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  • 1. Abarca, R. R. M.
    et al.
    Gaudio, M. T.
    Chakraborty, S.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Metals toxic pollutants in the environment: Anthropogenic and geological causes and remediation2019In: Current Trends and Future Developments on (Bio-) Membranes: Membranes in Environmental Applications, Elsevier Inc. , 2019, p. 109-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metals are naturally present in nature, but if their concentration is higher than the normal accepted threshold levels, they constitute one of the pollutants that is more difficult to remove and also to rehabilitate the contaminated site by them. There are many heavy-metal pollutants-the most common among them are arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), along with the less common ones, which produced, for example, by the nuclear process, such as uranium (U)-in different configuration; hence, many possibilities of contamination in the world exist, and they are more difficult to remove.Thus heavy-metal pollution is more and more becoming one of the principal issues of the global interest, because it is common to both industrialized countries and developing countries. These issues are getting hard to be recognized and cannot be followed the simple rules concerning safety and environmental protection, thus fall into the same errors of the already industrialized countries. At the same time, new environment-remediation techniques are developed in the last decade, especially, in these last years. Some of these technologies concern physical or chemical process or effects, such as ion exchanges, flotations, and photocatalysis, while other technologies concern the use of membrane process, especially ultrafiltration or membrane integrated process or hybrid systems, where membranes are generally submerged and used together with another process.In this chapter a review of this problem and some example of technologies for removing and remediation of the environment are reported. 

  • 2.
    Abdi, Amir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Sawalha, Samer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Karampour, Mazyar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Heat recovery investigation of a supermarket refrigeration system using carbon dioxide as refrigerant2014In: 11th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants: Natural Refrigerants and Environmental Protection, GL 2014, International Institute of Refrigeration, 2014, p. 277-285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the heat reclaim of trans-critical CO2-booster refrigeration unit in a supermarket in Sweden. The aim is to compare the control strategy for heat recovery in real supermarket installation to the optimum control strategy.

    The optimum control strategy based on theoretical analysis is explained. By analyzing field measurement of a supermarket, heat recovery in the refrigeration system is studied and compared to the optimum case. To investigate the potential of higher heat recovery rate, a computer model is developed based on the optimum control strategy.  The model is also used to calculate the boundary conditions at which the system should run for highest COP.

    The results show that heat can be recovered at heating COP of 3-4.5. The theoretical analysis shows that the amount of heat that can be recovered from the refrigeration system is about 1.3 times (130 %) the cooling demand in the system. However the analysis of the field measurements shows that only between 30-60 % of the available heat to be recovered is utilized, the rest is released to outdoors. The analysis in this study shows that there is a potential to recover much more heat from the refrigeration system at relatively high heating COP compared to heat pump.

  • 3.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Lieder, Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Multi-method simulation based tool to evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, p. 1261-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The transition from linear to circular product systems is a big step for any organization. This may require an organization to change the way it does business, designs product and manages supply chain. As these three areas are interdependent, bringing change in one area will influence the others, for instance, changing the business model from conventional sales to leasing will demand changes in both product design and the supply chain. At the same time, it is essential for an organization to anticipate the economic and environmental impact of all changes before it may decide to implement the circular product systems. However, there is no tool available today that can assess economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. The purpose of this research is to develop a multi-method simulation based tool that can help to evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. Method: The conceptual models that are used to develop the tool have been formulated based on review of the state-of-the-art research. System Dynamics (SD) and Agent Based (AB) principles have been used to create the simulation model which has been implemented in Anylogic software platform. Originality: This research presents the first multi-method simulation based tool that can evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. Findings: Multi-method simulation technique is useful in designing dynamic simulation model that takes into consideration mutual interactions among critical factors of business model, product design and supply chain. It also allows predicting system's behaviour and its influence on the economic and environmental performance of circular product systems.

  • 4.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Bianchi, C.
    Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    System dynamics models for decision making in product multiple lifecycles2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 101, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main drivers for adopting product multiple lifecycles are to gain ecological and economic advantages. However, in most of the cases it is not straight forward to estimate the potential ecological and economic gain that may result from adopting product multiple lifecycles. Even though many researchers have concluded that product multiple lifecycles result in gain, there are examples which indicate that the gain is often marginal or even none in many cases. The purpose of this research is to develop system dynamics models that can assist decision makers in assessing and analysing the potential gain of product multiple lifecycles considering the dynamics of material scarcity. The foundation of the research presented in this paper is laid based on literature review. System dynamics principles have been used for modelling and simulations have been done on Stella iThink platform. The data used in the models have been extracted from different reports published by World Steel Association and U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the data have been assumed based on expert estimation. The data on iron ore reserves, iron and steel productions and consumptions have been used in the models. This research presents the first system dynamics model for decision making in product multiple lifecycles which takes into consideration the dynamics of material scarcity. Physical unavailability and price of material are the two main factors that would drive product multiple lifecycles approach and more sustainable decisions can be made if it is done by taking holistic system approach over longer time horizon. For an enterprise it is perhaps not attractive to conserve a particular type of material through product multiple lifecycles approach which is naturally abundant but extremely important if the material becomes critical. An enterprise could through engineering, proper business model and marketing may increase the share of multiple lifecycle products which eventually would help the enterprise to reduce its dependency on critical materials.

  • 5. Abiye, T. A.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Arsenic concentration in groundwater: Archetypal study from South Africa2019In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 9, article id 100246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa does not have significant surface water resources, which is often easily affected by unpredictable and rapidly changing climatic variables, due to its location in the arid and semi-arid climatic setting. In large part of the country, groundwater from weathered and fractured crystalline rocks plays pivotal role in sustaining the livelihood, often it contains toxic metals released from the host rocks. The host rocks that are responsible for arsenic release in groundwater are primarily enriched due to metamorphism and igneous processes that resulted in the enrichment of economic minerals. Preliminary assessment indicates that the main arsenic containing minerals are arsenopyrite (FeAsS), arsenical oxide, sulpharsenide, arsenopyritical reefs, leucopyrite, löllingite (FeAs2) and scorodite (FeAsO4·2H2O). Owing to the release of arsenic from highly mineralized rocks that constitute the aquifers, arsenic concentration in the groundwater reaches up to 253 μg/L (Namaqualand), 6150 μg/L (west of Johannesburg), about 500 μg/L in the Karoo aquifers, considerably higher than the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L. Acid mine drainage from coal and gold mining is also found to be an important source of arsenic and other toxic metals in groundwater.

  • 6.
    Adem Esmail, Blal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment. Ruhr University Bochum, Institute of Geography, Universitätsstr. 150, 44805 Bochum, Germany.
    Cortinovis, Chiara
    Suleiman, Lina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Albert, Christian
    Geneletti, Davide
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Greening cities through urban planning: A literature review on the uptake of concepts and methods in Stockholm2022In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, p. 127584-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-based solutions (NBS) represent the most recent of several "greening" concepts proposed to support spatial planning and decision-making towards sustainable metropolitan regions. Despite similarities, the concepts stem from different disciplines and policy arenas and reflect various models of people-nature relations. This paper aims to analyze the uptake of greening concepts in scientific planning literature focusing on (urban) nature and landscape in the metropolitan region of Stockholm, Sweden, over the last three decades. It investigates what changes this evolution has brought in terms of the topics adopted, methods applied, and types of planning support put into practice. We identified 574 articles that reflect substantial research on greening concepts in the Swedish planning context. The articles demonstrate an initial prevalence of biodiversity with later increases of interest in ecosystem services and NBS. A detailed analysis of the studies focusing on Stockholm revealed Population growth/densification, Green space management and Biodiversity conservation as the most commonly addressed societal challenges. The most frequently mentioned type of green and blue element is Parks and (semi-)natural urban green areas, including urban forests. Methods applied were mostly quantitative, while mixes with qualitative approaches were only apparent in ecosystem services articles. Half of the studies involved practitioners or decision-makers, but only four seemed related to real-life planning processes. Taken together, the influence of scientific literature on the uptake of greening concepts in spatial planning seems to have been limited. Future mainstreaming of greening concepts in Stockholm and beyond could benefit from available data, methods and experiences, but will require more active translation and boundary management. Further research into science-policy-planning interfaces at city scale is thus imperative to advance more sustainable pathways for people and nature in metropolitan regions.

  • 7.
    Adem Esmail, Blal
    et al.
    Department of Civil, Environmental, and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, Trento, 38123, Italy.
    Geneletti, Davide
    Department of Civil, Environmental, and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento, Italy.
    Design and impact assessment of watershed investments: An approach based on ecosystem services and boundary work.2017In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 62, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Watershed investments, whose main aim is to secure water for cities, represent a promising opportunity for large-scale sustainability transitions in the near future. If properly designed, they promote activities in the watershed that enhance ecosystem services while protecting nature and biodiversity, as well as achieving other societal goals. In this paper, we build on the concepts of ecosystem services and boundary work, to develop and test an operative approach for designing and assessing the impact of watershed investments. The approach is structured to facilitate negotiations among stakeholders. Its strategic component includes setting the agenda; defining investment scenarios; and assessing the performance of watershed investments as well as planning for a follow-up. Its technical component concerns data processing; tailoring spatially explicit ecosystem service models; hence their application to design a set of “investment portfolios”, generate future land use scenarios, and model impacts on selected ecosystem services. A case study illustrates how the technical component can be developed in a data scarce context in sub-Saharan Africa in a way that is functional to support the steps of the strategic component. The case study addresses soil erosion and water scarcity-related challenges affecting Asmara, a medium-sized city in Eritrea, and considers urban water security and rural poverty alleviation as two illustrative objectives, within a ten-year planning horizon. The case study results consist in spatially explicit data (investment portfolio, land use scenario, impact on ecosystem services), which were aggregated to quantitatively assess the performance of different watershed investments scenarios, in terms of changes in soil erosion control. By addressing stakeholders' concerns of credibility, saliency, and legitimacy, the approach is expected to facilitate negotiation of objectives, definition of scenarios, and assessment of alternative watershed investments, ultimately, to contribute to implementing an adaptive watershed management.

  • 8.
    Adem Esmail, Blal
    et al.
    Univ Trento, Dept Civil Environm & Mech Engn, Trento, Italy..
    Geneletti, Davide
    Multi-criteria decision analysis for nature conservation: A review of 20 years of applications2018In: Methods in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2041-210X, Vol. 9, p. 42-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a method to support decision-making, by exploring the balance between the pros and cons of different alternatives to ac- complish a specific goal. It assists in framing decision problems, illustrating the per- formance of alternatives across criteria, exploring trade-offs, formulating a decision and testing its robustness. This paper provides a structured review of empirical applications of MCDA to nature conservation published in the scientific literature over the last 20 years. The paper aims at taking stock of past experiences, and comparing them with best practices and common pitfalls identified in the literature, to provide recommendations for better MCDA application to conservation.

    2. The review follows the structure of a generalized MCDA process consisting of three key stages: (1) decision context and problem structuring, (2) analysis and (3) decision.

    3. The search identified 86 papers that describe MCDA applications to a range of top- ics, including conservation prioritization and planning; protected areas management and zoning; forest management and restoration; and mapping of biodiversity, naturalness and wilder. The results show that, concerning problem structuring, a small percentage of the reviewed MCDA engaged stakeholders other than the authors in identifying alternatives and formulating criteria (15% and 35% respectively). Concerning the analysis, criteria assessment was adequately justified by the authors (47%), at times also by involving other stakeholders (22%). Weighting was per- formed in almost all applications, whereas criteria aggregation was mostly based on the weighted linear combination (63%). Sensitivity analysis was largely overlooked (57%). Concerning decision, 45% of the articles provided only an overall ranking or suitability of alternatives, while 22% included additional rankings according to spe- cific criterion, and 8% further analyses and clustering of stakeholders’ preferences.

    4. The paper concludes by suggesting key elements of successful MCDA applications, including clear construction of the decision context; collaborative identification of alternatives and criteria that reflect the values at stake; adequate justification and communication of the methods for criteria assessment and weighting; reasoned choice of the criteria aggregation method, and comprehensive sensitivity analysis.

  • 9.
    Aguilar, Mónica García
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development.
    Jaramillo, Juan Felipe
    Universidad El Bosque.
    Ddiba, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Páez, Diana Carolina
    Universidad El Bosque.
    Rueda, Hector
    Universidad El Bosque.
    Andersson, Kim
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Dickin, Sarah
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Governance challenges and opportunities for implementing resource recovery from organic waste streams in urban areas of Latin America: insights from Chía, Colombia2022In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 30, p. 53-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the globe, there is increasing interest in implementing circular approaches to urban sanitation and waste management to mitigate environmental challenges and promote sustainable business opportunities. In Latin America where 80% of the population live in urban areas, there is limited investigation into the enabling factors and governance barriers that are critical to implementing circular economy strategies in urban areas. This paper aims at assessing the governance capacity to implement resource recovery from organic waste streams in the municipality of Chía, Colombia, through applying the Governance Capacity Framework in a participatory process with local stakeholders. The findings highlight the importance of local initiatives for resource recovery that allow experimentation, raise awareness and foster collaboration, as well as mechanisms available for public participation in decision-making processes as enabling factors. Meanwhile, the inadequate monitoring and assessment of environmental strategies and policies, inadequate sharing of information among stakeholders and the relative low awareness of potential benefits of recovering resources from organic waste streams, especially among public sector actors, emerge as key barriers. Beyond Chía, the results provide insights on crucial factors for ensuring sufficient governance capacity in other urban areas in low- and middle-income countries which are considering circular approaches to urban sanitation and waste management. The findings also provide an empirical basis to advance the understanding of the governance conditions necessary for implementing resource recovery from organic waste streams, upon which further applications of the governance capacity framework along with participatory aspects in other similar urban contexts could build.

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  • 10.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    SLU.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekman, Anna
    Lund University.
    Karlsson, H
    SLU.
    Berlin, Johanna
    SP.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers.
    Strid, Ingrid
    SLU.
    LCA of biorefinieries -identification of key issues and methodological recommendations2013Report (Other academic)
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  • 11.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekman, Anna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Berlin, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strid, Ingrid
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems: key issues and recommendations2015In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 606-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation).

  • 12.
    Ahlmér, Anna Klara
    et al.
    Trivector Traff, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cavalli, Marco
    CNR, Res Inst Geohydrol Protect, Padua, Italy..
    Hansson, Klas
    Swedish Transport Adm Trafikverket, S-17290 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Koutsouris, Alexander J.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Crema, Stefano
    CNR, Res Inst Geohydrol Protect, Padua, Italy..
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Soil moisture remote-sensing applications for identification of flood-prone areas along transport infrastructure2018In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 77, no 14, article id 533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected increase in precipitation and temperature in Scandinavia, and especially short-time heavy precipitation, will increase the frequency of flooding. Urban areas are the most vulnerable, and specifically, the road infrastructure. The accumulation of large volumes of water and sediments on road-stream intersections gets severe consequences for the road drainage structures. This study integrates the spatial and temporal soil moisture properties into the research about flood prediction methods by a case study of two areas in Sweden, Vastra Gotaland and Varmland, which was affected by severe flooding in August 2014. Soil moisture data are derived from remote-sensing techniques, with a focus on the soil moisture-specific satellites ASCAT and SMOS. Furthermore, several physical catchments descriptors (PCDs) are analyzed and the result shows that larger slopes and drainage density, in general, mean a higher risk of flooding. The precipitation is the same; however, it can be concluded that more precipitation in most cases gives higher soil moisture values. The lack, or the dimensioning, of road drainage structures seems to have a large impact on the flood risk as more sediment and water can be accumulated at the road-stream intersection. The results show that the method implementing soil moisture satellite data is promising for improving the reliability of flooding.

  • 13.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Arsenic in Drinking Water: Is 10 μg/L a Safe Limit?2019In: Current Pollution Reports, ISSN 2198-6592, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Hoofd Ingenieursbureau, Brabant Water N.V., 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands .
    Van De Wetering, S.
    Groenendijk, M.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Advanced Oxidation-Coagulation-Filtration (AOCF) - An innovative treatment technology for targeting drinking water with <1 μg/L of arsenic2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, p. 817-819Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Oxidation-Coagulation-Filtration (AOCF) has been investigated for producing drinking water with less than 1 μg L-1 of As through a series of bench scale and pilot scale experiments. At bench scale, the suitable coagulant, its combination dose with KMnO4 oxidant, the optimum process pH and kinetics of As removal were determined. The optimized AOCF technique was capable of consistently reducing the As concentration to below 1 μg L-1 when implemented at pilot scale and did not adversely affect the already existing removal processes of Fe, Mn and NH4 +. Dual media filter solved the filter run time reduction issue.

  • 15.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Nieuwegein, Netherlands.;WUR, Dept Environm Technol, Wageningen, Netherlands.;Evides Water Co NV, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    van der Wal, Albert
    WUR, Dept Environm Technol, Wageningen, Netherlands.;Evides Water Co NV, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia..
    van Genuchten, Case M.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland GEUS, Geochem Dept, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Utrecht, Fac Geosci, Dept Earth Sci Geochem, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Characteristics of Fe and Mn bearing precipitates generated by Fe(II) and Mn(II) co-oxidation with O-2, MnO4 and HOCl in the presence of groundwater ions2019In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 161, p. 505-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we combined macroscopic measurements of precipitate aggregation and chemical composition (Mn/Fe solids ratio) with Fe and Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the solids formed by co-oxidation of Fe(II) and Mn(II) with O-2, MnO4, and HOCl in the presence of groundwater ions. In the absence of the strongly sorbing oxyanions, phosphate (P) and silicate (Si), and calcium (Ca), O-2 and HOCl produced suspensions that aggregated rapidly, whereas co-oxidation of Fe(II) and Mn(II) by MnO4 generated colloidally stable suspensions. The aggregation of all suspensions decreased in P and Si solutions, but Ca counteracted these oxyanion effects. The speciation of oxidized Fe and Mn in the absence of P and Si also depended on the oxidant, with O-2 producing Mn(III)-incorporated lepidocrocite (Mn/Fe = 0.01-0.02 mol/mol), HOCl producing Mn(III)-incorporated hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) (Mn/Fe = 0.08 mol/mol), and MnO4 producing poorly-ordered MnO2 and HFO (Mn/Fe > 0.5 mol/mol). In general, the presence of P and Si decreased the crystallinity of the Fe(III) phase and increased the Mn/Fe solids ratio, which was found by Mn K-edge XAS analysis to be due to an increase in surface-bound Mn(II). By contrast, Ca decreased the Mn/Fe solids ratio and decreased the fraction of Mn(II) associated with the solids, suggesting that Ca and Mn(II) compete for sorption sites. Based on these results, we discuss strategies to optimize the design (i.e. filter bed operation and chemical dosing) of water treatment plants that aim to remove Fe(II) and Mn(II) by co-oxidation.

  • 16.
    Ahmed, Firoz
    et al.
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Islam, Md Aminul
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Kumar, Manish
    Indian Inst Technol, Discipline Earth Sci, Gandhinagar 382355, Gujarat, India..
    Hossain, Maqsud
    North South Univ, NSU Genome Res Inst NGRI, Dept Biochem & Microbiol, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Islam, MD Tahmidul
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hossen, Foysal
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Hossain, Md Shahadat
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Biotechnol & Genet Engn, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Islam, Md Sydul
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Appl Chem & Chem Engn, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Uddin, Md Main
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Biotechnol & Genet Engn, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Islam, Md Nur
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Biotechnol & Genet Engn, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Bahadur, Newaz Mohammed
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Appl Chem & Chem Engn, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Didar-Ul-Alam, Md
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Reza, Hasan Mahmud
    North South Univ, Dept Pharmaceut Sci, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh..
    Jakariya, Md
    North South Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Management, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh..
    First detection of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in the vicinity of COVID-19 isolation Centre in Bangladesh: Variation along the sewer network2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 776, article id 145724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We made the first and successful attempt to detect SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in the vicinity wastewaters of an isolation centre i.e. Shaheed Bhulu Stadium, situated at Noakhali, Southeastern Bangladesh. Owing to the fact that isolation centre, in general, always contained a constant number of 200 COVID-19 patients, the prime objective of the study was to check if several drains carrying RNA of coronavirus are actually getting diluted or accumulated along with the sewage network. Our finding suggested that while the temporal variation of the genetic load decreased in small drains over the span of 50 days, the main sewer exhibited accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Other interesting finding displays that probably distance of sampling location in meters is not likely to have a significant impact on the detected gene concentration, although the quantity of the RNA extracted in the downstream of the drain was higher. These findings are of immense value from the perspective of wastewater surveillance of COVID-19, as they largely imply that we do not need to monitor every wastewater system, and probably major drains monitoring may illustrate the city health. Perhaps, we are reporting the accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material along with the sewer network i.e. from primary to tertiary drains. The study sought further data collection in this line to simulate conditions prevailed in most of the developing countries and to shed further light on decay/accumulation processes of the genetic load of the SARS-COV-2.

  • 17. Ahmed, K. M.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Groundwater arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh: Two decades of advancements in scientific research and policy instruments2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, 2014, p. 886-888Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two decades have passed since the first detection of arsenic above allowable limits in groundwater of Bangladesh. A good number of scientific research and mitigation projects have so far been completed but still today more than 22 million people are exposed to arsenic leaves of 50 μg L-1 or more. As there are many untested new wells, it is not precisely known how many people are exposed to what level. Scientific knowledge about occurrences, distribution and release mechanisms have enhanced significantly. Although deep tube wells have emerged as the most effective mitigation measure over most of the country, still there are areas where this does not work. Recent studies reported effectiveness of alternative options like intermediate deep wells and subsurface arsenic removal. There has been a major paradigm shift in the policy arena regarding arsenic mitigation.

  • 18. Ahmed, K. M.
    et al.
    Sultana, S.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M. K.
    Burgess, W. K.
    Hoque, M. A.
    Groundwater quality contrasts between Upper and Lower Dupi Tila Aquifers in Megacity Dhaka, Bangladesh2011In: Groundwater quality contrasts between Upper and Lower Dupi Tila Aquifers in Megacity Dhaka, Bangladesh: Proc. 7th International Groundwater Quality Conference, 2011, p. 71-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dhaka is one of the fastest growing megacities of the world and is set to become the third largest by 2025. Currently about 86% of the municipal water supply comes from over 500 wells drilled in the Dupi Tila aquifers underlying the city. The Upper Dupi Tila aquifer (UDTA) is overexploited and a large part has been dewatered; abstractions from the lower Dupi Tila started only recently. Results of water analysis and EC surveys have been used to decipher the variations in groundwater quality in the UDTA and LDTA. EC surveys reveal a systematic deterioration of water quality in the vicinity of the Buriganga River in southeast Dhaka. The UDTA is more widely affected by anthropogenic processes than the LDTA, which still largely exhibits its intrinsic water quality characteristics. Regular monitoring and proper management practices are essential to protect the quality of this precarious resource.

  • 19. Aigelsperger, Lisa
    et al.
    Kummer, Susanne
    Milestad, Rebecka
    Department of Urban and Rural Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vogl, Christian R.
    Chowdhury, A.
    Knowledge systems, innovations and social learning in organic farming: An Overwiev2010In: Proceedings of the 9th European IFSA Symposium, 2010, p. 664-669Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Akhtar, Nadia
    et al.
    Int Islamic Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan..
    Bokhari, Syed Atif
    Govt Grad Coll, Dept Geog, Asghar Mall 46000, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Martin, Michael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Sustainable Soc, Life Cycle Management, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Saqib, Zafeer
    Int Islamic Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan..
    Khan, Muhammad Irfan
    Int Islamic Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan..
    Mahmud, Arif
    Natl Univ Med Sci, Dept Social & Behav Sci, Rawalpindi 46000, Pakistan..
    Zaman-ul-Haq, Muhammad
    Int Islamic Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan..
    Amir, Sarah
    Int Islamic Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan..
    Uncovering Barriers for Industrial Symbiosis: Assessing Prospects for Eco-Industrialization through Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Developing Regions2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 6898-, article id 6898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialization is indispensable for socio-economic development but poses far-reaching implications for resources and the environment. Consequently, industrial symbiosis-based collaborations are gaining recognition as a viable strategy to manage resource consumption for mitigating environmental distress. However, these types of synergistic collaborations are more prevalent in developed regions and are linked to larger-sized industries. Admittedly, such collaborative partnerships are less focused in developing regions and small- to medium-size enterprises (SMEs). This calls for discovering the potentials for synergistic partnerships among the small and medium scaled industrial entities in developing economies. Therefore, the study was designed to identify, assess and explore the prospects of symbiotic collaborations among SMEs in Pakistan. Moreover, the inputs are equally relevant for developing and expanding such productive associations in developing regions. Data regarding inputs and outputs was collected from sixty-one (61) SMEs through field survey during the year 2019. It was processed and analyzed to uncover existing and potential synergies among SMEs. The significant findings transpired that the majority of collaborative linkages are bilateral and are driven to maximize economic gains. However, informal networks of recyclers and absence of a stringent regulatory regime are the ground realities in developing/transforming economies. These factors symptomatically interfere with the process of formal/informal exchanges between and among firms. Furthermore, it was observed that the lack of awareness and impulsiveness of SMEs, as well as the inconsistent supply of by-products, act as barriers for such partnerships in developing countries. It calls for proactive engagements and facilitations from the state institutions through policy instruments. The study addresses a broad audience including industrialists, investors, policy makers and researchers engaged in IS studies. Moreover, the inputs will provide impetus for stimulating eco-industrial progress in developing regions such as Pakistan.

  • 21.
    Alam, Mohammad Ayaz
    et al.
    Univ Santiago De Chile, Fac Ingn, Dept Ingn Geoespacial & Ambiental, Enr Kirberg Baltiansky n 03, Estn Cent, Santiago, Metropolitana, Chile..
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Indian Inst Technol Kharagpur, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur, W Bengal, India..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, Sch Engn, West St, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia..
    An appraisal of the principal concerns and controlling factors for Arsenic contamination in Chile2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although geogenic Arsenic (As) contamination is well-recognized in northern Chile, it is not restricted to this part of the country, as the geological conditions favoring As release to the human environment exist across the country as well, although not at the same level, based on comparatively fewer studies in central and southern Chile. The present work provides a critical evaluation of As sources, pathways, and controls with reports and case studies from across the country based on an exhaustive bibliographic review of its reported geogenic sources and processes that affect its occurrence, systematization, and critical revision of this information. Arc magmatism and associated geothermal activities, identified as the primary As sources, are present across the Chilean Andes, except for the Pampean Flat Slab and Patagonian Volcanic Gap. Metal sulfide ore zones, extending from the country's far north to the south-central part, are the second most important geogenic As source. While natural leaching of As-rich mineral deposits contaminates the water in contact, associated mining, and metallurgical activities result in additional As release into the human environment through mining waste and tailings. Moreover, crustal thickness has been suggested as a principal controlling factor for As release, whose southward decrease has been correlated with lower As values.

  • 22.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050: Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.1.R Institutional grid review.2013Report (Other academic)
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  • 23.
    Albrecht, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Electrification of vehicles – policy drivers and impacts in two scenarios.2013In: Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets / [ed] Qiuwei Wu, John Wiley & Sons, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines current policy drivers of battery electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs, the current and anticipated impacts on carbon emissions, as well as what potential role policy can play in enhancing the innovation system and market development around such vehicles in the future. We start with a policy review of key targets in the Nordic countries and the EU, up to 2030, and discuss to what extent they are consistent with industry and expert estimates of how the systems can grow. On the basis of this, the second part elaborates two simple scenarios of EV development in the EU: one breakthrough expansion scenario and one incremental expansion scenario. Building on that is an analysis of the climate impacts of the two scenarios, given different assumptions relating to, for example, electricity production as well as EV penetration in the fleet. The third part examines what policy drivers might be needed to enable the breakthrough scenario, using a technological innovation systems perspective to describe the needed processes, drivers and developments.

  • 24.
    Albrecht, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nilsson, Måns
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050:Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.2.R Policy and Institutional Review Electric Vehicles (EV).2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines policy drivers of electric vehicles (EVs), and what potential role policy can play in enhancing the innovation and market development of EVs. We start with a policy review of key targets in the Nordic countries and the EU, up to 2030, and discuss to what extent they are consistent with industry, government and expert estimates of how the EV innovation systems can grow. On the basis of this, the second part examines what policy drivers might be needed to enable a breakthrough scenario, using a technological innovation systems (TIS) perspective to describe the needed processes, drivers and developments in policy and technology.

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  • 25.
    Aleljung, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Wistfors, Frida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Framtida vattenförsörjning i Stockholms skärgård och dess påverkan av klimatförändringar2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines groundwater reservoirs of islands in the Stockholm archipelago and 

    how they will be affected by climate change. Mainly the quality and quantity of reservoirs in the year 2100 are looked at based on two different climate scenarios developed by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). That gets connected to how the inhabitants on the islands will be affected by the changes and how they can deal with the potential problems that arises. Furthermore, the municipalities’ roles will be examined along with the solutions they can contribute with regarding water shortage. The subject of the thesis also connects to the Swedish environmental goal “Good-Quality Groundwater” which puts an emphasis on the importance of knowledge regarding groundwater levels in exposed areas such as coastal regions. 

    To answer the questions posed in the thesis, methods such as literature review, field study, interviews, modeling of monthly groundwater level and calculations of the risk of saltwater intrusions in wells have been applied. The field study was done on the island Aspö, a typical archipelago island in Stockholm, for which all the modelling and calculations later have been made. Thus, Aspö acts as a model of Stockholm’s archipelago islands in this thesis. 

    In the modelling and calculations factors like water usage, geology, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the length of the growing season have been considered. The results of the groundwater modelling indicate a great risk of diminishing groundwater reservoirs on archipelago islands during the summer months, both now and in the future. In the summer the groundwater recharge is little to nonexistent and the water usage at its peak, due to the large quantity of summer occupants in the archipelago, which can lead to a water shortage and problems with the water quality. Because of a prolonged growing season that disturbs the groundwater recharge, these issues are expected to become worse in the future. When it comes to the calculations of the saltwater intrusions in wells, the wells closest to the coasts are at a greater risk. Since an increase in the sea level are to be expected due to a rise in global temperature the risk for saltwater intrusion also increases. 

    Both the modelling and the calculations indicates that a sparing water usage will make the situation less strained. In addition, it’s suggested that the municipalities should expand their mapping of sensitive areas through legal support to shoulder some of the responsibility that today rests on property owners of the individual water supply. 

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  • 26.
    Alhamar, Sarah
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science.
    Extraction of the Coagulant Protein from Oil Waste2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human health relies on clean water, and yet many developing countries have areas of poor water quality. This is either due to a lack of infrastructure and poor sanitation, or financial restrictions. One of the first steps of water treatment involves a process called flocculation. 

    Currently, aluminum sulfate (alum) is the most popular flocculation agent, but it has significant health implications. In contrast, the Moringa oleifera seed is a nonchemical additive which has historically been used in water treatment as a flocculation agent in addition to other applications in the cosmetic and food industries. 

    While Moringa oleifera seeds are one of the original plants used in water treatment, many others also show potential. The waste product from cold press oil industries was analyzed to test its viability as an alternative flocculation agent and to avoid competition with human consumption and industrial processes. Different oil wastes were screened to find a suitable coagulation agent. 

    Ion exchange chromatography and antimicrobial tests were conducted using simple assays. The screening was focused on the protein concentration and the coagulation activity of the oil cake presses. Moringa oleifera, rapeseed, linseed, peanut, and sesame seed oil press cakes were tested, of which two showed promising results and potential for use in water treatment. 

    The oil cake presses of Moringa seed and rapeseed showed the presence of coagulant proteins which are comparable to the seed extracts. The coagulant protein from the oil cake press has a similar molecular mass to that of seed extracts. The purified proteins displayed antibacterial properties, and their nutrient outputs were minimal. 

  • 27. Ali, S.
    et al.
    Fakhri, Y.
    Golbini, M.
    Thakur, S. K.
    Alinejad, A.
    Parseh, I.
    Shekhar, S.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Concentration of fluoride in groundwater of India: A systematic review, meta-analysis and risk assessment2019In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 9, article id 100224Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a well-known fact that the Indian groundwater is polluted by fluoride. However, for the first time in India, non-carcinogenic risk assessments and meta-analysis of fluoride exposure to humans were carried out due to consumption of groundwater. In this context, we collected fluoride concentration data in groundwater across India by systematic searches conducted in various international search engines databases. Here, we demonstrated a detailed meta-analysis and meta-regression of fluoride and evaluated health risk assessment. For this purpose, meta-analysis of 63 studies on fluoride in groundwater in India, comprising 57381 samples are included. We found that 1.) The pooled concentration of fluoride in India is around 2.37 mg/L with 95% confident interval (1.46–3.28 mg/L) which is higher than WHO and national standards limit of 1.5 mg/L. 2) The meta-analysis of data suggests that in rural parts of the country, fluoride concentration is 1.85 times higher than urban areas. 3) The concentration of fluoride in groundwater decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increase in rainfall and longitude. The risk assessment via oral and dermal route exposure reveals that the consumers in majority of the regions are at considerable non-carcinogenic risk and children are at higher risk than adults (Total hazard quotient > 1). The findings are helpful in identifying the affected areas of India and we recommend that the safer options of drinking water should be adopted.

  • 28.
    Alinaghi, Farzad
    et al.
    KTH.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Zachariae, C.
    Thyssen, J. P.
    Johansen, J. D.
    Metals in used and unused metalworking fluids: X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as a screening test2020In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) is a well-known cause of occupational contact dermatitis. Objectives: We aimed to (1) determine the amount of nickel, chromium, and cobalt in large samples of used and unused MWFs collected from metalworking plants in Denmark, and (2) evaluate a handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) device as a screening instrument for metals in MWFs. Methods: A handheld XRF device was used to screen for metals in MWFs. All samples were also analyzed for concentrations of nickel, chromium, and cobalt using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). Results: GFAAS analysis showed that 13 of 80 samples (16.3%) contained >1 mg/kg (ppm) nickel (range: 6.4-17.7 mg/kg), 3 of 80 (3.8%) contained >1 (range: 1.4-3.1) mg/kg chromium, and 1 of 80 (1.3%) contained 1.3 mg/kg cobalt. XRF-screening detected nickel in eight samples (range: 2.5-15.5 mg/kg), but only one sample with 3.0 (±0.5) mg/kg was found subsequently to contain 9.9 (0.02) mg/kg nickel by GFAAS. Although no chromium was found by XRF analysis, cobalt was found in two samples with 6 (±1.5) mg/kg and 5 (±1.5) mg/kg, subsequently found to contain 0.1 (±0.01) mg/kg and 0.08 (±0.01) mg/kg by GFAAS. Similar concentrations of nickel were found in used (N = 6, range: 6.4-17.7 mg/kg) and unused MWFs (N = 7, range: 9.1-17.3 mg/kg). Conclusion: Considerable levels of nickel, chromium, and cobalt were found in some used and unused MWFs indicating that these might represent a source of metal allergy. The XRF device is a poor screening test for these metals in MWFs. 

  • 29.
    Almulla, Youssef
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems.
    Energy-Water and Agriculture Nexus to Support the Sustainable Management of Shared Water Resources2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout history, major rivers and shared water bodies have allowed civilizations to flourish, and the effective management of shared water bodies has always been a priority for societies and nations. Today, about 40% of the world’s population lives in proximity to the 286 transboundary river and lake basins that supply 60% of the world’s freshwater flows and make up about half of the Earth’s land area. Moreover, around 2 billion people in the world depend on groundwater sources, which include over 460 transboundary aquifer systems.

    The mismanagement of water resources can result in catastrophic disasters that are often exacerbated by a domino effect so that the impacts of poor water management often extend beyond the water system. The interdependency of the water system with other systems such as energy and food, or with land-use, highlights the importance of ”systems thinking and planning” in resource management. Such a concept is not easily encapsulated into policy-making processes in many parts of the world because consideration of the resource systems in isolation as individual entities and ‘silo” thinking still dominate. Climate change adds another layer of complexity and exacerbates the issue of water management. Another important factor is geographical location because precipitation varies among and within continents. This results in some regions suffering from water shortages and some regions facing the risks of water redundancy and floods. 

    The concept of the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) nexus was introduced in 2011 as a response to help address some of the issues mentioned above. Over the last decade, research on the WEF nexus has gained momentum in both the policy and academic areas and several methods have been introduced to operationalize the nexus in different contexts. One of the flagship methodologies is the Transboundary Basins Nexus Approach (TBNA) introduced by the United Nations Economic Commission of Europe (UNECE) in 2015 and designed to assess the nexus in shared (transboundary) water basins.

    The aim of this thesis is to support shared water management by using the WEF-nexus approach to quantify the benefits of coordinated management, motivate cooperation, and identify trade-offs in the optimal use of resources. To achieve this aim, four research questions are explored over the course of four academic publications.  

    The first question explores the role of the energy sector in motivating shared water cooperation. The second question studies the risks and opportunities emerging from the interplay between climate and renewable energy in shared basins. The third question focuses on groundwater management and explores what benefits the consideration of the energy-water-agriculture nexus could bring to shared groundwater management in water-scarce areas. The fourth question examines how consideration of the energy-water-agriculture nexus could accelerate the low-carbon transition in the agricultural sector. 

    These research questions are examined in two different, yet complementing, geographic locations. One is the Balkans in Southeastern Europe, which faces water redundancy and flood issues and the other is the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region which suffers from water scarcity. In the first region, the Drina and the Drin River Basins represent the characteristics of Southeastern Europe while the North Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) and the Souss-Massa basin represent the characteristics of the MENA region. Three of the case applications are transboundary (Drina, Drin and NWSAS) while the last application (Souss-Massa Basin) is a subnational basin.  

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  • 30.
    Almulla, Youssef
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems.
    Ramirez Gomez, Camilo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems.
    Joyce, Brian
    Stockholm Environm Inst, SEI US, Boston, MA USA..
    Huber-Lee, Annette
    Stockholm Environm Inst, SEI US, Boston, MA USA..
    Nerini, Francesco Fuso
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems.
    From participatory process to robust decision-making: An Agriculture-water-energy nexus analysis for the Souss-Massa basin in Morocco2022In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, E-ISSN 2352-4669, Vol. 70, p. 314-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water-Energy-Food (WEF) framework is widely used to address sustainability and resource management questions. However, many WEF methods miss engaging with stakeholders in the process. In this study, we intro-duce a stakeholder-driven and model-supported robust nexus decision-making framework. This methodology is exemplified by a case study in the Souss-Massa basin (SMB) which has significant importance for the agricultural sector in Morocco. However, the water scarcity exacerbated by climate change, overexploitation of groundwater and heavy use of fossil fuels for pumping is threatening the future of this fertile land. An integrated agriculture, water and energy model was developed to explore various potential solutions or scenarios such as desalination, wastewater reuse and improved water productivity. The analysis revealed that engaging with stakeholders and developing common robust nexus decision metrics is essential to establishing a shared and transparent approach to address the complicated nexus challenges. It also showed that no one solution can address all nexus challenges and highlighted the need for an integrated strategy that stimulates the contributions from different sectors. Fi-nally, the transition from fossil fuel groundwater pumping to solar pumping is shown to be economically and en-vironmentally viable.

  • 31.
    Ambell, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Xu, Yixuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Waste of Opportunities - A Holistic Study of the Current Situation of Municipal Waste Management in Shandong Province, China2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China’s growth and development have opened the door to a new world. Shandong province’s 90 million inhabitants are entering into a consumption society and the waste stream from households, restaurants and commercials has become a challenge. So far, the waste has mostly been burned in backyards, thrown into rivers, put on open dumps or taken to landfills. The environmental consequence is strong. This study was carried out in Shandong province and presents the current situation of the municipal waste management. The result of the study is organised into social, economical, technical and environmental parameters. It mostly covers the years 2006 to 2010. In the discussion, the strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats to the management are analysed, which gives an overview of the complex situation.

    The final conclusion is that there are a lot of opportunities in developing municipal solid waste management in Shandong province since the work and planning is new and economy is good. Threats are for example a larger waste stream. The municipal waste management has some strengths, such as a lot of projects going on, but also a lot of weakness for instance implementation of the regulations and laws.

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  • 32. An, Lin
    et al.
    Yu, Xinhai
    Yang, Jie
    Tu, Shan-Tung
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    CO2 capture using a superhydrophobic ceramic membrane contactor2015In: CLEAN, EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, Elsevier, 2015, p. 2287-2292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetting and fouling of membrane contactor result in performance deterioration of membrane gas absorption system for CO2 post-combustion capture of coal-fired power plants. To solve these problems, in this study, a superhydrophobic ceramic (SC) membrane contactor was fabricated by chemically modification using 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctylethoxysilane (FAS) solution. The membrane contactor fabrication costs for both SC membrane and PP (polypropylene) membrane contactors per unit mass absorbed CO2 were roughly the same. However, by using the SC membrane, the detrimental effects of wetting can be alleviated by periodic drying to ensure a high CO2 removal efficiency (>90%), whereas the drying does not work for the PP membrane. The SC membrane contactor exhibited a better anti-fouling ability than the PP membrane contactor because the superhydrophobic surface featured a self-cleaning function. To ensure continuous CO2 removal with high efficiency, a method that two SC membrane contactors alternatively operate combined with periodic drying was proposed. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 33.
    Anamaghi, Sara
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Behboudian, Massoud
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Mahjouri, Najmeh
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Kerachian, Reza
    School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    A resilience-based framework for evaluating the carrying capacity of water and environmental resources under the climate change2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 902, article id 165986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new framework for evaluating water and environmental resources carrying capacity (WERCC) based on the concept of resilience under uncertainty. First, several quantitative and qualitative criteria based on the seven principles of resilience and the Pressure-Support-State (PSS) framework are defined to incorporate the positive and negative impacts of human interventions and natural factors on water resources and the environment. The resilience principles include redundancy and diversity, managing connectivity, managing slow variables and their feedbacks, fostering complex adaptive system (CAS) thinking, encouraging learning, broadening participation, and promoting polycentric governance. After evaluating the values of the criteria and sub-criteria using a two-point evidential reasoning (TPER) approach and considering the existing uncertainties, the monthly time series of WERCC with uncertainty bands are calculated. The proposed methodology is then used to evaluate the WERCC in the Zarrinehrud river basin in Iran for a given historical period (1991–2012), and the period of 2020 to 2049 under different climate change scenarios. The results of this analysis demonstrate the inadequacy of the WERCC during the historical period and indicate that the continuation of the existing trend (base scenario, MSC0) will cause many environmental issues. Hence, several water and environmental resources management (WERM) scenarios are proposed to enhance the WERCC. These scenarios are evaluated using a multi-agent-multi-criteria decision-making method to identify the preferable WERM scenario (MSC12356). This scenario, which encompasses various projects (e.g., development and enhancement of water transfer networks and upgrading cultivation methods), improves the average value of the WERCC by 26 %. The results of the proposed methodology are compared with those of a traditional decision-making method, which considers three criteria of average WERCC, the pressure-support index, and the implementation cost. The results demonstrate that the multi-agent-multi-criteria decision-making approach provides a more cost-effective management scenario, with 30 % less cost, leading to only 3 % less carrying capacity.

  • 34.
    Anderson-Skold, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, S-58195 Linköping, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Architecture & Civil Engn, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Afridi, Muhammad Amjad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials. Skellefteå Municipal, Stromsorgatan 15, S-93134 Skellefteå, Sweden..
    Nordin, Lina
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, S-58195 Linköping, Sweden..
    Patricio, Joao
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, S-58195 Linköping, Sweden..
    Lindgren, Asa
    Swedish Transport Adm, POB 3057, S-90302 Umeå, Sweden..
    Johansson, Carl-Martin
    Swedish Transport Adm, POB 3057, S-90302 Umeå, Sweden..
    Olofsson, Alexandra
    Swedish Transport Adm, POB 3057, S-90302 Umeå, Sweden..
    Andersson, Angelica
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, S-58195 Linköping, Sweden.;Linköping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, Campus Norrköping, S-60174 Norrköping, Sweden..
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, S-58195 Linköping, Sweden.;Univ Iceland, Fac Civil & Environm Engn, IS-108 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Development of the SUNRA Tool to Improve Regional and Local Sustainability of the Transportation Sector2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 18, p. 11275-, article id 11275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To fulfil the global sustainable development goals (SDGs), achieving sustainable development is becoming urgent, not least in the transportation sector. In response to this, the sustainability framework Sustainability National Road Administrations (SUNRA) was developed to contribute to improving the sustainability performance of national road administrations across Europe. In the present study, the framework has been tested, applied and further developed to be applicable for target setting and follow-up at the project level at both the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) and at municipal levels. The aim was a framework relevant for investment, re-investments, maintenance and operation projects and also to make it more user applicable. The study also investigated how the framework can contribute to sustainability, identified drivers and barriers for applying the framework and examined whether the framework can be applied and adapted to projects of different complexities. The adaptations and developments were done in collaboration between researchers and practitioners. The results show that the framework could easily be used and adapted for investment, re-investment, maintenance and operation projects in the planning stage, as well as for small municipal establishments, construction or reconstruction of residential areas and frequent maintenance. The framework contributes to increased awareness on sustainability, and it provides a common structure and transparency on how infrastructure project goals/targets are set and fulfilled. The framework can also be applied to follow the fulfilment of the goals/targets and thereby adapt the project to better fulfil the goals. Identified barriers include the lack of obligations and lack of experience in using sustainability frameworks.

  • 35. Andersson, E.
    et al.
    Boonstra, W. J.
    de la Torre Castro, M.
    Hughes, A. C.
    Ilstedt, U.
    Jernelöv, A.
    Jonsson, B. -G
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, C.
    Kritzberg, E.
    Kätterer, T.
    McNeely, J. A.
    Mohr, C.
    Mustonen, T.
    Ostwald, M.
    Reyes-Garcia, V.
    Rusch, G. M.
    Sanderson Bellamy, A.
    Stage, J.
    Tedengren, M.
    Thomas, D. N.
    Wulff, A.
    Söderström, B.
    Ambio fit for the 2020s2022In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 1091-1093Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gren, Åsa
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 37. Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Borgström, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Haase, Dagmar
    Lanemeyer, Johannes
    Mascarenhas, Andre
    McPhearson, Timon
    Wolff, Manuel
    Laszkiewicz, Edyta
    Kronenberg, Jakob
    Barton, David
    Herreros-Cantis, Pablo
    A context-sensitive systems approach for understanding and enabling ecosystem service realization in cities2021In: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 26, no 2, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding opportunities as well as constraints for people to benefit from and take care of urban nature is an importantstep toward more sustainable cities. In order to explore, engage, and enable strategies to improve urban quality of life, we combine asocial-ecological-technological systems framework with a flexible methodological approach to urban studies. The framework focuseson context dependencies in the flow and distribution of ecosystem service benefits within cities. The shared conceptual system frameworksupports a clear positioning of individual cases and integration of multiple methods, while still allowing for flexibility for aligning withlocal circumstances and ensuring context-relevant knowledge. To illustrate this framework, we draw on insights from a set of exploratorycase studies used to develop and test how the framework could guide research design and synthesis across multiple heterogeneous cases.Relying on transdisciplinary multi- and mixed methods research designs, our approach seeks to both enable within-case analyses andsupport and gradually build a cumulative understanding across cases and city contexts. Finally, we conclude by discussing key questionsabout green and blue infrastructure and its contributions to urban quality of life that the approach can help address, as well as remainingknowledge gaps both in our understanding of urban systems and of the methodological approaches we use to fill these gaps

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  • 38. Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Borgström, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Haase, Dagmar
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    Wolff, Manuel
    McPhearson, Timon
    Urban resilience thinking in practice: ensuring flows of benefit from green and blue infrastructure2021In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 26, no 4, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present and future urbanization together with climate change and other uncertainties make urban quality of life a criticalissue, and one that will need constant attention and deliberation. Across cities and contexts, urban ecosystems in the form of greenand blue infrastructure, have the potential to contribute to human well-being as well as supporting biodiversity, and to do so underdiverse conditions. However, the realization of this potential depends not only on the green and blue infrastructure itself, the well-beingbenefits are outcomes of the structures and processes of the entire urban system. Drawing on theory and insights from social-ecologicaltechnological systems (SETS) research and resilience assessments, we describe how a systemic understanding of the generation anddelivery of green and blue infrastructure benefits may inform cross-sectoral strategies and interventions for building resilience aroundthis particular aspect of human well-being. Connecting SETS to non-academic discourse and practice, we describe the urban systemin terms of three systemic controlling variables: infrastructure, institutions, and the perceptions of individual beneficiaries, which wecall filters, and how these can be used in different participatory processes to assess and build resilience around green and blueinfrastructure and its benefits.To ground the conceptual and theoretical framework in real world complexity and make it operational in practice we discuss three casestudies applying the framework in Barcelona, Halle, and Stockholm. All cases share the same general three-step process but theirindividual combinations of methods and adaptions of the filters framework are designed to fit with three necessarily unique collaborative,transdisciplinary processes. The cases are discussed in terms of outcomes and output, the ways they made use of the conceptualframework, and the challenges they faced. This exploratory work points to a new way of engaging with urban resilience—the strengthof the approach is that it is not limited to the identification of specific interventions or policy options, nor trying to prevent change;rather it focuses on how to move with change and build resilience through constant balancing of different types of SETS change. Ourstudy reinforces the growing understanding of how well-being benefits positioned as emergent outcomes of internal SETS interactionsoffers leverage for mainstreaming green and blue infrastructure throughout diverse governance processes and sectors.

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  • 39.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Borgström, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McPhearson, Timon
    The New School, New York.
    Double Insurance in Dealing with Extremes:Ecological and Social Factors for MakingNature-Based Solutions Last2017In: Nature‐based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptationin Urban Areas: Theory and Practice of Urban Sustainability Transitions / [ed] Kabisch, N.,Korn, H., Stadler, J.,Bonn, A., Germany: Springer, 2017, p. 51-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Global urbanisation has led to extreme population densities often in areasprone to problems such as extreme heat, storm surges, coastal and surface flooding,droughts and fires. Although nature based solutions (NBS) often have specifictargets,one of the overarching objectives with NBS design and implementation is toprotect human livelihoods and well-being, not least by protecting real estate andbuilt infrastructure. However, NBS need to be integrated and spatially and functionallymatched with other land uses, which requires that their contribution to societyis recognised. This chapter will present an ecologically grounded, resilience theoryand social-ecological systems perspective on NBS, with a main focus on how functioningecosystems contribute to the ‘solutions’. We will outline some of the basicprinciples and frameworks for studying and including insurance value in worktowards climate change adaptation and resilience, with a special emphasis on theneed to address both internal and external insurance. As we will demonstratethrough real world examples as well as theory, NBS should be treated as dynamiccomponents nested within larger systems and influenced by social as well as ecologicalfactors. Governance processes seeking to build urban resilience to climatechange in cities and other urban dynamics will need to consider both layers of insurancein order to utilize the powerful role NBS can play in creating sustainable,healthy, and liveable urban systems.

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  • 40.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    Institute of Environmental Science and Technology at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
    Borgström, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    McPherson, Timothy
    Enabling Green and Blue Infrastructure to Improve Contributions to Human Well-Being and Equity in Urban Systems2019In: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 566-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circumstances under which different ecosystem service benefits can be realized differ. The benefits tend to be coproduced and to be enabled by multiple interacting social, ecological, and technological factors, which is particularly evident in cities. As many cities are undergoing rapid change, these factors need to be better understood and accounted for, especially for those most in need of benefits. We propose a framework of three systemic filters that affect the flow of ecosystem service benefits: the interactions among green, blue, and built infrastructures; the regulatory power and governance of institutions; and people's individual and shared perceptions and values. We argue that more fully connecting green and blue infrastructure to its urban systems context and highlighting dynamic interactions among the three filters are key to understanding how and why ecosystem services have variable distribution, continuing inequities in who benefits, and the long-term resilience of the flows of benefits.

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  • 41.
    Andersson, Lina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Medborgarforskning: En miljöutbildning för allmänheten?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to study the behavioral changes in participants in the citizen science project

    "Växtkalendern". The purpose is also to study how the citizen science project "Växtkalendern" can influence the gap between awareness and action in terms of climate change issues, so-called action gap, among the participants. The study is conducted based on an abductive approach, where the empiric material influences the literature study and vice-versa. The relevant empirical was collected through a survey sent out to all the participants in the project "Växtkalendern". In addition, interviews and discussions with specialists in the field of citizen science research have been conducted.

    The results shows that the citizen science project

    "Växtkalendern" has potential to influence participants. The survey revealed that the participants felt that the opportunity to assist research was clearly the most important reason for participation. Using the theoretical standing points and the empirical material, the citizen science project ability to create behavioral changes in the participants in terms of climate change issues was analyzed. The study shows that the gap between awareness and action can be reduced with the help of citizen science as participants experienced increased awareness and a changing behavior through participation in the project "Växtkalendern".

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  • 42.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology.
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology.
    Bioaugmentation for enhanced denitrification in a labscale treatment system2006In: Proceedings of the Second IASTED International Conference on Advanced Technology in the Environmental Field / [ed] Ubertini, L, ACTA Press, 2006, p. 63-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of bioaugmentation was investigated in a predenitrification lab-scale wastewater treatment system. The aim was to investigate the difference between two approaches to bioaugmentation: one in which suspended overnight culture was used as inoculum and another where bacteria immobilized in 1% agar beads were used. Pure cultures of the denitrifying bacteria Comamonas denitrificans ATCC 700936T were used in the experiments. The effect of bioaugmentation on the system was monitored using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and denitrification activity tests. The bioaugmentation with suspended bacteria showed a rapid initial (4 days) increase in denitrification activity. After 8 days the activity declined to the level of the reference system and cells of C. denitrificans were no longer detectable. Augmentation with agar-embedded bacteria resulted in a small increase in activity and very few bacteria of C. denitrificans could be observed.

  • 43. André, H.
    et al.
    Söderman, M. L.
    Tillman, A. -M
    Circular economy as a means to efficient use of scarce metals?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    André, Hampus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    “If less is more, how you keeping score?” Outlines of a life cycle assessment method to assess sufficiency2024In: Frontiers in Sustainability, ISSN 2673-4524, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is increasingly clear that reaching environmental sustainability requires not only efficiency (reduced environmental impact per functionality) but also sufficiency measures (reduced environmental impact through reduced or changed functionality). Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely used tool to study environmental impacts related to consumption. However, because of the LCA convention of only comparing alternative products with equal functionality, it is currently inept as a method for assessing the environmental impacts of sufficiency measures. Against this background, this short paper aims to stimulate a discussion on how sufficiency measures can be assessed with LCA methodology. By analyzing the very few LCAs of explicit sufficiency measures in terms of the components of a functional unit (what function is provided, how much, for how long, and how well) features of a potential new branch of LCA methodology are outlined, called Sufficiency LCA. In Sufficiency LCA, product alternatives need to be similar enough so that the what component of the functional unit can be equal, while the other components, how much, how long, and how well, are allowed to be non-equal. Thus, a key feature of Sufficiency LCA concerns functional non-equivalence of compared product alternatives, which is not allowed or neglected in conventional LCA, but which could be allowed, acknowledged and quantified in Sufficiency LCA. Developing Sufficiency LCA could be critical considering that sufficiency measures are expected to be required, and that LCA is expected to be serviceable as decision-making support, in the transition toward environmental sustainability.

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  • 45. André, Hampus
    et al.
    Ljunggren, M.
    Towards comprehensive assessment of mineral resource availability?: Complementary roles of life cycle, life cycle sustainability and criticality assessments2021In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 167, article id 105396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. André, Hampus
    et al.
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    Nordelof, Anders
    Resource and environmental impacts of using second-hand laptop computers: A case study of commercial reuse2019In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 88, p. 268-279Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Ankarstig, Celina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Berggren, Victoria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Interactive Local Driller Mapping for Different Hydrogeological Areas of Bangladesh: Enabling Access to Information2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water can cause several types of cancer and numerous cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A country that suffers from widespread contamination of arsenic in drinking water is Bangladesh, where the contamination has been classified as the largest mass poisoning of a population in history. Around 90 percent of the existing tubewells used for drinking water in Bangladesh were installed by the private sector and local drillers, which makes their knowledge on drinking water contamination crucial in order to make them contributory for scaling up access to safe drinking water. The aim of the thesis was to develop an interactive map model to enhance the access to information for the local governments, communities, and private sector in three upazilas (sub- districts) of Bangladesh: Assasuni, Daudkandi, and Gowainghat, regarding how they can access safe drinking water in their local areas. The interactive map model for this thesis was developed in ArcGIS with supporting information from local drillers’ survey and Arsenic Safe Union project implementation data. The resulting maps contain information such as wells located in the upazilas, drillers’ working areas, years of working experience, contact information, certification and driller hubs (hardware shops). The map model is expected to be operationalised by creating a digital water platform through a mobile application, in a stand-alone website, or to be integrated in a government information centre to enable access for the community, local technocrats, the private sector and other concerned stakeholders. Moreover, the map can easily be scaled-up in the future to include additional areas with similar hydrogeology and arsenic or trace elements contamination problems, in other regions of South Asia, Africa and Latin America.

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  • 48.
    Annaduzzaman, Md
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chitosan biopolymer as an adsorbent for drinking water treatment: Investigation on Arsenic and Uranium2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries over the world (including Sweden), metal toxicity in freshwater resources causes a severe drinking water quality problem and poses a threat to the environment and human health. Among the different toxic metals in the water resources of Sweden, arsenic and uranium are the biggest threats to health. These elements, over long time consumption, may even lead to cancer and/or neurological disorder. Most of the wells are installed in crystalline and sedimentary bedrock and the received water comes from water bearing fractures in the bedrock. The handling of such water is an issue and there is a need to reduce the arsenic and uranium exposure by improving processes and technologies. It is a very serious problem demanding a safe, sustainable and eco-friendly arsenic and uranium removal technology prior to drinking water supply. Different treatment systems are available, but many of them are not suitable due to their high cost, operation complexity and waste management issues. Through this study, chitosan biopolymer the second largest abundant polysaccharide on earth after cellulose, was verified as a potential adsorbent for arsenic(V) and uranium(VI) removal from water solution. Adsorbent characterizations were also conducted by XRD, FTIR, SEM, UV-visible spectrum and TGA/DTA investigations. Bench-scale batch experiments were conducted using chitosan biopolymer (DDA-85%) as an adsorbent to determine the arsenic(V) and uranium(VI) removal efficiency, by allowing four important effective parameters e.g. chitosan dosages, pH, contact time and contaminant concentration. The adsorption data at optimum conditions were fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkhevic (D-R) isotherm and Lagergren pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic model to investigate the adsorption process. The characterization of materials assured the presence of effective amino, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups of chitosan. Another advanntage is that the materials are bio-degradable. The results show that the arsenic(V) and uranium(VI) removal efficiency was 100% and 97.45% after 300 minutes with optimum pH of 6.0 and 7.0 respectively. The optimum adsorbent dosages and initial concentration were 60 and 80g/L and 100 and 250 µg/L respectively. The adsorption process was suitably described by Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.9933) and Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.9858) correspondingly for arsenic(V) uranium(VI) compared to other isotherms. This is an important indicator of homogeneous monolayer adsorption of metals. For both of arsenic(V) and uranium(VI), pseudo-second-order explained the adsorption kinetics better than pseudo-first-order and the second-order kinetic regression coefficient (R2) were 0.9959 and 0.9672 correspondingly. Connecting to the above mentioned results, it can be summed up that the chitosan biopolymer (DDA 85%) can be used as an inexpensive, sustainable and environment-friendly treatment option for arsenic(V) and uranium(VI) contaminated drinking water.

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    Annaduzzaman, M. (2015)
  • 49. Aronson, M.F.J.
    et al.
    La Sorte, F.A.
    Nilon, C.H.
    Katti, M.
    Goddard, M.A.
    Lepczyk, C.A.
    Warren, P.S.
    Williams, W.P.S.
    Cilliers, S.
    Clarkson, B.
    Dobbs, Cynnamon
    Dolan, R.
    Hedblom, M.
    Klotz, S.
    Louwe Kooijmans, Jip
    Kühn, I.
    MacGregor-Fors, I.
    McDonnell, Mark
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Pyšek, P.
    Siebert, S.
    Sushinsky, J.
    Werner, Peter
    Winter, M.
    A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1780, p. 20133330-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization contributes to the loss of the world's biodiversity and the homogenization of its biota. However, comparative studies of urban biodiversity leading to robust generalities of the status and drivers of biodiversity in cities at the global scale are lacking. Here, we compiled the largest global dataset to date of two diverse taxa in cities: birds (54 cities) and plants (110 cities). We found that the majority of urban bird and plant species are native in the world's cities. Few plants and birds are cosmopolitan, the most common being Columba livia and Poa annua. The density of bird and plant species (the number of species per km2) has declined substantially: only 8% of native bird and 25% of native plant species are currently present compared with estimates of non-urban density of species. The current density of species in cities and the loss in density of species was best explained by anthropogenic features (landcover, city age) rather than by non-anthropogenic factors (geography, climate, topography). As urbanization continues to expand, efforts directed towards the conservation of intact vegetation within urban landscapes could support higher concentrations of both bird and plant species. Despite declines in the density of species, cities still retain endemic native species, thus providing opportunities for regional and global biodiversity conservation, restoration and education.

  • 50.
    Aronsson, Per
    et al.
    SLU.
    Hannrup, Björn
    Skogforsk.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    SLU.
    Jönsson, Mari
    SLU.
    Larsolle, Anders
    SLU.
    Lindholm, E.-L.
    SLU.
    Möller, J.
    Skogforsk.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Nordström, Maria
    Skogforsk.
    Olsson, Bengt
    SLU.
    Rudolphi, Jörgen
    SLU.
    Strömgren, M.
    SLU.
    An operational decision support tool for stump harvest2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-criteria decision support tool was developed to optimise stump harvesting for energy in Sweden. The decision tool takes account of multiple, sometimes conflicting, criteria relating to stump harvest; energy and climate, economics, biodiversity, and soil and water. Data on harvested stems are used as primary input data in the tool. Such data are routinely collected in harvester computers. The tool effectively deals with mixed sets of data; quantitative harvest data are re-calculated to metric (e.g. stump biomass), and qualitative data (e.g. biodiversity implications) are incorporated. A digital terrain map derived from air-borne laser scanning provides basic data for estimating soil wetness, while digital maps of water courses, key habitats and protected areas, or other sensitive habitats, are used to identify potentially and practically harvestable stumps.

    In four sub-models, an index from 0 to 10 is calculated for each stump, with 0 representing ‘Not at all suitable’ and 10 ‘Highly suitable for extraction’. Through this, a stump of high value for wood-living species is assigned a low index in the biodiversity sub-model and a large, easily accessible stump is assigned a high index in the economic sub-model. When calculating the net index, the sub-indices can be weighted according to the preferences of the end-user.

    An energy and climate sub-model incorporates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forest operations and the effect of advancing GHG emissions when stump biomass is incinerated instead of being left to decompose. In the economic sub-model the potential monetary return from each stump is calculated based on estimated revenue from harvested stump biomass and the costs of stump harvesting and forwarding operations (based on cost functions and GI

    S calculations of transport distances).

    The biodiversity sub-model considers four types of wood-dependent organisms (lichens, mosses, insects and fungi) in terms of their habitat requirements, vulnerability, sun exposure preferences, locality, etc. A panel of external experts has drawn up a grading scale of stump values for the different taxonomic groups. The proximity to key habitats and exposure to sunlight are derived from a spatial model.

    Soil and water issues are handled within a sub-model estimating the consequences for long-term soil fertility (nutrient cycling and soil compaction) and water (leaching of plant nutrients and mercury, and particle transport due to soil damage by heavy machinery).

    The tool offers the end-user possibilities to prioritise and plan for cost-effective stump harvesting, while minimising negative environmental impacts.

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