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  • 1.
    Abdi, Amir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Sawalha, Samer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Karampour, Mazyar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Heat recovery investigation of a supermarket refrigeration system using carbon dioxide as refrigerant2014In: 11th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants: Natural Refrigerants and Environmental Protection, GL 2014, International Institute of Refrigeration, 2014, p. 277-285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the heat reclaim of trans-critical CO2-booster refrigeration unit in a supermarket in Sweden. The aim is to compare the control strategy for heat recovery in real supermarket installation to the optimum control strategy.

    The optimum control strategy based on theoretical analysis is explained. By analyzing field measurement of a supermarket, heat recovery in the refrigeration system is studied and compared to the optimum case. To investigate the potential of higher heat recovery rate, a computer model is developed based on the optimum control strategy.  The model is also used to calculate the boundary conditions at which the system should run for highest COP.

    The results show that heat can be recovered at heating COP of 3-4.5. The theoretical analysis shows that the amount of heat that can be recovered from the refrigeration system is about 1.3 times (130 %) the cooling demand in the system. However the analysis of the field measurements shows that only between 30-60 % of the available heat to be recovered is utilized, the rest is released to outdoors. The analysis in this study shows that there is a potential to recover much more heat from the refrigeration system at relatively high heating COP compared to heat pump.

  • 2.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Lieder, Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Multi-method simulation based tool to evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, p. 1261-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The transition from linear to circular product systems is a big step for any organization. This may require an organization to change the way it does business, designs product and manages supply chain. As these three areas are interdependent, bringing change in one area will influence the others, for instance, changing the business model from conventional sales to leasing will demand changes in both product design and the supply chain. At the same time, it is essential for an organization to anticipate the economic and environmental impact of all changes before it may decide to implement the circular product systems. However, there is no tool available today that can assess economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. The purpose of this research is to develop a multi-method simulation based tool that can help to evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. Method: The conceptual models that are used to develop the tool have been formulated based on review of the state-of-the-art research. System Dynamics (SD) and Agent Based (AB) principles have been used to create the simulation model which has been implemented in Anylogic software platform. Originality: This research presents the first multi-method simulation based tool that can evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. Findings: Multi-method simulation technique is useful in designing dynamic simulation model that takes into consideration mutual interactions among critical factors of business model, product design and supply chain. It also allows predicting system's behaviour and its influence on the economic and environmental performance of circular product systems.

  • 3.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Bianchi, C.
    Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    System dynamics models for decision making in product multiple lifecycles2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 101, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main drivers for adopting product multiple lifecycles are to gain ecological and economic advantages. However, in most of the cases it is not straight forward to estimate the potential ecological and economic gain that may result from adopting product multiple lifecycles. Even though many researchers have concluded that product multiple lifecycles result in gain, there are examples which indicate that the gain is often marginal or even none in many cases. The purpose of this research is to develop system dynamics models that can assist decision makers in assessing and analysing the potential gain of product multiple lifecycles considering the dynamics of material scarcity. The foundation of the research presented in this paper is laid based on literature review. System dynamics principles have been used for modelling and simulations have been done on Stella iThink platform. The data used in the models have been extracted from different reports published by World Steel Association and U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the data have been assumed based on expert estimation. The data on iron ore reserves, iron and steel productions and consumptions have been used in the models. This research presents the first system dynamics model for decision making in product multiple lifecycles which takes into consideration the dynamics of material scarcity. Physical unavailability and price of material are the two main factors that would drive product multiple lifecycles approach and more sustainable decisions can be made if it is done by taking holistic system approach over longer time horizon. For an enterprise it is perhaps not attractive to conserve a particular type of material through product multiple lifecycles approach which is naturally abundant but extremely important if the material becomes critical. An enterprise could through engineering, proper business model and marketing may increase the share of multiple lifecycle products which eventually would help the enterprise to reduce its dependency on critical materials.

  • 4.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    SLU.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekman, Anna
    Lund University.
    Karlsson, H
    SLU.
    Berlin, Johanna
    SP.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers.
    Strid, Ingrid
    SLU.
    LCA of biorefinieries -identification of key issues and methodological recommendations2013Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekman, Anna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Berlin, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strid, Ingrid
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems: key issues and recommendations2015In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 606-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation).

  • 6.
    Ahlmer, Anna-Klara
    et al.
    KTH. Trivector Traff, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cavalli, Marco
    CNR, Res Inst Geohydrol Protect, Padua, Italy..
    Hansson, Klas
    Swedish Transport Adm Trafikverket, S-17290 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Koutsouris, Alexander J.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Crema, Stefano
    CNR, Res Inst Geohydrol Protect, Padua, Italy..
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Soil moisture remote-sensing applications for identification of flood-prone areas along transport infrastructure2018In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 77, no 14, article id 533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected increase in precipitation and temperature in Scandinavia, and especially short-time heavy precipitation, will increase the frequency of flooding. Urban areas are the most vulnerable, and specifically, the road infrastructure. The accumulation of large volumes of water and sediments on road-stream intersections gets severe consequences for the road drainage structures. This study integrates the spatial and temporal soil moisture properties into the research about flood prediction methods by a case study of two areas in Sweden, Vastra Gotaland and Varmland, which was affected by severe flooding in August 2014. Soil moisture data are derived from remote-sensing techniques, with a focus on the soil moisture-specific satellites ASCAT and SMOS. Furthermore, several physical catchments descriptors (PCDs) are analyzed and the result shows that larger slopes and drainage density, in general, mean a higher risk of flooding. The precipitation is the same; however, it can be concluded that more precipitation in most cases gives higher soil moisture values. The lack, or the dimensioning, of road drainage structures seems to have a large impact on the flood risk as more sediment and water can be accumulated at the road-stream intersection. The results show that the method implementing soil moisture satellite data is promising for improving the reliability of flooding.

  • 7.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Hoofd Ingenieursbureau, Brabant Water N.V., 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands .
    Van De Wetering, S.
    Groenendijk, M.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Advanced Oxidation-Coagulation-Filtration (AOCF) - An innovative treatment technology for targeting drinking water with <1 μg/L of arsenic2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, p. 817-819Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Oxidation-Coagulation-Filtration (AOCF) has been investigated for producing drinking water with less than 1 μg L-1 of As through a series of bench scale and pilot scale experiments. At bench scale, the suitable coagulant, its combination dose with KMnO4 oxidant, the optimum process pH and kinetics of As removal were determined. The optimized AOCF technique was capable of consistently reducing the As concentration to below 1 μg L-1 when implemented at pilot scale and did not adversely affect the already existing removal processes of Fe, Mn and NH4 +. Dual media filter solved the filter run time reduction issue.

  • 8. Ahmed, K. M.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Groundwater arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh: Two decades of advancements in scientific research and policy instruments2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, 2014, p. 886-888Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two decades have passed since the first detection of arsenic above allowable limits in groundwater of Bangladesh. A good number of scientific research and mitigation projects have so far been completed but still today more than 22 million people are exposed to arsenic leaves of 50 μg L-1 or more. As there are many untested new wells, it is not precisely known how many people are exposed to what level. Scientific knowledge about occurrences, distribution and release mechanisms have enhanced significantly. Although deep tube wells have emerged as the most effective mitigation measure over most of the country, still there are areas where this does not work. Recent studies reported effectiveness of alternative options like intermediate deep wells and subsurface arsenic removal. There has been a major paradigm shift in the policy arena regarding arsenic mitigation.

  • 9. Ahmed, K. M.
    et al.
    Sultana, S.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M. K.
    Burgess, W. K.
    Hoque, M. A.
    Groundwater quality contrasts between Upper and Lower Dupi Tila Aquifers in Megacity Dhaka, Bangladesh2011In: Groundwater quality contrasts between Upper and Lower Dupi Tila Aquifers in Megacity Dhaka, Bangladesh: Proc. 7th International Groundwater Quality Conference, 2011, p. 71-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dhaka is one of the fastest growing megacities of the world and is set to become the third largest by 2025. Currently about 86% of the municipal water supply comes from over 500 wells drilled in the Dupi Tila aquifers underlying the city. The Upper Dupi Tila aquifer (UDTA) is overexploited and a large part has been dewatered; abstractions from the lower Dupi Tila started only recently. Results of water analysis and EC surveys have been used to decipher the variations in groundwater quality in the UDTA and LDTA. EC surveys reveal a systematic deterioration of water quality in the vicinity of the Buriganga River in southeast Dhaka. The UDTA is more widely affected by anthropogenic processes than the LDTA, which still largely exhibits its intrinsic water quality characteristics. Regular monitoring and proper management practices are essential to protect the quality of this precarious resource.

  • 10. Aigelsperger, Lisa
    et al.
    Kummer, Susanne
    Milestad, Rebecka
    Department of Urban and Rural Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vogl, Christian R.
    Chowdhury, A.
    Knowledge systems, innovations and social learning in organic farming: An Overwiev2010In: Proceedings of the 9th European IFSA Symposium, 2010, p. 664-669Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050: Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.1.R Institutional grid review.2013Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Albrecht, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Electrification of vehicles – policy drivers and impacts in two scenarios.2013In: Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets / [ed] Qiuwei Wu, John Wiley & Sons, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines current policy drivers of battery electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs, the current and anticipated impacts on carbon emissions, as well as what potential role policy can play in enhancing the innovation system and market development around such vehicles in the future. We start with a policy review of key targets in the Nordic countries and the EU, up to 2030, and discuss to what extent they are consistent with industry and expert estimates of how the systems can grow. On the basis of this, the second part elaborates two simple scenarios of EV development in the EU: one breakthrough expansion scenario and one incremental expansion scenario. Building on that is an analysis of the climate impacts of the two scenarios, given different assumptions relating to, for example, electricity production as well as EV penetration in the fleet. The third part examines what policy drivers might be needed to enable the breakthrough scenario, using a technological innovation systems perspective to describe the needed processes, drivers and developments.

  • 13.
    Albrecht, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nilsson, Måns
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050:Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.2.R Policy and Institutional Review Electric Vehicles (EV).2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines policy drivers of electric vehicles (EVs), and what potential role policy can play in enhancing the innovation and market development of EVs. We start with a policy review of key targets in the Nordic countries and the EU, up to 2030, and discuss to what extent they are consistent with industry, government and expert estimates of how the EV innovation systems can grow. On the basis of this, the second part examines what policy drivers might be needed to enable a breakthrough scenario, using a technological innovation systems (TIS) perspective to describe the needed processes, drivers and developments in policy and technology.

  • 14.
    Ambell, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Xu, Yixuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Waste of Opportunities - A Holistic Study of the Current Situation of Municipal Waste Management in Shandong Province, China2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China’s growth and development have opened the door to a new world. Shandong province’s 90 million inhabitants are entering into a consumption society and the waste stream from households, restaurants and commercials has become a challenge. So far, the waste has mostly been burned in backyards, thrown into rivers, put on open dumps or taken to landfills. The environmental consequence is strong. This study was carried out in Shandong province and presents the current situation of the municipal waste management. The result of the study is organised into social, economical, technical and environmental parameters. It mostly covers the years 2006 to 2010. In the discussion, the strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats to the management are analysed, which gives an overview of the complex situation.

    The final conclusion is that there are a lot of opportunities in developing municipal solid waste management in Shandong province since the work and planning is new and economy is good. Threats are for example a larger waste stream. The municipal waste management has some strengths, such as a lot of projects going on, but also a lot of weakness for instance implementation of the regulations and laws.

  • 15. An, Lin
    et al.
    Yu, Xinhai
    Yang, Jie
    Tu, Shan-Tung
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    CO2 capture using a superhydrophobic ceramic membrane contactor2015In: CLEAN, EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, Elsevier, 2015, p. 2287-2292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetting and fouling of membrane contactor result in performance deterioration of membrane gas absorption system for CO2 post-combustion capture of coal-fired power plants. To solve these problems, in this study, a superhydrophobic ceramic (SC) membrane contactor was fabricated by chemically modification using 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctylethoxysilane (FAS) solution. The membrane contactor fabrication costs for both SC membrane and PP (polypropylene) membrane contactors per unit mass absorbed CO2 were roughly the same. However, by using the SC membrane, the detrimental effects of wetting can be alleviated by periodic drying to ensure a high CO2 removal efficiency (>90%), whereas the drying does not work for the PP membrane. The SC membrane contactor exhibited a better anti-fouling ability than the PP membrane contactor because the superhydrophobic surface featured a self-cleaning function. To ensure continuous CO2 removal with high efficiency, a method that two SC membrane contactors alternatively operate combined with periodic drying was proposed. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gren, Åsa
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Borgström, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McPhearson, Timon
    The New School, New York.
    Double Insurance in Dealing with Extremes:Ecological and Social Factors for MakingNature-Based Solutions Last2017In: Nature‐based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptationin Urban Areas: Theory and Practice of Urban Sustainability Transitions / [ed] Kabisch, N.,Korn, H., Stadler, J.,Bonn, A., Germany: Springer, 2017, p. 51-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Global urbanisation has led to extreme population densities often in areasprone to problems such as extreme heat, storm surges, coastal and surface flooding,droughts and fires. Although nature based solutions (NBS) often have specifictargets,one of the overarching objectives with NBS design and implementation is toprotect human livelihoods and well-being, not least by protecting real estate andbuilt infrastructure. However, NBS need to be integrated and spatially and functionallymatched with other land uses, which requires that their contribution to societyis recognised. This chapter will present an ecologically grounded, resilience theoryand social-ecological systems perspective on NBS, with a main focus on how functioningecosystems contribute to the ‘solutions’. We will outline some of the basicprinciples and frameworks for studying and including insurance value in worktowards climate change adaptation and resilience, with a special emphasis on theneed to address both internal and external insurance. As we will demonstratethrough real world examples as well as theory, NBS should be treated as dynamiccomponents nested within larger systems and influenced by social as well as ecologicalfactors. Governance processes seeking to build urban resilience to climatechange in cities and other urban dynamics will need to consider both layers of insurancein order to utilize the powerful role NBS can play in creating sustainable,healthy, and liveable urban systems.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Lina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Medborgarforskning: En miljöutbildning för allmänheten?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to study the behavioral changes in participants in the citizen science project

    "Växtkalendern". The purpose is also to study how the citizen science project "Växtkalendern" can influence the gap between awareness and action in terms of climate change issues, so-called action gap, among the participants. The study is conducted based on an abductive approach, where the empiric material influences the literature study and vice-versa. The relevant empirical was collected through a survey sent out to all the participants in the project "Växtkalendern". In addition, interviews and discussions with specialists in the field of citizen science research have been conducted.

    The results shows that the citizen science project

    "Växtkalendern" has potential to influence participants. The survey revealed that the participants felt that the opportunity to assist research was clearly the most important reason for participation. Using the theoretical standing points and the empirical material, the citizen science project ability to create behavioral changes in the participants in terms of climate change issues was analyzed. The study shows that the gap between awareness and action can be reduced with the help of citizen science as participants experienced increased awareness and a changing behavior through participation in the project "Växtkalendern".

  • 19.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology (closed September 2009).
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology (closed September 2009).
    Bioaugmentation for enhanced denitrification in a labscale treatment system2006In: Proceedings of the Second IASTED International Conference on Advanced Technology in the Environmental Field / [ed] Ubertini, L, ACTA Press, 2006, p. 63-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of bioaugmentation was investigated in a predenitrification lab-scale wastewater treatment system. The aim was to investigate the difference between two approaches to bioaugmentation: one in which suspended overnight culture was used as inoculum and another where bacteria immobilized in 1% agar beads were used. Pure cultures of the denitrifying bacteria Comamonas denitrificans ATCC 700936T were used in the experiments. The effect of bioaugmentation on the system was monitored using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and denitrification activity tests. The bioaugmentation with suspended bacteria showed a rapid initial (4 days) increase in denitrification activity. After 8 days the activity declined to the level of the reference system and cells of C. denitrificans were no longer detectable. Augmentation with agar-embedded bacteria resulted in a small increase in activity and very few bacteria of C. denitrificans could be observed.

  • 20.
    Annaduzzaman, Md
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chitosan biopolymer as an adsorbent for drinking water treatment: Investigation on Arsenic and Uranium2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries over the world (including Sweden), metal toxicity in freshwater resources causes a severe drinking water quality problem and poses a threat to the environment and human health. Among the different toxic metals in the water resources of Sweden, arsenic and uranium are the biggest threats to health. These elements, over long time consumption, may even lead to cancer and/or neurological disorder. Most of the wells are installed in crystalline and sedimentary bedrock and the received water comes from water bearing fractures in the bedrock. The handling of such water is an issue and there is a need to reduce the arsenic and uranium exposure by improving processes and technologies. It is a very serious problem demanding a safe, sustainable and eco-friendly arsenic and uranium removal technology prior to drinking water supply. Different treatment systems are available, but many of them are not suitable due to their high cost, operation complexity and waste management issues. Through this study, chitosan biopolymer the second largest abundant polysaccharide on earth after cellulose, was verified as a potential adsorbent for arsenic(V) and uranium(VI) removal from water solution. Adsorbent characterizations were also conducted by XRD, FTIR, SEM, UV-visible spectrum and TGA/DTA investigations. Bench-scale batch experiments were conducted using chitosan biopolymer (DDA-85%) as an adsorbent to determine the arsenic(V) and uranium(VI) removal efficiency, by allowing four important effective parameters e.g. chitosan dosages, pH, contact time and contaminant concentration. The adsorption data at optimum conditions were fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkhevic (D-R) isotherm and Lagergren pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic model to investigate the adsorption process. The characterization of materials assured the presence of effective amino, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups of chitosan. Another advanntage is that the materials are bio-degradable. The results show that the arsenic(V) and uranium(VI) removal efficiency was 100% and 97.45% after 300 minutes with optimum pH of 6.0 and 7.0 respectively. The optimum adsorbent dosages and initial concentration were 60 and 80g/L and 100 and 250 µg/L respectively. The adsorption process was suitably described by Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.9933) and Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.9858) correspondingly for arsenic(V) uranium(VI) compared to other isotherms. This is an important indicator of homogeneous monolayer adsorption of metals. For both of arsenic(V) and uranium(VI), pseudo-second-order explained the adsorption kinetics better than pseudo-first-order and the second-order kinetic regression coefficient (R2) were 0.9959 and 0.9672 correspondingly. Connecting to the above mentioned results, it can be summed up that the chitosan biopolymer (DDA 85%) can be used as an inexpensive, sustainable and environment-friendly treatment option for arsenic(V) and uranium(VI) contaminated drinking water.

  • 21. Aronson, M.F.J.
    et al.
    La Sorte, F.A.
    Nilon, C.H.
    Katti, M.
    Goddard, M.A.
    Lepczyk, C.A.
    Warren, P.S.
    Williams, W.P.S.
    Cilliers, S.
    Clarkson, B.
    Dobbs, Cynnamon
    Dolan, R.
    Hedblom, M.
    Klotz, S.
    Louwe Kooijmans, Jip
    Kühn, I.
    MacGregor-Fors, I.
    McDonnell, Mark
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Pyšek, P.
    Siebert, S.
    Sushinsky, J.
    Werner, Peter
    Winter, M.
    A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1780, p. 20133330-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization contributes to the loss of the world's biodiversity and the homogenization of its biota. However, comparative studies of urban biodiversity leading to robust generalities of the status and drivers of biodiversity in cities at the global scale are lacking. Here, we compiled the largest global dataset to date of two diverse taxa in cities: birds (54 cities) and plants (110 cities). We found that the majority of urban bird and plant species are native in the world's cities. Few plants and birds are cosmopolitan, the most common being Columba livia and Poa annua. The density of bird and plant species (the number of species per km2) has declined substantially: only 8% of native bird and 25% of native plant species are currently present compared with estimates of non-urban density of species. The current density of species in cities and the loss in density of species was best explained by anthropogenic features (landcover, city age) rather than by non-anthropogenic factors (geography, climate, topography). As urbanization continues to expand, efforts directed towards the conservation of intact vegetation within urban landscapes could support higher concentrations of both bird and plant species. Despite declines in the density of species, cities still retain endemic native species, thus providing opportunities for regional and global biodiversity conservation, restoration and education.

  • 22.
    Aronsson, Per
    et al.
    SLU.
    Hannrup, Björn
    Skogforsk.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    SLU.
    Jönsson, Mari
    SLU.
    Larsolle, Anders
    SLU.
    Lindholm, E.-L.
    SLU.
    Möller, J.
    Skogforsk.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Nordström, Maria
    Skogforsk.
    Olsson, Bengt
    SLU.
    Rudolphi, Jörgen
    SLU.
    Strömgren, M.
    SLU.
    An operational decision support tool for stump harvest2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-criteria decision support tool was developed to optimise stump harvesting for energy in Sweden. The decision tool takes account of multiple, sometimes conflicting, criteria relating to stump harvest; energy and climate, economics, biodiversity, and soil and water. Data on harvested stems are used as primary input data in the tool. Such data are routinely collected in harvester computers. The tool effectively deals with mixed sets of data; quantitative harvest data are re-calculated to metric (e.g. stump biomass), and qualitative data (e.g. biodiversity implications) are incorporated. A digital terrain map derived from air-borne laser scanning provides basic data for estimating soil wetness, while digital maps of water courses, key habitats and protected areas, or other sensitive habitats, are used to identify potentially and practically harvestable stumps.

    In four sub-models, an index from 0 to 10 is calculated for each stump, with 0 representing ‘Not at all suitable’ and 10 ‘Highly suitable for extraction’. Through this, a stump of high value for wood-living species is assigned a low index in the biodiversity sub-model and a large, easily accessible stump is assigned a high index in the economic sub-model. When calculating the net index, the sub-indices can be weighted according to the preferences of the end-user.

    An energy and climate sub-model incorporates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forest operations and the effect of advancing GHG emissions when stump biomass is incinerated instead of being left to decompose. In the economic sub-model the potential monetary return from each stump is calculated based on estimated revenue from harvested stump biomass and the costs of stump harvesting and forwarding operations (based on cost functions and GI

    S calculations of transport distances).

    The biodiversity sub-model considers four types of wood-dependent organisms (lichens, mosses, insects and fungi) in terms of their habitat requirements, vulnerability, sun exposure preferences, locality, etc. A panel of external experts has drawn up a grading scale of stump values for the different taxonomic groups. The proximity to key habitats and exposure to sunlight are derived from a spatial model.

    Soil and water issues are handled within a sub-model estimating the consequences for long-term soil fertility (nutrient cycling and soil compaction) and water (leaching of plant nutrients and mercury, and particle transport due to soil damage by heavy machinery).

    The tool offers the end-user possibilities to prioritise and plan for cost-effective stump harvesting, while minimising negative environmental impacts.

  • 23.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Edlund, Lena
    Fallgren, Per
    Forsberg, Lars
    Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus
    Gustavii, Jonathan
    Herzing, Mathias
    Häckner, Jonas
    Jacobsson, Adam
    Jacobsson, Eva-Maria
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Källmén, Håkan
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Lundström, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Muren, Astri
    Sjöberg, Eric
    Thuresson, Björn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Tjörnhammar, Edward
    Wickström, Hans
    Effektiv miljötillsyn: Slutrapport2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målsättningen har varit att ta fram ny kunskap inom miljötillsynen och därigenom uppnå en effektivare miljötillsyn samt att få in nya vetenskapliga perspektiv på miljötillsyn.

    I rapporten studeras metoder för inspektioner och det kommunikativa samspelet mellan inspektören och företrädare för den verksamhet som inspekteras, hur den institutionella ramen för inspektionsprocessen fungerar samt visar på möjligheter att mäta effekterna av inspektioner och tillsyn.

    Naturvårdsverket kommer att ha resultatet som ett kunskapsunderlag i fortsatt arbete med tillsynsvägledning och utveckling av hur tillsyn och tillsynsvägledning kan följas upp och utvärderas.

  • 24. Arts, Jos
    et al.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    New governance approaches for sustainable project delivery2012In: Transport Research Arena 2012, Elsevier, 2012, Vol. 48, p. 3239-3250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies show that many infrastructure projects have problems to deliver sustainability commitments made earlier in the planning process. One problem is that many decisions influencing project design and environmental performance are made after the (formal) planning process and consent decision. Also, many parties are involved in project delivery and there is lack of information transfer (follow-up) from planning stages to construction and implementation. In addition, the effectiveness of project studies has been questioned (i.e. do project studies delivering their outcomes?). In international practice various approaches are adopted to overcome these problems. One approach is to move towards more collaborative relationships between various parties (governmental, private and public). Also, authorities and companies increasingly use procurement and contracting as an environmental policy instrument to further the environmental performance of projects (green procurement). Furthermore, new tools for securing sustainability commitments are increasingly used in infrastructure design and construction (e.g. rating tools such as CEEQUAL, BREEAM, LEED). The various approaches have developed independently but nevertheless seem to head in the same direction i.e. achieving more environmental sustainable outcomes of (infrastructure) projects. An important challenge is how these approaches can be combined to reinforce each other for more sustainable project delivery. Various relationships can be developed between the different 'tracks' of impact assessment, green procurement and partnering contracts in order to come to a more integrated approach. This paper aims at discussing and comparing different approaches for delivering sustainability in infrastructure projects. By integrating green procurement, partnering and sustainability declaration, an integrated approach could be developed in order to safeguard sustainable performance beyond the formal decision-making phase of infrastructure projects. This integrated approach would enable transfer of information, communication, learning from experience and adaptive environmental management.

  • 25.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Environmental Impacts of ICT: Present and Future2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT is developing rapidly and is playing an increasingly important role in society. High expectations are placed on ICT in relation to sustainable development. In order to provide basis for decision-making and ensure that ICT is used in the best possible way for enabling sustainable development, the sustainability impacts of ICT need to be studied.

    This thesis aims to provide new knowledge on the environmental impacts related to ICT, to explore the potential of ICT to contribute to sustainability, and discuss ways of assessing environmental impacts of ICT. In order to fulfill the aim a literature review of existing LCA studies of ICT was done, an LCA case study of printed and online media was performed, a methodological framework for sustainability assessment of scenarios was developed and then applied for environmental assessment of future ICT societies.

    The results show that manufacturing and use phase are the life cycle stages contributing the most to the ICT environmental impacts. For online newspapers online distribution and content production may give significant contribution to the overall impact. User behavior was observed to be crucial for the results of comparisons of ICT solutions with their traditional counterparts.

    The following key issues were concluded to influence the environmental risks and opportunities in future ICT societies: energy mix, economic conditions, life styles, technology, and environmental ambitions, incentives and regulation. The potential of ICT for sustainability is affected by these key issues.

    A new methodological framework (SAFS) was developed for the assessment of future scenarios (societal level). Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for assessment on a product level. Application of both methods, their benefits, drawbacks, and challenges of assessment were discussed. Both types of assessments were concluded to be important to support decision-making.

  • 26.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Eriksson, Ola
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Stenmarck, Asa
    Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

  • 27.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Sustainability assessment framework for scenarios – SAFS2017In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 63, p. 23-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address current challenges regarding sustainable development and support planning for this form of development, new learning about different possible futures and their potential sustainability implications is needed. One way of facilitating this learning is by combining the futures studies and sustainability assessment (SA) research fields. This paper presents the sustainability assessment framework for scenarios (SAFS), a method developed for assessing the environmental and social risks and opportunities of future scenarios, provides guidelines for its application and demonstrates how the framework can be applied. SAFS suggests assessing environmental and social aspects using a consumption perspective and a life cycle approach, and provides qualitative results. SAFS does not suggest any modelling using precise data, but instead offers guidelines on how to carry out a qualitative assessment, where both the process of assessing and the outcome of the assessment are valuable and can be used as a basis for discussion. The benefits, drawbacks and potential challenges of applying SAFS are also discussed in the paper. SAFS uses systems thinking looking at future societies as a whole, considering both environmental and social consequences. This encourages researchers and decision-makers to consider the whole picture, and not just individual elements, when considering different futures.

  • 28.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Sustainability Assessment Framework for Scenarios - SAFSManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Coroama, Vlad C.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Future ICT Societies – Environmental Opportunities and ChallengesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Nors, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pihkola, Hanna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Environmental Assessment of E-media Solutions Challenges Experienced in Case Studies of Alma Media Newspapers2014In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2014 CONFERENCE ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY, Atlantis Press , 2014, p. 11-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid and continuous development of information and communication technology (ICT) in society today is providing new means for various societal activities. To facilitate that new ICT solutions reduce environmental impacts and bring social improvements the potential impacts of those new solutions should be assessed. One way of making environmental assessments is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper presents and discusses challenges in assessing, comparing, communicating and acting on the results of an LCA of traditional media products and of new ICT solutions for media products, based on case studies of three newspapers in their printed and online versions. The case studies revealed the complexity in assessment and comparison of online and printed newspapers due to differences in functions and characteristics, choice and availability of data (specific and generic data, data gaps and quality), methodological choices (functional unit, allocation, scope) and assumptions on reader profile. Often no single answer can be given regarding the best option from an environmental perspective, leading to challenges in communicating the results to different stakeholders. A particular challenge is how to combine easily communicated messages with robust, transparent background information.

  • 31.
    Asperö Lind, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Biologisk behandling av matavfall med avfallskvarn: En systemanalys2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipal sewage treatment plant Käppalaverket and municipally owned waste handling company SÖRAB, both located in the northern part of Stockholm Sweden, have together started the BOA project. BOA means “Biologisk behandling av Organiskt matavfall medhjälp av Avfallskvarnar” which is translated to biological treatment of organic food waste using food waste macerators. The initiative stems from one of Sweden’s national environmental goals: Saying that at least 35 percent of all the organic waste produced byhouseholds and companies shall be treated biologically by the year 2010 and that the nutrients from this waste should be used as fertilizer.

    In the first phase of the project, seven different scenarios on how to transport the food waste from the households to the digestion chamber were described. To be able to evaluate these scenarios from a societal and sustainability perspective, seven criteria were chosen:technology, environment, work environment, economy, quality, law, and acceptance. The first part of the thesis consisted of formulating indicators from these criteria, through meetings and discussions with different working groups, all consisting of people in the waste and wastewater field. After that, a review of available tools was done to find the ones that were best suited for each chosen indicator.

    For the indicators that required calculations, Substance Flow Analysis, Life Cycle Analysis, Energy Analysis and Life Cycle Costing were chosen. After the tools had been used the results were given grades depending on how big impact they would have on society. For some of the indicators calculations were not possible and instead a qualitative grading system was used, in which the different working groups graded each scenario depending on the indicator and the grades were weighted and summed together.

    Finally, a multi criteria analysis was made together with the project managers from Käppalaverket and SÖRAB, in which the different indicators were discussed and weighted depending on how important they were considered to be. The final result of the multi criteria analysis was that one scenario could be chosen as the most suited for transport of food waste, from the perspective of the chosen indicators and their given weight.

    The scenario in which food waste is collected in bins and then transported by car to a centralprocessing plant, and finally transported by car to Käppalaverkets digestion chambers, got the highest score in the multi criteria analysis and is therefore the best scenario from the perspective of the chosen indicators and given weight. But from the multi criteria analysis onecould also see that none of the scenarios were given a particularly low score. This opens upfor the possibility of combined scenarios were all the residents of the SÖRAB region are given the possibility to recycle their food waste with a bin collecting system, but were there isa will to use systems with a kitchen food waste disposer instead it can be accepted as long as they do not become too popular.

    During the work of this thesis several questions have been raised that needs further investigation. One is what happens with the food waste when it is transported in the sewagesystem and another is how it will change during storage longer than four days. Also, the final results have shown that the impact on climate change from the scenarios could besignificantly decreased if a leakage free methane production could be assured and the possibility to use renewable fuels for the collecting cars was investigated.

  • 32. Augustsson, A.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Uddh T.
    Jarsjö, J.
    Åström, M.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Destouni, G.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, p. 1420-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.

  • 33.
    Azcarate, Juan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Fostering Participation and Dialogue Using Strategic Environmental Assessment2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Various international conventions and several theories and approaches from the planning and environment fields of study have focused on enhancing the public’s access to information and its participation in strategic decision making. However, it seems that it is challenging to encourage a meaningful public participation in decision making processes, since it is difficult to engage civil society in strategic discussions, it is complex to institutionalise participative processes, and it is demanding to include traditionally marginalised groups in current debates on development. Despite this, it appears that deciding how participative approaches should be designed and when these approaches should be applied is of crucial importance to secure appropriate forums for dialogue. To study these claims and foster participation and dialogue, a study was carried out to examine the development of flexible, adaptable and participative strategic environmental assessment processes. Even though designing the processes demanded time and constant adaptation, it is argued that adequately conceptualising and implementing flexible, adaptable and participative approaches to strategic environmental assessment can lead to inclusive, legitimate and anchored outputs that can significantly influence decision making processes.

  • 34.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Museums, communities and societal development2011In: Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, No. 62, Current Issues in European Culture, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, p. 243-246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an effort to counterbalance the inequalities and unequal power relationships that have resulted of globalisation, and to include varying perspectives of development in decision-making, non governmental organisations (NGOs) are increasingly acting as forums for marginalised and vulnerable communities. Through networks, NGOs have also enhanced the exchange of ideas, skills and knowledge between a wider sector of society. However, NGOs have been criticised by failing to effectively use their resources and capacities to significantly influence debates and decision making. To reach effectiveness, NGOs need to develop certain capacities and better understand their relationships. For this, planning and decision making support processes like strategic environmental assessment can be useful. In this paper the experiences that were gained by the museum members and communities of Samp Intercontinental Museum Network, a Swedish registered NGO, are presented. The results were participant engagement, process ownership, capacity mobilisation, and the identification of key issues to better understand the work of the network. It is argued that participative, adaptable and flexible strategic environmental assessment processes can support cultural network organisations to make their higher level guiding concepts operable, to share and develop capacities across borders and to reach long term transformations in society.

  • 35.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Network Strategic Assessment Approach for Capacity Development and Dialogue in NGOs2013In: International NGO Journal, ISSN 1993-8225, E-ISSN 1993-8225, ISSN 1993-8225, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 68-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As platforms for dialogue non-governmental organizations play an important role in facilitating the inclusion of a diversity of views in the debates and decisions that shape society. However, to successfully influence societal development non-governmental organizations need to develop and mobilize their capacities. This paper argues that organizational capacities can be developed and mobilized with strategic dialogues, which can be enabled and fostered with network strategic assessment approaches. Through a case study, research was carried out to draw experiences from designing a network strategic assessment approach in the context of a network-based non-governmental organization that aims to strengthen the development of its members and communities. Even though conceptualizing the network strategic assessment approach was challenging, research results were participant engagement, process ownership and strategic dialogues. It is argued that by fostering strategic dialogues network strategic assessment approaches allow networks to synchronize and mainstream their strategic elements in the daily activities of their member organizations. Moreover, it is claimed that such approaches contribute to integrate aspects of capacity development with network planning and decision making, enhancing organizational understanding and performance.

  • 36.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Participative SEA Approach for Data Collection and Objective Formulation2009In: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, E-ISSN 1757-5605, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 189-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the interaction between data needs and objective formulation in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). This topic is discussed from the experiences that were gained by designing and applying a participative SEA pre-study process in the developing region of the Sonso Lagoon, Colombia. Data collection and issue identification are described, as are the different purposes and similarities with objective-led and baselineled SEAs. It is argued that the participative framework used in Sonso can be applied in similar developing country contexts where there is a lack of environmental data and clear development goals. Finally, it is stressed that the participative SEA pre-study process can be implemented in situations where different sector objectives conflict or in circumstances where there is a need to formulate regional or municipal development objectives.

  • 37.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University.
    Strategic environmental assessment and monitoring: Arctic key gaps and bridging pathways2013In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 044033-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic region undergoes rapid and unprecedented environmental change. Environmental assessment and monitoring is needed to understand and decide how to mitigate and/or adapt tothe changes and their impacts on society and ecosystems. This letter analyzes the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and the monitoring, based on environmental observations, that should be part of SEA, elucidates main gaps in both, and proposes an overarching SEA framework to systematically link and improve both with focus on the rapidly changing Arctic region. Shortcomings in the monitoring of environmental change are concretized by examples of main gaps in the observations of Arctic hydroclimatic changes. For relevant identification and efficient reduction of such gaps and remaining uncertainties under typical conditions of limited monitoring resources, the proposed overarching framework for SEA application includes components for explicit gap/uncertainty handling and monitoring, systematically integrated within all steps of the SEA process. The framework further links to adaptive governance, which should explicitly consider key knowledge and information gaps that are identified through and must be handled in the SEA process, and accordingly (re)formulate and promote necessary new or modified monitoring objectives for bridging these gaps.

  • 38.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University.
    Scenario-based Transboundary Approach to Shape Arctic Futures2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advances, climate change and increased strategic interest in the Arctic are causing rapid and long lasting transformations that challenge established governance and collaboration practices, and increase information demands to support regional decision making. In the rapidly transforming Arctic, however, scenarios of environmental change risk being insufficiently accounted for in adaptation planning, as monitoring of key environmental parameters has declined or is poorly optimized. Furthermore, application of support instruments for environmental planning, such as strategic environmental assessment, has been limited. This poster presents recent advancements in efforts to combine quantitative analysis of environmental monitoring in the Arctic with strategic governance research to develop instruments, such as scenarios, projections and assessment processes, which can facilitate relevant planning and decision making for change adaptation. The research explores and aims to improve the preconditions for and links between environmental management, policy-relevant monitoring, and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic. Results include environmental monitoring assessment for the Arctic, and design of a transboundary strategic environmental assessment approach that includes scenarios as a main component for enabling strategic dialogues, information exchange and decision support. In this proposed approach, focus is placed on identifying conflicts of interest, gaps of knowledge and uncertainties, and on developing inclusive scenarios and future projections that could be used by different actors to facilitate improved understanding of climate change impacts on sensitive and unique Arctic ecosystems. The approach can be used to discuss and arrive at shared projections, visions and objectives for the Arctic, and its application and testing in research may aid in enabling Arctic actors to establish networks, interact, share information and develop their capacities to improve decisions on Arctic futures.  

  • 39.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm Univeristy.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University.
    Shaping a Sustainability Strategy for the Arctic2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of the Arctic is shaped by the opportunities and constraints brought by climate change and technological advances. In the Arctic, warmer climate is expected to affect ecosystems, local communities and infrastructure due to a combination of effects like reduced sea ice and glaciers, thawing permafrost and increased frequency of floods. Less ice and new technologies mean openings to exploit natural resources in the Arctic. Fishing, mining, hydrocarbon extraction and vessel transport activities are likely to increase together with supporting infrastructures. An escalation of economic activities in the Arctic is expected to generate employment opportunities and migration, lead to increasing urbanization and affect the socio-economic structures of indigenous cultures. To address these issues, there is a need for strategic dialogues on the development of the Arctic. Establishment and foci of such dialogues can be facilitated and formalized through a transboundary strategic environmental assessment, which brings together different visions, objectives and projected development scenarios. Visions and objectives set the scope of environmental policy, management and related human activities, while scenarios outline future development options, and assessments of the scenarios allow for relevant governance, adaptation and monitoring measures. This paper argues for the need of a transboundary strategic environmental assessment process to identify and link critical development issues, enhance participation and capacity among stakeholders, address transboundary concerns, and project and assess relevant development scenarios to reach consensus on a sustainability strategy for the Arctic.

  • 40.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University.
    Transboundary approach proposal for sustainable and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Decisions on the development of the Arctic should be given increased attention as its environmental, socio-economic and political circumstances are being significantly influenced by major trends that reinforce and support each other and together are causing long lasting transformations in the region.

    Increased strategic interest in the Arctic combined with rapid technological advances and climate change are leading to growing economic activities and natural resource extraction that challenge regional sustainable management and governance practices and international collaboration.

    Furthermore, environmental transformations risk being insufficiently accounted for in adaptation planning as environmental assessment application in the Arctic has been limited and monitoring of key environmental parameters has declined or is poorly optimized just when better information is a strong need. 

    In an effort to better understand the forces behind rapid Arctic transformations and to support key development decisions, a collaborative research project between the Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University has been established.1

    The aim of the project is to combine recent frontline research on strategic governance with quantitative analysis of environmental monitoring to develop decision making tools and assessment processes and explore and improve the preconditions for and links between environmental management, policy-relevant monitoring and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic.

    Methods

    A context analysis of Arctic institutional and governance frameworks is being carried out, where policies, sustainability objectives, environmental assessment practice, actors, and the effects of climate change are compiled, systematized and synthesized.

    Furthermore, a transboundary and participative strategic environmental assessment for information and skill exchange is being developed. Focus is placed on identifying conflicts of interest, gaps of knowledge and uncertainties, and on developing inclusive scenarios of future development possibilities that could be used by different stakeholders to discuss and arrive at shared development visions and objectives for the Arctic.

    Results and Discussion

    The collaborative research will enable Arctic actors to interact, increase and share information, skills and knowledge, build networks and, by this, develop their capacities. Moreover, experience will be gained in developing transboundary and participative assessment approaches that can be used to arrive at accepted and inclusive scenarios, visions and objectives for the Arctic, facilitating an improved understanding of climate change impacts on sensitive and unique Arctic ecosystems. Most importantly, it is thought that the research project will support decision makers to consider sustainability issues when deciding upon the measures and choices that will shape the future development of the Arctic.2

    Conclusion

    The proposed collaborative research project serves to develop transboundary and participative assessment approaches and tools to identify strategies towards sustainable development in the Arctic. This is done by creating platforms for stakeholder participation and dialogue where inclusive and accepted development objectives are formulated to address the rapid and profound changes that confront the Arctic. Depending on the results of the Arctic case study, similar transboundary approaches can be applied in other regions where there is a need to involve a plurality of stakeholders to take fair, legitimate and sustainable decisions.    

    1(http://www.kth.se/abe/inst/lwr/grupper/ema/research/shaping-a-sustainability-strategy-for-the-arctic-1.82268).

    2(http://iaia.org/conferences/iaia11/uploadedpapers/final%20drafts/Shaping%20a%20Sustainability%20Strategy%20for%20the%20Arctic.pdf).

  • 41.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Green qualities in transport efficient cities2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A main stream postulation in urban planning is that denser cities enhance energy efficiency and city attractiveness by offering shorter travel distances and a variety of functions that reduce car traffic and facilitate walking, biking and public transit. However, the complex links that exist between city density and its implications for energy efficiency and city attractiveness call for a better understanding of the factors that influence an integrated planning of regional cities. In this context, one factor that could be of interest to study is that of green urban open spaces such as green wedges, parks, wetland areas, shore lines, gardens, cemeteries, golf courses and treed boulevards that provide protection for biodiversity as well as many other valuable ecosystem services. However, discussions on developing compact, energy efficient and attractive regional cities are raising conflicts with policies that aim at conserving green urban open spaces. The aim of this paper is to increase knowledge on and contribute to the development of strategies and measures to best manage the conflicts that are emerging between developing dense, low traffic cities and planning for good quality, valuable and accessible green urban open spaces. To achieve this aim, a conflict mapping exercise is being carried out by identifying, reviewing and assessing literature on the subject. In parallel, relevant examples are being analyzed and seminars, workshops and interviews are taking place with actors of the Stockholm city region. Obtained results are conflicting perceptions on the role that green urban open spaces should play in city development, conflicts of governance and collaboration, conflicts between different objectives at varying decision making scales, and significant limitations to integrated and systemic socio-ecological understandings of the city region and its changing values. The conflict mapping exercise is a valuable starting point to identify the proposal of alternative land use practices, discuss how these can be assessed, and define measures that can enhance compactness, energy efficiency and green qualities in city region planning and development.

  • 42.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Gordon, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    CES provision and pressure in compacting Stockholm2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Babelon, Ian
    et al.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Toward Cyborg PPGIS: exploring socio-technical requirements for the use of web-based PPGIS in two municipal planning cases, Stockholm region, Sweden2017In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, no 8, p. 1366-1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web-based Public Participation Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS) are increasingly used for surveying place values and informing municipal planning in contexts of urban densification. However, research is lagging behind the rapid deployment of PPGIS applications. Some of the main opportunities and challenges for the uptake and implementation of web-based PPGIS are derived from a literature review and two case studies dealing with municipal planning for urban densification in the Stockholm region, Sweden. A simple clustering analysis identified three interconnected themes that together determine the performance of PPGIS: (i) tool design and affordances; (ii) organisational capacity; and (iii) governance. The results of the case studies augment existing literature regarding the connections between the different socio-technical dimensions for the design, implementation and evaluation of PPGIS applications in municipal planning. A cyborg approach to PPGIS is then proposed to improve the theoretical basis for addressing these dimensions together.

  • 44.
    Bakhiet, Omnia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Data collection for management of fuel consumption in vehicles and machinery: A study on the challenges and strategic possibilities in the construction industry2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy utilization in Sweden has been on a rise since the 1980’s and the industrial sector has been its highest consumer. The construction industry plays a central role in building and developing cities for a population which is increasing rapidly year by year. Environmental awareness has given incentives to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and to make operations more sustainable. The construction industry faces three main challenges in regards to sustainability which are, material usage, vehicle fleets, and machine parks. Vehicles and machines are integral parts within the construction industry, however, how to reduce their environmental impact is a relatively new research area with many challenges. The conclusion that carbon dioxide emissions must be reduced is one that has been reached by the construction industry in Sweden. One way to study this aspect is by collecting and managing data on their fuel consumption since the vehicles and machines operate almost exclusively on fossil fuels.

    Data collection on fuel consumption by vehicles and machinery will give insight to what factors increase or decrease it. Analyzing these factors will allow for reductions to be made in terms ofcarbon dioxide emissions and costs. The aim of this report is therefore to investigate the aspect of data collection and management on fuel consumption in vehicles and machinery. The report is the result of work conducted in cooperation with the Nordic construction and development company NCC. NCC has set a goal for reducing climate impacts from direct operations by 50% between the years 2015 and 2020. In order for this to be achieved, carbon dioxide emissions resulting from fuel consumption have to be accounted for. As this is a new research area, this report is to serve as a baseline for NCC to get an overview of what challenges and possibilities there are with efficient data collection and management on fuel consumption.

    The study is initiated by analyzing the three main aspects which are taken into consideration within this study. The first aspect is authoritative requirements which are demands from authorities such as municipalities or the Swedish Transport Administration. The second is the contractors such as NCC which have to meet these requirements. The final aspect is the suppliers who contractors hire for projects. Furthermore, interviews are carried out to gain insight on experiences of persons within the field and the challenges they have faced. A study on Norrtälje Harbor, an old industrial harbor turning into a new city district, is also conducted as there is available data from the vehicles and machines in this project. Finally, a gap-analysis is constructed in order to gain an overview of NCC’s present standings, future goals, andlimitations in terms of data collection and management from vehicles and machinery.

    The findings of this report conclude that a lack of standard is the biggest challenge which theindustry is facing. Authorities face challenges on how to set standards while the lack of standardsleads to different methods of data collection from contractors and suppliers. It is possible tocollect data from vehicles and machines but calculations are currently based on patterns and donot give a true view of the fuel consumption. Factors, such as driving habits and environment can affect the fuel consumption, therefore the data collected should take all these factors into consideration. Benefits that a company may gain by having this data include increase incompetitiveness due to environmental awareness and transparency as well as also lower costsas less fuel will be purchased. Reducing fuel consumption will ultimately reduce carbon dioxideemissions, which is the industry’s and NCC overall goal.

  • 45.
    Balatsky, Alexander V.
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Institute for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, United States .
    Balatsky, Galina I.
    Borysov, Stanislav S.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
    Resource Demand Growth and Sustainability Due to Increased World Consumption2015In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 3430-3440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet's limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

  • 46.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Successful water, waste and energy management2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hammer, Monica
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Khoshkar, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ecosystem services and impact assessment: Examples from Swedish municipal planning2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Hammer, Monica
    Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Södertörns högskola.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Larsson, Malin
    Quin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    The role of strategic environmental assessment in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive: Example from Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    SINGH, NANDITA
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Koku, John
    Dept. of Geography & Environment, University of Ghana.
    Contamination of water resources in Takwa mining area of Ghana: Linking technical, social-economic and gender dimensions2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ghana is Africa’s second largest producer of gold with gold deposits in western part of the country. There are seven large-scale mines and 168 small-scale mining concessions valid in the region. Wassa West District is an important mining area, with Tarkwa as administrative capital. In recent years, the area has been exposed to lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and cyanide. Both small and large-scale mining industries have reportedly contaminated rivers, streams, dug wells and boreholes with heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and cyanide. There has been significant adverse impact upon health, economy, and social life that may be felt differently by women and men, raising the question of sustainable access to safe water as a millennium development goal (MDG) in the area.

    A multi-disciplinary approach was adopted in the project with distinct work components on the technical as well as on social, gender and policy aspects. It also aimed to suggest integrated strategies to address the problem so as to ensure achievement of the MDGs. Based upon a field study in 37 local communities coupled with water and sediment analysis from the area, the research indicated the existence of not only higher levels of metal contaminants in local water resources in Tarkwa area, particularlymanganese and iron, but also arsenic and aluminium in some wells. However, water resources, particularly groundwater is currently safe for human consumption but the spillages of cyanide and other effluents into surface streams have health and ecological implications. Levels of mercury in stream sediments are high with a clear risk of methylation of the mercury and transfer in the food chain via fish to humans.

    Regarding the impact of mining, it was found that for women who are the primary domestic water managers, contamination of local water sources has forced them to fetch water from greater distances, and livelihoods are hampered due to the fish loss through cyanide spillages in streams. Another finding was the lack of trust and rising water conflicts between mining authorities and the local communities. Regarding the policy aspects underlying the problem, it was found that there is a lack of coordination between the 3 policy areas, namely, rural water supply, mining, and environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental protection to the detriment of women as water users and domestic water managers. While impact of mining is increasingly seen as an issue of human rights violation, little is being done to strengthen participatory approaches especially involving women in rural water supply programs. The detailed analysis of the EIA regulations reveals that most mining have not undertaken any comprehensive EIA guiding their operations.

    A number of recommendations have emerged from the integrated perspective attempted to be developed through this research. These include a need for further in-depth explorations on the situation of contamination in groundwater and surface waters as well as stream sediments in the area; the need to resolve the situations of water conflicts between the local communities and the mining authorities by promoting greater public participation; and the need to minimize the gaps between the three related policy frameworks. Also, there is a necessity to strengthen environmental compliance on part of the mining companies so as to uphold the quality of water resources in the area.

  • 50.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Landscape Ecological Assessment: A tool for prediction and assessment of impacts on biodiversity2006In: Ecological Impact Assessments: Science and Best Practice, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
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