 118756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heat-source tower heat pump (HTHP) has the advantage in preventing frosting and efficiently absorbing heat from the air in winter. Due to the low air humidity in low temperature environment (less than 0 °C), the latent heat exchange between the antifreeze solution and air is a key factor affecting the performance of HTHP. In this paper, a mathematical prediction model is established to investigate the heat and mass transfer characteristics of the heat-source tower (HST) in low temperature environment. It is found that the air temperature can be lower than the corresponding solution temperature in certain areas of HST when the inlet air-solution temperature difference is very small. Under the condition of the average heat transfer temperature difference of 5 °C, there is no significant reduction in the heat transfer when the ambient temperature drops from 0 °C to −15 °C, and the latent heat ratio is 25% and 50% at the ambient temperature of −15 °C and 0 °C respectively. The relationships between the optimum liquid-to-gas ratio of HST and the operation parameters of air and solution are also studied. The results show that air temperature, solution temperature and solution mass concentration have influences on the optimal liquid-to-gas ratio, whereas air relative humidity has no effect. This paper concludes that the latent heat has a significant impact on the heat transfer. A great amount of heat can be transferred from the air to the solution in HST by adjusting and optimizing the operation parameters in low temperature environment.

  • 40.
    Irunde, Regina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Univ Dar Salaam, Dept Water Resources Engn, Coll Engn & Technol, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.;Univ Dar Salaam, Coll Nat & Appl Sci, Dept Chem, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Ijumulana, Julian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Univ Dar Salaam, Dept Water Resources Engn, Coll Engn & Technol, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.;Univ Dar Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Transportat & Geotech Engn, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Ligate, Fanuel Josephat
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Univ Dar Salaam, Dept Water Resources Engn, Coll Engn & Technol, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.;Univ Dar Salaam, Mkwawa Coll Educ, Dept Chem, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    KIIT Deemed Be Univ, Sch Appl Sci, Dept Chem, Bhubaneswar 751024, Odisha, India..
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, KTH Int Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, Teknikringen 10B, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;SIBELCO Ankerpoort NV, Op Bos 300, NL-6223 EP Maastricht, Netherlands..
    Mtamba, Joseph
    Univ Dar Salaam, Dept Water Resources Engn, Coll Engn & Technol, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Mtalo, Felix
    Univ Dar Salaam, Dept Water Resources Engn, Coll Engn & Technol, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Arsenic in Africa: Potential sources, spatial variability, and the state of the art for arsenic removal using locally available materials2022In: GROUNDWATER FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 18, p. 100746-, article id 100746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past two decades, several studies on arsenic (As) occurrence in the environment, particularly in surface and groundwater systems have reported high levels of As in some African countries. Arsenic concentrations up to 10,000 mu g/L have been reported in surface water systems, caused by human activities such as mining, industrial effluents, and municipal solid waste disposals. Similarly, concentrations up to 1760 mu g/L have been reported in many groundwater systems which account for approximately 60% of drinking water demand in rural Africa. Naturally, As is mobilized in groundwater systems through weathering processes and dissolution of As bearing minerals such as sulfides (pyrite, arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite), iron oxides, other mineralized granitic and gneissic rocks, and climate change factors triggering As release in groundwater. Recently, public health studies in some African countries such as Tanzania and Ethiopia have reported high levels of As in human tissues such as toenails as well as in urine among pregnant women exposed to As contaminated groundwater, respectively. In urine, concentrations up to 150 mu g/L were reported among pregnant women depending on As contaminated drinking water within Geita gold mining areas in the north-western part of Tanzania. However, the studies on As occurrence, and mobilization in African water systems, as well as related health effects are limited, due to the lack of awareness. The current study aims to gather information on the occurrence of As in different environmental compartments, its spatial variability, public health problems and the potential remediation options of As in water sources. The study also aims at creating awareness of As contamination in Africa and its removal using locally available materials.

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  • 41.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Physics.
    Karlberg, Louise
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Physics.
    Theory and practice of coupled heat and mass transfer model for soil-plant-atmosphere system2009Book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Cementindustrin bör förändras i grunden2023In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 2023-08-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 43.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Sverige har en övertro på koldioxid­infångning2023In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 44.
    Kamb, Anneli
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. Mid Sweden university.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Potentials for reducing climate impact from tourism transport behavior2020In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of greenhouse gases from tourism transport are rising globally, with air transport accounting for the largest share. Although travel is not likely to decrease drastically, people could travel differently, and still have similar experiences. This study aims to map the emissions from air travel and analyse the theoretical potential for emissions reduction by changing transport mode and destinations, and the readiness potential for emissions reduction based on tourists’ stated readiness to change their travel behaviour. The theoretical potential was assessed by analysing alternative trips to closer destinations and using transport modes with lower emissions or through virtual meetings. The readiness potential was assessed by a survey designed to capture people’s stated readiness to change their behaviour. The results show a theoretical potential for an emissions reduction of 67%, while the readiness potential is 26%. About half of the readiness potential for reductions is from changing destination, while only a small share is from changing transport mode. This shows that, when accounting for people’s readiness to change behaviour, destination choice has a greater potential to reduce emissions compared to transport mode choice. This finding has implications for policy makers in designing policy measures to reduce emissions. 

  • 45.
    Karesdotter, Elisie
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ghajarnia, Navid
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mapping the Vulnerability of Arctic Wetlands to Global Warming2021In: Earth's Future, E-ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 9, no 5, article id e2020EF001858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services of local and global importance, but currently there exists no comprehensive, high-quality wetland map for the Arctic region. Improved information about Arctic wetland extents and their vulnerability to climate change is essential for adaptation and mitigation efforts, including for indigenous people dependent on the ecosystem services that wetlands provide, as inadequate planning could result in dire consequences for societies and ecosystems alike. Synthesizing high-resolution wetland databases and datasets on soil wetness and soil types from multiple sources, we created the first high-resolution map with full coverage of Arctic wetlands. We assess the vulnerability of Arctic wetlands for the years 2050, 2075, and 2100, using datasets on permafrost extent, soil types, and projected mean annual air temperature from the HadGEM2-ES climate model for three change scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5). Our mapping shows that wetlands cover approximately 3.5 million km(2) or roughly 25% of Arctic landmass and 99% of these wetlands are in permafrost areas, indicating considerable vulnerability to future climate change. Unless global warming is limited to scenario RCP2.6, robust results show that large areas of Arctic wetlands are vulnerable to ecosystem regime shifts. If scenario RCP8.5 becomes a reality, at least 50% of the Arctic wetland area would be highly vulnerable to regime shifts with considerable adverse impacts on human health, infrastructure, economics, ecosystems, and biodiversity. The developed wetland and vulnerability maps can aid planning and prioritization of the most vulnerable areas for protection and mitigation of change.

  • 46. Keyes, N. D.B.
    et al.
    Giorgini, L. T.
    Nordtia SU.
    Wettlaufer, John
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Stochastic paleoclimatology: Modeling the EPICA ice core climate records2023In: Chaos, ISSN 1054-1500, E-ISSN 1089-7682, Vol. 33, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze and model the stochastic behavior of paleoclimate time series and assess the implications for the coupling of climate variables during the Pleistocene glacial cycles. We examine 800 kiloyears of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and temperature proxy data from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome-C ice core, which are characterized by 100 ky glacial cycles overlain by fluctuations across a wide range of timescales. We quantify this behavior through multifractal time-weighted detrended fluctuation analysis, which distinguishes near-red-noise and white-noise behavior below and above the 100 ky glacial cycle, respectively, in all records. This allows us to model each time series as a one-dimensional periodic nonautonomous stochastic dynamical system, and assess the stability of physical processes and the fidelity of model-simulated time series. We extend this approach to a four-variable model with intervariable coupling terms, which we interpret in terms of possible interrelationships among the four time series. Within the framework of our coupling coefficients, we find that carbon dioxide and temperature act to stabilize each other and methane and nitrous oxide, whereas the latter two destabilize each other and carbon dioxide and temperature. We also compute the response function for each pair of variables to assess the model performance by comparison to the data and confirm the model predictions regarding stability amongst variables. Taken together, our results are consistent with glacial pacing dominated by carbon dioxide and temperature that is modulated by terrestrial biosphere feedbacks associated with methane and nitrous oxide emissions.

  • 47.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in Nepal2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to modern energy services derived from renewable sources is a prerequisite, not only for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development, but also for energy security and climate change mitigation. The least developed countries (LDCs) primarily use traditional biomass and have little access to commercial energy sources. They are more vulnerable to problems relating to energy security, air pollution, and the need for hard-cash currency to import fossil fuels. This thesis evaluates sugarcane-molasses bioethanol, a renewable energy source with the potential to be used as a transport fuel in Nepal.

    Sustainability aspects of molasses-based ethanol have been analyzed. Two important indicators for sustainability, viz. net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances have been used to assess the appropriateness of bioethanol in the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. This thesis has found that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce it. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and combustion are also lower than those of gasoline. The impacts of important physical and market parameters, such as sugar cane productivity, the use of fertilizers, energy consumption in different processes, and price have been observed in evaluating the sustainability aspects of bioethanol production.

    The production potential of bioethanol has been assessed. Concerns relating to the fuel vs. food debate, energy security, and air pollution have also been discussed. The thesis concludes that the major sustainability indicators for molasses ethanol in Nepal are in line with the goals of sustainable development. Thus, Nepal could be a good example for other LDCs when favorable governmental policy, institutional set-ups, and developmental cooperation from donor partners are in place to strengthen the development of renewable energy technologies.

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  • 48.
    Khavari, Babak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems.
    Ramirez Gomez, Camilo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems.
    Jeuland, Marc
    Sanford School of Public Policy, and Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Nerini, Francesco Fuso
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, KTH Climate Action Centre, CAC.
    A geospatial approach to understanding clean cooking challenges in sub-Saharan Africa2023In: Nature Sustainability, E-ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 447-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Universal clean cooking is a key target under Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 7, with implications for several other SDGs, such as good health, gender equality and climate. Yet, 2.4 billion people globally still lack access to clean cooking. The situation is especially dire in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where only 17% use clean options. We develop OnStove, an open-source spatial tool comparing the relative potential of different cookstoves on the basis of their costs and benefits, and apply it to SSA. Our results suggest a severe market failure as the currently most used solution, traditional biomass, produces the lowest social net-benefits nearly everywhere in SSA. Correcting this failure, which stems from multiple market and behavioural obstacles, would deliver significant health, time and emission benefits but requires identification and promotion of policies to transform cooking energy use. Spatial mapping offers a more nuanced understanding of the costs needed to deliver cleaner cooking transitions than was previously possible, which is useful for improved targeting of intervention strategies.

  • 49.
    Khormizi, Hadi Zare
    et al.
    Range Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj.
    Ghafarian Malamiri, Hamid Reza
    Remote Sensing, Department of Geography, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.
    Alian, Sahar
    Department of Civil Engineering, Rahman Institute of Higher Education, Ramsar, Iran.
    Stein, Alfred
    Department of Earth Observation Science, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ferreira, Carla Sofia Santos
    Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Applied Research Institute, Coimbra, Portugal; Research Centre for Natural Resources, Environment and Society (CERNAS), Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Proof of evidence of changes in global terrestrial biomes using historic and recent NDVI time series2023In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 8, article id e18686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change affects plant dynamics and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. This study aims to investigate temporal changes in global vegetation coverage and biomes during the past three decades. We compared historic annual NDVI time series (1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985) with recent ones (2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018), captured from NOAA-AVHRR satellite observations. To correct the NDVI time series for missing data and outliers, we applied the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm. The NDVI time series were decomposed in their significant amplitude and phase given their periodic fluctuation, except for ever green vegetation. Our findings show that the average NDVI values in most biomes have increased significantly (F-value<0.01) by 0.05 ndvi units over during the past three decades, except in tundra, and deserts and xeric shrublands. The highest rates of change in the harmonic components were observed in the northern hemisphere, mainly above 30° latitude. Worldwide, the mean annual phase reduced by 9° corresponding to a 9 days shift in the beginning of the growing season. Annual phases in the recent time series reduced significantly as compared to the historic time series in the five major global biomes: by 14.1, 14.8, 10.6, 9.5, and 22.8 days in boreal forests/taiga; Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrubs; temperate conifer forests; temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands; and deserts, and xeric shrublands, respectively. In tropical and subtropical biomes, however, changes in the annual phase of vegetation coverage were not statistically significant. The decrease in the level of phases and acceleration of growth and changes in plant phenology indicate the increase in temperature and climate changes of the planet.

  • 50.
    Kinnby, Alexandra
    et al.
    Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE-452 96 Strömstad, Sweden, SE-452 96.
    Cervin, Gunnar
    Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE-452 96 Strömstad, Sweden, SE-452 96.
    Larsson, Ann I.
    Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE-452 96 Strömstad, Sweden, SE-452 96.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Toth, Gunilla B.
    Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE-452 96 Strömstad, Sweden, SE-452 96.
    Pavia, Henrik
    Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE-452 96 Strömstad, Sweden, SE-452 96.
    Ocean acidification reduces thallus strength in a non-calcifying foundation seaweed2023In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 33, no 18, p. 941-942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is causing unprecedented changes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems through the emission of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2). Approximately 30% of CO2 is taken up by the ocean (‘ocean acidification’, OA)1, which has profound effects on foundation seaweed species. Negative physical effects on calcifying algae are clear2, but studies on habitat-forming fleshy seaweeds have mainly focused on growth and less on thallus strength3,4. We exposed the habitat-forming brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus to OA corresponding to projected climate change effects for the year 2100, and observed reduced apical thallus strength and greater loss of exposed individuals in the field. The tissue contained less calcium and magnesium, both of which are important for creating structural alginate matrices. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed tissue voids in the OA samples that were not present in seaweeds grown under ambient pCO2. We conclude that under OA, weakened F. vesiculosus will be at a significantly higher risk of physical damage and detachment.

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