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  • 1. Abrahamsson, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Björksten, Bengt
    Engstrand, Lars
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Gut microbiota diversity and atopic disease: Does breast-feeding play a role? Reply2013In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 248-249Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Agliari, Elena
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita` degli Studi di Parma, viale G. Usberti 7, 43100 Parma, Italy.
    Barra, Adriano
    Del Ferraro, Gino
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Guerra, Francesco
    Tantari, Daniele
    Anergy in self-directed B lymphocytes: A statistical mechanics perspective2013In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 375, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-directed lymphocytes may evade clonal deletion at ontogenesis but still remain harmless due to a mechanism called clonal anergy. For B-lymphocytes, two major explanations for anergy developed over the last decades: according to Varela theory, anergy stems from a proper orchestration of the whole B-repertoire, such that self-reactive clones, due to intensive feed-back from other clones, display strong inertia when mounting a response. Conversely, according to the model of cognate response, self-reacting cells are not stimulated by helper lymphocytes and the absence of such signaling yields anergy. Through statistical mechanics we show that helpers do not prompt activation of a sub-group of B-cells: remarkably, the latter are just those broadly interacting in the idiotypic network. Hence Varela theory can finally be reabsorbed into the prevailing framework of the cognate response model. Further, we show how the B-repertoire architecture may emerge, where highly connected clones are self-directed as a natural consequence of ontogenetic learning. 

  • 3. Allerbring, E. B.
    et al.
    Duru, A. D.
    Uchtenhagen, H.
    Madhurantakam, C.
    Tomek, M. B.
    Grimm, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Mazumdar, P. A.
    Friemann, R.
    Uhlin, M.
    Sandalova, T.
    Nygren, Per-Åke
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Achour, A.
    Unexpected T-cell recognition of an altered peptide ligand is driven by reversed thermodynamics2012In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 2990-3000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular basis underlying T-cell recognition of MHC molecules presenting altered peptide ligands is still not well-established. A hierarchy of T-cell activation by MHC class I-restricted altered peptide ligands has been defined using the T-cell receptor P14 specific for H-2D b in complex with the immunodominant lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus peptide gp33 (KAVYNFATM). While substitution of tyrosine to phenylalanine (Y4F) or serine (Y4S) abolished recognition by P14, the TCR unexpectedly recognized H-2D b in complex with the alanine-substituted semiagonist Y4A, which displayed the most significant structural modification. The observed functional hierarchy gp33 > Y4A > Y4S = Y4F was neither due to higher stabilization capacity nor to differences in structural conformation. However, thermodynamic analysis demonstrated that while recognition of the full agonist H-2D b/gp33 was strictly enthalpy driven, recognition of the weak agonist H-2D b/Y4A was instead entropy driven with a large reduction in the favorable enthalpy term. The fourfold larger negative heat capacity derived for the interaction of P14 with H-2D b/gp33 compared with H-2D b/Y4A can possibly be explained by higher water entrapment at the TCR/MHC interface, which is also consistent with the measured opposite entropy contributions for the interactions of P14 with both MHCs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that P14 makes use of different strategies to adapt to structural modifications in the MHC/peptide complex.

  • 4. Belmonte, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Wang, Tiehui
    Duncan, Gary J.
    Skaar, Ida
    Melida, Hugo
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Bulone, Vincent
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    van West, Pieter
    Secombes, Christopher J.
    Role of Pathogen-Derived Cell Wall Carbohydrates and Prostaglandin E-2 in Immune Response and Suppression of Fish Immunity by the Oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica2014In: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 82, no 11, p. 4518-4529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saprolegnia parasitica is a freshwater oomycete that is capable of infecting several species of fin fish. Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by this microbe, has a substantial impact on Atlantic salmon aquaculture. No sustainable treatment against saprolegniosis is available, and little is known regarding the host response. In this study, we examined the immune response of Atlantic salmon to S. parasitica infection and to its cell wall carbohydrates. Saprolegnia triggers a strong inflammatory response in its host (i. e., induction of interleukin-1 beta(1) [IL-1 beta(1)], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), while severely suppressing the expression of genes associated with adaptive immunity in fish, through downregulation of T-helper cell cytokines, antigen presentation machinery, and immunoglobulins. Oomycete cell wall carbohydrates were recognized by fish leukocytes, triggering upregulation of genes involved in the inflammatory response, similar to what is observed during infection. Our data suggest that S. parasitica is capable of producing prostaglanding E-2 (PGE(2)) in vitro, a metabolite not previously shown to be produced by oomycetes, and two proteins with homology to vertebrate enzymes known to play a role in prostaglandin biosynthesis have been identified in the oomycete genome. Exogenous PGE(2) was shown to increase the inflammatory response in fish leukocytes incubated with cell wall carbohydrates while suppressing genes involved in cellular immunity (gamma interferon [IFN-gamma] and the IFN-gamma-inducible protein [gamma-IP]). Inhibition of S. parasitica zoospore germination and mycelial growth by two cyclooxygenase inhibitors (aspirin and indomethacin) also suggests that prostaglandins may be involved in oomycete development.

  • 5. Bollampalli, V. P.
    et al.
    Yamashiro, L. H.
    Feng, X.
    Bierschenk, D.
    Gao, Y.
    Blom, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Henriques-Normark, B.
    Nylen, S.
    Rothfuchs, A. G.
    BCG skin infection triggers IL-1R-MyD88-dependent migration of EpCAM(low) CD11b(high) skin dendritic cells to draining lymph node during CD4(+) T-cell priming2016In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 46, p. 790-790Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Brandstrom, J.
    et al.
    Vetander, M.
    Lilja, G.
    Johansson, S. G. O.
    Sundqvist, A. -C
    Kalm, Frida
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Nilsson, C.
    Nopp, A.
    Individually dosed omalizumab: an effective treatment for severe peanut allergy2017In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 540-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Treatment with omalizumab has shown a positive effect on food allergies, but no dosages are established. Basophil allergen threshold sensitivity (CD-sens) can be used to objectively measure omalizumab treatment efficacy and correlates with the outcome of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge to peanut. Objective To evaluate whether individualized omalizumab treatment monitored by CD-sens could be an effective intervention for suppression of allergic reactions to peanut. Methods Severely peanut allergic adolescents (n = 23) were treated with omalizumab for 8 weeks, and CD-sens was analysed before and after. Based on whether CD-sens was suppressed after 8 weeks, the patients either were subject to a peanut challenge or received eight more weeks with increased dose of omalizumab, followed by peanut challenge or another 8-week cycle of omalizumab. IgE and IgE-antibodies to peanut and its components were analysed before treatment. Results After individualized omalizumab treatment (8-24 weeks), all patients continued with an open peanut challenge with no (n = 18) or mild (n = 5) objective allergic symptoms. Patients (n = 15) needing an elevated omalizumab dose (ED) to suppress CD-sens had significantly higher CD-sens values at baseline 1.49 (0.44-20.5) compared to those (n = 8) who managed with normal dose (ND) 0.32 (0.24-5.5) (P < 0.01). Median ratios for Ara h 2 IgE-ab/IgE were significantly higher in the ED group (17%) compared to the ND group (11%). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Individually dosed omalizumab, monitored by CD-sens, is an effective and safe treatment for severe peanut allergy. The ratio of IgE-ab to storage protein Ara h 2/IgE as well as CD-sens to peanut may predict the need of a higher omalizumab dose.

  • 7. Enqvist, M.
    et al.
    Ask, E. H.
    Forslund, E.
    Carlsten, M.
    Abrahamsen, G.
    Béziat, V.
    Andersson, S.
    Schaffer, M.
    Spurkland, A.
    Bryceson, Y.
    Önfelt, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Malmberg, K. -J
    Coordinated expression of DNAM-1 and LFA-1 in educated NK cells2015In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 194, no 9, p. 4518-4527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The functional capacity of NK cells is dynamically tuned by integrated signals from inhibitory and activating cell surface receptors in a process termed NK cell education. However, the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind this functional tuning is limited. In this study, we show that the expression of the adhesion molecule and activation receptor DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1) correlates with the quantity and quality of the inhibitory input by HLA class I-specific killer cell Ig-like receptors and CD94/NKG2A as well as with the magnitude of functional responses. Upon target cell recognition, the conformational state of LFA-1 changed in educated NK cells, associated with rapid colocalization of both active LFA-1 and DNAM-1 at the immune synapse. Thus, the coordinated expression of LFA-1 and DNAM-1 is a central component of NK cell education and provides a potential mechanism for controlling cytotoxicity by functionally mature NK cells.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Affinity based proteomics research tools2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Listen to the mantra; the mapping of the genome was finished in 2001, and the sequel research challenge is the thorough survey of the corresponding human proteome. This was stated almost a decade ago, it has been repeated over and over, and is still most certainly a hard nut to crack. The workload is daunting, much because there is no protein amplification method and no binary system for the detection of proteins, and because the complexity of the proteome is larger than that of the genome as it seems. Hence, there is a need for high throughput technologies that, at sufficiently low limits of detection and with satisfying sensitivities, may investigate protein content in human samples. With this aim, the Human Proteome Resource (HPR) project was initiated in 2003.

    All work presented in this thesis relate to protein interactions; binders are either utilized such as for the depletion of high abundant proteins from serum, or analyzed such as in the validation of monospecific antibody specificity, or the epitope mapping of the same. In Paper I, the Gyrolab system is utilized in a setup for the specificity analysis of monospecific antibodies towards their antigen, and the setup is compared to planar protein arrays. Gyrolab technology is used again, in Paper II, where epitope mapping of monospecific antibodies is performed in order to analyze antibody specificity. Also, mapping serves to compare the immune-responses from parallel immunizations using the same antigen, thereby assessing reproducibility in the regeneration of antibodies. Paper III describes a high throughput approach for the depletion of high abundant proteins, in serum and plasma samples, taking advantage of Affibody molecules as binders. The last two papers, IV and V, utilize monospecific antibodies for protein analysis; in Paper IV pull out experiments show that competitive elution using the PrEST antigen can be a fruitful approach to increase specificity. And finally, in Paper V, a setup for the semi-quantitative protein content analysis in fluid samples is suggested. Again, the Gyrolab technology is used, and the setup is tested on a simplified model system.

  • 9. Forslund, Elin
    et al.
    Sohlberg, Ebba
    Enqvist, Monika
    Olofsson, Per E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Malmberg, Karl-Johan
    Önfelt, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Sci Life Lab, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, S-17165 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Microchip-Based Single-Cell Imaging Reveals That CD56(dim) CD57(-)KIR(-)NKG2A(+) NK Cells Have More Dynamic Migration Associated with Increased Target Cell Conjugation and Probability of Killing Compared to CD56(dim)CD57(-)KIR(-)NKG2A(-) NK Cells2015In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 195, no 7, p. 3374-3381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NK cells are functionally educated by self-MHC specific receptors, including the inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) and the lectin-like CD94/NKG2A heterodimer. Little is known about how NK cell education influences qualitative aspects of cytotoxicity such as migration behavior and efficacy of activation and killing at the single-cell level. In this study, we have compared the behavior of FACS-sorted CD56(dim)CD57(-)KIR(-)NKG2A(+) (NKG2A(+)) and CD56(dim)CD57(-)KIR(-)NKG2A(+) (lacking inhibitory receptors; IR-) human NK cells by quantifying migration, cytotoxicity, and contact dynamics using microchip-based live cell imaging. NKG2A(+) NK cells displayed a more dynamic migration behavior and made more contacts with target cells than IR-NK cells. NKG2A(+) NK cells also more frequently killed the target cells once a conjugate had been formed. NK cells with serial killing capacity were primarily found among NKG2A(+) NK cells. Conjugates involving IR- NK cells were generally more short-lived and IR- NK cells did not become activated to the same extent as NKG2A(+) NK cells when in contact with target cells, as evident by their reduced spreading response. In contrast, NKG2A(+) and IR- NK cells showed similar dynamics in terms of duration of conjugation periods and NK cell spreading response in conjugates that led to killing. Taken together, these observations suggest that the high killing capacity of NKG2A(+) NK cells is linked to processes regulating events in the recognition phase of NK-target cell contact rather than events after cytotoxicity has been triggered.

  • 10. Gaballa, A.
    et al.
    Norberg, A.
    Stikvoort, A.
    Mattsson, J.
    Sundberg, B.
    Uzunel, M.
    Remberger, M.
    Uhlin, Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Karolinska Institutet, Sverige.
    Assessment of TREC, KREC and telomere length in long-term survivors after allogeneic HSCT: the role of GvHD and graft source and evidence for telomere homeostasis in young recipients2018In: Bone Marrow Transplantation, ISSN 0268-3369, E-ISSN 1476-5365, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconstitution of the adaptive immune system following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is crucial for beneficial outcome and is affected by several factors, such as GvHD and graft source. The impact of these factors on immune reconstitution has been thoroughly investigated during the early phase after transplantation. However, little is known about their long-term effect. Similarly, leukocyte telomere length (TL) shortening has been reported shortly after transplantation. Nevertheless, whether TL shortening continues in long-term aspect is still unsettled. Here, we assessed T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC), kappa deleting recombination excision circle (KREC) and leukocyte TL in recipients and donors several years post transplantation (median 17 years). Our analysis showed that, recipients who received bone marrow (BM) as the graft source have higher levels of both TREC and KREC. Also, chronic GvHD affected TREC levels and TL but not KREC levels. Finally, we show that recipient's TL was longer than respective donors in a group of young age recipients with high KREC levels. Our results suggest that BM can be beneficial for long-term adaptive immune recovery. We also present supporting evidence for recipient telomere homeostasis, especially in young age recipients, rather than telomere shortening.

  • 11.
    Girnyk, Maksym A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Vehkapera, Mikko
    Rasmussen, Lars Kildehoj
    Christakou, Athanasia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Wiklund, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Onfelt, Bjorn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Orange, Jordan
    Lytic granule convergence is essential for NK cells to promote targeted killing while preventing collateral damage2016In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 196Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12. Goodridge, Jodie P.
    et al.
    Onfelt, Bjorn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. Karolinska Inst, Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol.
    Malmberg, Karl-Johan
    Newtonian cell interactions shape natural killer cell education2015In: Immunological Reviews, ISSN 0105-2896, E-ISSN 1600-065X, Vol. 267, no 1, p. 197-213Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Newton's third law of motion states that for every action on a physical object there is an equal and opposite reaction. The dynamic change in functional potential of natural killer (NK) cells during education bears many features of such classical mechanics. Cumulative physical interactions between cells, under a constant influence of homeostatic drivers of differentiation, lead to a reactive spectrum that ultimately shapes the functionality of each NK cell. Inhibitory signaling from an array of self-specific receptors appear not only to suppress self-reactivity but also aid in the persistence of effector functions over time, thereby allowing the cell to gradually build up a functional potential. Conversely, the frequent non-cytolytic interactions between normal cells in the absence of such inhibitory signaling result in continuous stimulation of the cells and attenuation of effector function. Although an innate cell, the degree to which the fate of the NK cell is predetermined versus its ability to adapt to its own environment can be revealed through a Newtonian view of NK cell education, one which is both chronological and dynamic. As such, the development of NK cell functional diversity is the product of qualitatively different physical interactions with host cells, rather than simply the sum of their signals or an imprint based on intrinsically different transcriptional programs.

  • 13.
    Guldevall, Karolin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Single Cell Investigations of the Functional Heterogeneity Within Immune Cell Populations: a Microchip-based Study2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Immune cell populations are constantly divided into smaller and smaller subsets defined by newly emerging cellular markers. However, there is a growing awareness of the functional heterogeneities in between cells even within small populations, in addition to the heterogeneity over time. One may ask whether a population is correctly defined only by cellular markers or if the functionality should be regarded as well? Many of today’s techniques only measure at the population level, giving an average estimate of the behavior of that pool of cells, but failing to detect rare possibly important events. Thus, high-throughput experimental approaches to analyze single cells over time are required to address cellular heterogeneity.

    Progress in the fields of microfabrication, microscopy and computing have paved the way for increasingly efficient tools for studies on the single cell level, and a variety of devices have been described by others. However, few of them are suitable for long-term imaging of dynamic events such as cell-cell interactions or migration. In addition, for efficient recording of many individual events it is desirable to scale down the cells’ interaction volume; not only to shorten the time to interaction, but also to increase the number of individual events in a given area; thereby pushing a screening approach.

    To address these questions, a complete microwell array system for imaging of immune cell responses with single-cell resolution was designed. The platform consists of a range of silicon-glass microchips with arrays of miniature wells for incubation of cells and a custom made holder that fits conventional microscopes. The device has been designed to allow cells to be kept viable for several days in the wells, to be easy to use and to allow high-resolution imaging. Five different designs were fabricated; all with a specific type of assay in mind, and were evaluated regarding biocompatibility and functionality. Here, the design aimed for screening applications is the main focus. In this approach a large amount, tens of thousands, of small wells are imaged two to three times: first directly post-seeding of effector and target cells to register the well’s content, and second after some time has passed to allow for cell-cell interactions. The final read-out is the number of killed target cells in each well, making an automatic cell counting protocol necessary in order to analyze the massive amount of data generated.

    We here show that our silicon microwell platform allows long-term studies with the possibility of both time-lapse and high-resolution imaging of a variety of immune cell behavior. Using both time-lapse imaging and the screening approach we confirmed and investigated immune cell heterogeneity within NK cell populations in regards to both cytotoxicity and migrational behavior. In addition, two different types of cytolytic behavior in NK cells, termed fast and slow killing, were described and evaluated in regards to dynamic parameters; like conjugation and attachment time. We could also quantify the type of cytolytic response in relation to serial killing NK cells, and saw that serial killing NK cells more often induced fast target cell death. Further investigations using the screening approach have shown that serial killing NK cells also differ from other NK cells in their morphology, being both larger and with a more elongated shape. So far the platform has been used to gain better understanding of some aspects of NK cell biology, but there is still much left to explore. With the addition of an automatic counting program, the large numbers of wells that can be simultaneously imaged will provide new statistical information and enable higher throughput.

    Altogether, our family of techniques enables novel types of cellular imaging assays allowing data collection at a level of resolution not previously obtained – this was shown to be important for performing basic cell biological studies, but may also prove valuable in the proposed future medical applications such as adoptive cell therapy and stem cell transplantation.

  • 14.
    Guldevall, Karolin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Brandt, Ludwig
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Forslund, Elin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Karl
    Frisk, Thomas W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Olofsson, Per E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Manneberg, Otto
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Vanherberghen, Bruno
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Karre, Klas
    Uhlin, Michael
    Önfelt, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Microchip screening Platform for single cell assessment of NK cell cytotoxicity2016In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 7, article id 119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report a screening platform for assessment of the cytotoxic potential of individual natural killer (NK) cells within larger populations. Human primary NK cells were distributed across a silicon-glass microchip containing 32,400 individual microwells loaded with target cells. Through fluorescence screening and automated image analysis, the numbers of NK and live or dead target cells in each well could be assessed at different time points after initial mixing. Cytotoxicity was also studied by time-lapse live-cell imaging in microwells quantifying the killing potential of individual NK cells. Although most resting NK cells (approximate to 75%) were non-cytotoxic against the leukemia cell line K562, some NK cells were able to kill several (>= 3) target cells within the 12-h long experiment. In addition, the screening approach was adapted to increase the chance to find and evaluate serial killing NK cells. Even if the cytotoxic potential varied between donors, it was evident that a small fraction of highly cytotoxic NK cells were responsible for a substantial portion of the killing. We demonstrate multiple assays where our platform can be used to enumerate and characterize cytotoxic cells, such as NK or T cells. This approach could find use in clinical applications, e.g., in the selection of donors for stem cell transplantation or generation of highly specific and cytotoxic cells for adoptive immunotherapy.

  • 15.
    Guldevall, Karolin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Frisk, Thomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Vanherberghen, Bruno
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Khorsidi, Mohammed Ali
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Manneberg, Otto
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Christakou, Athanasia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Wiklund, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Önfelt, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Imaging immune surveillance by individual Natural Killer cells isolated in arrays of nanoliter wells2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16. Hamsten, C.
    et al.
    Häggmark, Anna
    KTH.
    Grundstrom, J.
    Mikus, Maria
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Lindskog, C.
    Konradsen, J. R.
    Eklund, A.
    Pershagen, G.
    Wickman, M.
    Grunewald, J.
    Melen, E.
    Hedlin, G.
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    van Hage, M.
    Protein profiles of CCL5, HPGDS, and NPSR1 in plasma reveal association with childhood asthma2016In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 71, no 9, p. 1357-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is a common chronic childhood disease with many different phenotypes that need to be identified. We analyzed a broad range of plasma proteins in children with well-characterized asthma phenotypes to identify potential markers of childhood asthma. Using an affinity proteomics approach, plasma levels of 362 proteins covered by antibodies from the Human Protein Atlas were investigated in a total of 154 children with persistent or intermittent asthma and controls. After screening, chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS) and neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) were selected for further investigation. Significantly lower levels of both CCL5 and HPGDS were found in children with persistent asthma, while NPSR1 was found at higher levels in children with mild intermittent asthma compared to healthy controls. In addition, the protein levels were investigated in another respiratory disease, sarcoidosis, showing significantly higher NPSR1 levels in sera from sarcoidosis patients compared to healthy controls. Immunohistochemical staining of healthy tissues revealed high cytoplasmic expression of HPGDS in mast cells, present in stroma of both airway epithelia, lung as well as in other organs. High expression of NPSR1 was observed in neuroendocrine tissues, while no expression was observed in airway epithelia or lung. In conclusion, we have utilized a broad-scaled affinity proteomics approach to identify three proteins with altered plasma levels in asthmatic children, representing one of the first evaluations of HPGDS and NPSR1 protein levels in plasma.

  • 17.
    Häggmark-Månberg, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zandian, Arash
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Forsström, Björn
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Khademi, Mohsen
    Bomfim, Izaura Lima
    Hellström, Cecilia
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen
    Hallböök, Tove
    Darin, Niklas
    Lundberg, Ingrid E.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Partinen, Markku
    Schwenk, Jochen M.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Olsson, Tomas
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Autoantibody targets in vaccine-associated narcolepsy2016In: Autoimmunity, ISSN 0891-6934, E-ISSN 1607-842X, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 421-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder with a yet unknown cause, but the specific loss of hypocretin-producing neurons together with a strong human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association has led to the hypothesis that autoimmune mechanisms might be involved. Here, we describe an extensive effort to profile autoimmunity repertoires in serum with the aim to find disease-related autoantigens. Initially, 57 serum samples from vaccine-associated and sporadic narcolepsy patients and controls were screened for IgG reactivity towards 10 846 fragments of human proteins using planar microarrays. The discovered differential reactivities were verified on suspension bead arrays in the same sample collection followed by further investigation of 14 antigens in 176 independent samples, including 57 narcolepsy patients. Among these 14 antigens, methyltransferase-like 22 (METTL22) and 5'-nucleotidase cytosolic IA (NT5C1A) were recognized at a higher frequency in narcolepsy patients of both sample sets. Upon sequence analysis of the 14 proteins, polymerase family, member 3 (PARP3), acyl-CoA-binding domain containing 7 (ARID4B), glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and cyclin-dependent kinase-like 1 (CDKL1) were found to contain amino acid sequences with homology to proteins found in the H1N1 vaccine. These findings could become useful elements of further clinical assays that aim towards a better phenotypic understanding of narcolepsy and its triggers.

  • 18. Kirik, Ufuk
    et al.
    Persson, Helena
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Levander, Fredrik
    Greiff, Lennart
    Ohlin, Mats
    Antibody Heavy Chain variable Domains of Different Germline Gene Origins Diversify through Different Paths2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 1433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    B cells produce antibodies, key effector molecules in health and disease. They mature their properties, including their affinity for antigen, through hypermutation events; processes that involve, e.g., base substitution, codon insertion and deletion, often in association with an isotype switch. Investigations of antibody evolution define modes whereby particular antibody responses are able to form, and such studies provide insight important for instance for development of efficient vaccines. Antibody evolution is also used in vitro for the design of antibodies with improved properties. To better understand the basic concepts of antibody evolution, we analyzed the mutational paths, both in terms of amino acid substitution and insertions and deletions, taken by antibodies of the IgG isotype. The analysis focused on the evolution of the heavy chain variable domain of sets of antibodies, each with an origin in 1 of 11 different germline genes representing six human heavy chain germline gene subgroups. Investigated genes were isolated from cells of human bone marrow, a major site of antibody production, and characterized by next-generation sequencing and an in-house bioinformatics pipeline. Apart from substitutions within the complementarity determining regions, multiple framework residues including those in protein cores were targets of extensive diversification. Diversity, both in terms of substitutions, and insertions and deletions, in antibodies is focused to different positions in the sequence in a germline gene-unique manner. Altogether, our findings create a framework for understanding patterns of evolution of antibodies from defined germline genes.

  • 19.
    Le Normand, Myriam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Mélida, Hugo
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Holmbom, Bjarne
    Åbo Akademi.
    Michaelsen, Terje E.
    Unversity of Oslo.
    Inngjerdingen, Marit
    University of Oslo.
    Bulone, Vincent
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Paulsen, B.S.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Hot-water extracts from the inner bark of Norway spruce with immunomodulating activities2014In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 101, no 1, p. 699-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inner bark of Norway spruce (Picea abies) was sequentially extracted with hot water at 100 degrees C, 140 C and 160 degrees C. The hot-water extracts (IB 100 degrees C, IB 140 degrees C and IB 160 degrees C) contained pectic polysaccharides and showed immunostimulating activities. Structural analyses of their carbohydrate content, including glycosidic linkage analyses, revealed the presence of pectins with a large rhamnogalacturonan RG-I domain ramified with highly-branched arabinans. IB 100 degrees C also contained a large amount of terminal glucosyl residues, indicating the presence of highly substituted polymers. IB 160 degrees C was mainly composed of starch. The hot-water extracts were tested for two biological activities, namely complement fixation and macrophage stimulation. IB 100 degrees C exhibited the highest complement fixation activity, with a 1.7-times higher IC(H)50 than the control pectin, while IB 140 degrees C and IB 160 degrees C gave similar IC(H)50 values as the control. Macrophages were stimulated by IB 100 degrees C and IB 140 degrees C in a dose-dependent manner, but not by IB 160 degrees C. IB 100 degrees C presented the highest activity toward macrophages, comparable to the control pectin.

  • 20. Liao, Shih-Fen
    et al.
    Liang, Chi-Hui
    Ho, Ming-Yi
    Hsu, Tsui-Ling
    Tsai, Tsung-I
    Hsieh, Yves S-Y
    Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
    Tsai, Chih-Ming
    Li, Shiou-Ting
    Cheng, Yang-Yu
    Tsao, Shu-Ming
    Lin, Tung-Yi
    Lin, Zong-Yan
    Yang, Wen-Bin
    Ren, Chien-Tai
    Lin, Kuo-I
    Khoo, Kay-Hooi
    Lin, Chun-Hung
    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh
    Wu, Chung-Yi
    Wong, Chi-Huey
    Immunization of fucose-containing polysaccharides from Reishi mushroom induces antibodies to tumor-associated Globo H-series epitopes.2013In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, no 34, p. 13809-13814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrate-based vaccines have shown therapeutic efficacy for infectious disease and cancer. The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) containing complex polysaccharides has been used as antitumor supplement, but the mechanism of immune response has rarely been studied. Here, we show that the mice immunized with a l-fucose (Fuc)-enriched Reishi polysaccharide fraction (designated as FMS) induce antibodies against murine Lewis lung carcinoma cells, with increased antibody-mediated cytotoxicity and reduced production of tumor-associated inflammatory mediators (in particular, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). The mice showed a significant increase in the peritoneal B1 B-cell population, suggesting FMS-mediated anti-glycan IgM production. Furthermore, the glycan microarray analysis of FMS-induced antisera displayed a high specificity toward tumor-associated glycans, with the antigenic structure located in the nonreducing termini (i.e., Fucα1-2Galβ1-3GalNAc-R, where Gal, GalNAc, and R represent, respectively, D-galactose, D-N-acetyl galactosamine, and reducing end), typically found in Globo H and related tumor antigens. The composition of FMS contains mainly the backbone of 1,4-mannan and 1,6-α-galactan and through the Fucα1-2Gal, Fucα1-3/4Man, Fucα1-4Xyl, and Fucα1-2Fuc linkages (where Man and Xyl represent d-mannose and d-xylose, respectively), underlying the molecular basis of the FMS-induced IgM antibodies against tumor-specific glycans.

  • 21. Lindback, E.
    et al.
    Gharizadeh, B.
    Ataker, F.
    Airell, A.
    Jalal, S.
    Nyrén, Pål
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry (closed 20130101).
    Wretlind, B.
    Quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae - response2005In: International Journal of STD and AIDS (London), ISSN 0956-4624, E-ISSN 1758-1052, Vol. 16, no 12, p. 835-836Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Morfeldt, E
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Berggård, K
    Lund University.
    Persson, J
    Lund University.
    Drakenberg, T
    Lund University.
    Johnsson, E
    Lund University.
    Lindahl, E
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Linse, S
    Lund University.
    Lindahl, G
    Lund University.
    Isolated hypervariable regions derived from streptococcal M proteins specifically bind human C4b-binding protein: implications for antigenic variation.2001In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 167, no 7, p. 3870-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antigenic variation in microbial surface proteins represents an apparent paradox, because the variable region must retain an important function, while exhibiting extensive immunological variability. We studied this problem for a group of streptococcal M proteins in which the approximately 50-residue hypervariable regions (HVRs) show essentially no residue identity but nevertheless bind the same ligand, the human complement regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP). Synthetic peptides derived from different HVRs were found to retain the ability to bind C4BP, implying that the HVR corresponds to a distinct ligand-binding domain that can be studied in isolated form. This finding allowed direct characterization of the ligand-binding properties of isolated HVRs and permitted comparisons between different HVRs in the absence of conserved parts of the M proteins. Affinity chromatography of human serum on immobilized peptides showed that they bound C4BP with high specificity and inhibition experiments indicated that different peptides bound to the same site in C4BP. Different C4BP-binding peptides did not exhibit any immunological cross-reactivity, but structural analysis suggested that they have similar folds. These data show that the HVR of streptococcal M protein can exhibit extreme variability in sequence and immunological properties while retaining a highly specific ligand-binding function.

  • 23.
    Norlin, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Tengvall, P.
    Askendal, A.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Electrochemical characterization and immune system activation in blood by electrode materials in pacemaker applications2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electrode materials in pacemaker application for electrochemical characterization and immune system activation in blood was discussed. The biocompatibility of the electrode was strongly influenced by the physical, chemical, electrochemical, and biochemical properties of the material surface. The surface properties affect the way the implant interacts with the surrounding tissue, and influence the adsorption of protein and biomolecules. Slow potentiodynamic polarization of a TaN covered electrode show a stable behavior in a wide potential range.

  • 24.
    Olofsson, Per Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cellular Biophysics.
    Microscopy-based single-cell in vitro assays for NK cell function in 2-D and 3-D2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural killer (NK) cells are effector cells of the innate immune system that are responsible for mediating cellular cytotoxicity against virally infected or neoplastically transformed cells. NK cell subsets are defined by their expression of certain cell-surface markers, and are usually related to activation and developmental status.

    However, how distinct NK cell phenotypes correlate with behavior in NK-target interactions is less widely characterized. There is therefore a need to study NK cell behavior down at the single-cell level. One aim of this thesis is to approach methods that quantitatively describe these single-cell-level behavioral differences of NK cells.

    Additionally, the ability of NK cells to migrate through the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment is crucial for NK cell trafficking and immune surveillance. Traditional imaging studies of NK cell migration and cytotoxicity do not properly reproduce the structural and mechanical cues that shape the migratory response of NK cells in vivo.

    Therefore, it is desirable to implement 3-D in vitro migration and killing assays that better mimic in vivo conditions. Another aim of this thesis is to develop a microwell-based assay for 3-D time-lapse imaging of NK cell migration and cytotoxicity.

    Using a newly developed single-cell imaging and screening assay, we trap small populations of NK and target cells inside microwells, where they are imaged over extended periods of time. We have performed experiments on resting, IL-2-activated, educated, and non-educated NK cells and quantified their migration behavior and cytotoxicity. One major discovery was that a small population of NK cells mediate a majority of the cytotoxicity directed against target cells. A particularly cytotoxic group of cells, termed serial killers, displayed faster and more effective cytotoxicity. Serial killers were more prevalent in IL-2-activated and educated NK cells, but were also present in a small fraction of resting and non-educated NK cells. IL-2-activated and educated NK cells displayed more dynamic migration behavior than resting and non-educated NK cells. Additionally, IL-2-activated and educated NK cells spent more time in NK–target cell conjugates and post-conjugation attachment than resting and non-educated NK cells.

    To more closely approximate in vivo conditions, we have combined our microwell assay with an interstitial ECM-like matrix. The microwells allow for long-term imaging of NK–target cell interactions within a confined 3-D volume. NK cells were tracked and interactions with target cells were scored for duration and outcome. The developed microwell-based assay is suitable for 3-D time-lapse imaging of NK cell migration and cytotoxicity. As it allows for experiments with human cells, it could be used as a complement to in vivo imaging.

    We have quantified NK cell behavioral heterogeneity and developed tools that can be used to further study and elucidate differences in the behavior of single immune cells. These tools advance current methods for single-cell analysis, which will likely play an even more important role in the study of immune responses in the future.

  • 25.
    Olofsson, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cellular Biophysics.
    Magnusson, Klas E. G.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Frisk, Thomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cellular Biophysics.
    Jaldén, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Önfelt, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cellular Biophysics.
    A collagen-based microwell migration assay to study NK—target cell interactionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity is highly dependent on the ability of NK cells to migrate through the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment. Traditional imaging studies of NK cell migration and cytotoxicity have utilized 2-D surfaces, which do not properly reproduce the structural and mechanical cues that shape the migratory response of NK cells in vivo. In addition, current in vivo imaging does not allow for the accurate long-term single-cell imaging required to dissect the functional heterogeneity of NK cell populations, and importantly, it does not allow studies of human cells. Therefore, it is desirable to implement in vitro migration and killing assays that better mimic in vivo conditions.

    We have combined a microwell assay that allows long-term imaging and tracking of small, well-defined populations of NK cells with an interstitial ECM-like matrix to more closely approximate in vivo conditions. The microwells, which are loaded with a gel mixture containing NK and target cells, allows for long-term imaging of NK–target cell interactions within a confined 3-D volume. The microwells were optically sectioned by confocal fluorescence microscopy once every 2 min for 12 h. NK cells were tracked by the Baxter Algorithms to assess motility parameters and interactions with target cells were manually scored for duration and outcome.

    We found marked differences in motility between individual cells with a significant fraction of the cells moving slowly and being confined to a small area within the matrix, while other cells moved more freely, probably reflecting local variations in the matrix structure and inherent difference in motility between individual cells. A majority of NK cells also exhibited transient variation in their mobility alternating between periods of migration arrest and random movement. NK cells that alternated between different modes of migration switched on average once every 3 h.

    NK cells made fewer and shorter contacts with target cells than in comparable 2-D assays. The difference was particularly pronounced for the process of post-conjugation attachment when NK and target cells separate. The timing of this process is likely influenced by a biomechanical component only present in 3-D environments where the cells are offered multiple anchor points with the matrix that can be used to generate the forces needed to pull apart.

    The developed microwell-based assay is suitable for 3-D time-lapse imaging of NK cells migration and cytotoxicity. As it allows for experiments with human cells, it could be used as a complement to in vivo imaging to study the influence of e.g. education and cytokine activation on NK cell heterogeneity in migration and cytotoxicity.

  • 26. Omazic, B.
    et al.
    Ayoglu, Burcu
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Löhr, M.
    Segersvärd, R.
    Verbeke, C.
    Magalhaes, I.
    Potacova, Z.
    Mattsson, J.
    Terman, A.
    Ghazi, S.
    Albiin, N.
    Kartalis, N.
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Poiret, T.
    Zhenjiang, L.
    Heuchel, R.
    Schwenk, Jochen M.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Permert, J.
    Maeurer, M. J.
    Ringden, O.
    A Preliminary Report: Radical Surgery and Stem Cell Transplantation for the Treatment of Patients with Pancreatic Cancer2017In: Journal of immunotherapy (1997), ISSN 1524-9557, E-ISSN 1537-4513, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 132-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the immunologic effects of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, a deadly disease with a median survival of 24 months for resected tumors and a 5-year survival rate of 6%. After adjuvant chemotherapy, 2 patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma underwent HSCT with HLA-identical sibling donors. Comparable patients who underwent radical surgery, but did not have a donor, served as controls (n=6). Both patients developed humoral and cellular (ie, HLA-A∗01:01-restricted) immune responses directed against 2 novel tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), INO80E and UCLH3 after HSCT. Both TAAs were highly expressed in the original tumor tissue suggesting that HSCT promoted a clinically relevant, long-lasting cellular immune response. In contrast to untreated controls, who succumbed to progressive disease, both patients are tumor-free 9 years after diagnosis. Radical surgery combined with HSCT may cure pancreatic adenocarcinoma and change the cellular immune repertoire capable of responding to clinically and biologically relevant TAAs.

  • 27.
    Quintana, Maria del Pilar
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol MTC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ch'ng, Jun-Hong
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol MTC, Stockholm, Sweden.;Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Singapore, Singapore..
    Moll, Kirsten
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol MTC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zandian, Arash
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Affin Prote Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO). KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Idris, Zulkarnain Md
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol MTC, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Kebangsaan, Malaysia Med Ctr, Fac Med, Dept Parasitol & Med Entomol, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Saiwaew, Somporn
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Trop Med, Dept Clin Trop Med, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Qundos, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO). KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wahlgren, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol MTC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Antibodies in children with malaria to PfEMP1, RIFIN and SURFIN expressed at the Plasmodium falciparum parasitized red blood cell surface2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 3262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Naturally acquired antibodies to proteins expressed on the Plasmodium falciparum parasitized red blood cell (pRBC) surface steer the course of a malaria infection by reducing sequestration and stimulating phagocytosis of pRBC. Here we have studied a selection of proteins representing three different parasite gene families employing a well-characterized parasite with a severe malaria phenotype (FCR3S1.2). The presence of naturally acquired antibodies, impact on rosetting rate, surface reactivity and opsonization for phagocytosis in relation to different blood groups of the ABO system were assessed in a set of sera from children with mild or complicated malaria from an endemic area. We show that the naturally acquired immune responses, developed during malaria natural infection, have limited access to the pRBCs inside a blood group A rosette. The data also indicate that SURFIN4.2 may have a function at the pRBC surface, particularly during rosette formation, this role however needs to be further validated. Our results also indicate epitopes differentially recognized by rosette-disrupting antibodies on a peptide array. Antibodies towards parasite-derived proteins such as PfEMP1, RIFIN and SURFIN in combination with host factors, essentially the ABO blood group of a malaria patient, are suggested to determine the outcome of a malaria infection.

  • 28. Radestad, E.
    et al.
    Klynning, C.
    Mattsson, J.
    Norstrom, M. M.
    Sundberg, B.
    Levitsky, V
    Uhlin, Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Tumor-infiltrating T-cells of ovarian cancer express markers associated with functional impairment2016In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 46, p. 196-196Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29. Rodrigo, Gustav
    et al.
    Gruvegard, Mats
    Van Alstine, James M.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology. JMVA Biotech, Sweden.
    Antibody Fragments and Their Purification by Protein L Affinity Chromatography2015In: ANTIBODIES, ISSN 2073-4468, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 259-277Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibodies and related proteins comprise one of the largest and fastest-growing classes of protein pharmaceuticals. A majority of such molecules are monoclonal antibodies; however, many new entities are antibody fragments. Due to their structural, physiological, and pharmacological properties, antibody fragments offer new biopharmaceutical opportunities. In the case of recombinant full-length antibodies with suitable Fc regions, two or three column purification processes centered around Protein A affinity chromatography have proven to be fast, efficient, robust, cost-effective, and scalable. Most antibody fragments lack Fc and suitable affinity for Protein A. Adapting proven antibody purification processes to antibody fragments demands different affinity chromatography. Such technology must offer the unit operation advantages noted above, and be suitable for most of the many different types of antibody fragments. Protein L affinity chromatography appears to fulfill these criteriasuggesting its consideration as a key unit operation in antibody fragment processing.

  • 30.
    Sjöström, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Huang, Mingtao
    Nielsen, Jens
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Andersson Svahn, Helene
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Micro-droplet based directed evolution outperforms conventional laboratory evolution2014In: 18th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2014, Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society , 2014, p. 169-171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present droplet adaptive laboratory evolution (DrALE), a directed evolution method used to improve industrial enzyme producing microorganisms for e.g. feedstock digestion. DrALE is based linking a desired phenotype to growth rate allowing only desired cells to proliferate. Single cells are confined in microfluidic droplets to prevent the phenotype, e.g. secreted enzymes, from leaking between cells. The method was benchmarked against and found to significantly outperform conventional adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) in enriching enzyme producing cells. It was furthermore applied to enrich a whole-genome mutated library of yeast cells for α-amylase activity.

  • 31. Sternberg-Simon, M.
    et al.
    Brodin, P.
    Pickman, Y.
    Önfelt, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Kärre, K.
    Malmberg, K. -J
    Höglund, P.
    Mehr, R.
    Natural killer cell inhibitory receptor expression in humans and mice: A closer look2013In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 4, no March, p. 65-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Natural Killer (NK) cell population is composed of subsets of varying sizes expressing different combinations of inhibitory receptors for MHC class I molecules. Genes within the NK gene complex, including the inhibitory receptors themselves, seem to be the primary intrinsic regulators of inhibitory receptor expression, but the MHC class I background is an additional Modulating factor. In this paper, we have performed a parallel study of the inhibitory receptor repertoire in inbred mice of the C57Bl/6 background and in a cohort of 44 humans. Deviations of subset frequencies from the "product rule (PR)," i.e., differences between observed and expected frequencies of NK cells, were used to identify MHC-independent and MHC-dependent control of receptor expression frequencies. Some deviations from the PR were similar in mice and humans, such as the decreased presence of NK cell subset lacking inhibitory receptors. Others were different, including a role for NKG2A in determining over- or under-representation of specific subsets in humans but not in mice. Thus, while human and murine inhibitory receptor repertoires differed in details, there may also be shared principles governing NK cell repertoire formation in these two species.

  • 32. Stikvoort, Arwen
    et al.
    Chen, Yang
    Radestad, Emelie
    Torlen, Johan
    Lakshmikanth, Tadepally
    Bjorklund, Andreas
    Mikes, Jaromir
    Achour, Adnane
    Gertow, Jens
    Sundberg, Berit
    Remberger, Mats
    Sundin, Mikael
    Mattsson, Jonas
    Brodin, Petter
    Uhlin, Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cellular Biophysics. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Combining Flow and Mass Cytometry in the Search for Biomarkers in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a debilitating complication arising in around half of all patients treated with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Even though treatment of severe cGVHD has improved during recent years, it remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Biomarkers in blood that could aid in the diagnosis and classification of cGVHD severity are needed for the development of novel treatment strategies that can alleviate symptoms and reduce the need for painful and sometimes complicated tissue biopsies. Methods that comprehensively profile complex biological systems such as the immune system can reveal unanticipated markers when used with the appropriate methods of data analysis. Here, we used mass cytometry, flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and multiplex assays to systematically profile immune cell populations in 68 patients with varying grades of cGVHD. We identified multiple subpopulations across T, B, and NK-cell lineages that distinguished patients with cGVHD from those without cGVHD and which were associated in varying ways with severity of cGVHD. Specifically, initial flow cytometry demonstrated that patients with more severe cGVHD had lower mucosal-associated T cell frequencies, with a concomitant higher level of CD38 expression on T cells. Mass cytometry could identify unique subpopulations specific for cGVHD severity albeit with some seemingly conflicting results. For instance, patients with severe cGVHD had an increased frequency of activated B cells compared to patients with moderate cGVHD while activated B cells were found at a reduced frequency in patients with mild cGVHD compared to patients without cGVHD. Moreover, results indicate it may be possible to validate mass cytometry results with clinically viable, smaller flow cytometry panels. Finally, no differences in levels of blood soluble markers could be identified, with the exception for the semi-soluble combined marker B-cell activating factor/B cell ratio, which was increased in patients with mild cGVHD compared to patients without cGVHD. These findings suggest that interdependencies between such perturbed subpopulations of cells play a role in cGVHD pathogenesis and can serve as future diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

  • 33. Tauriainen, Johanna
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Göthlin, Mårten
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Gertow, Jens
    Buggert, Marcus
    Frisk, Thomas W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Karlsson, Annika C.
    Uhlin, Michael
    Önfelt, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Single-cell characterization of in vitro migration and interaction dynamics of T cells expanded with IL-2 and IL-72015In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 6, article id 196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    T cells are pivotal in the immune defense against cancers and infectious agents. To mount an effector response against cancer cells, T cells need to migrate to the cancer-site, engage in contacts with cancer cells, and perform their effector functions. Adoptive T cell therapy is an effective strategy as treatment of complications such as relapse or opportunistic infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. This requires a sufficient amount of cells that are able to expand and respond to tumor or viral antigens. The cytokines interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-7 drive T cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival and are commonly used to expand T cells ex vivo. Here, we have used microchip-based live-cell imaging to follow the migration of individual T cells, their interactions with allogeneic monocytes, cell division, and apoptosis for extended periods of time; something that cannot be achieved by commonly used methods. Our data indicate that cells grown in IL-7 + IL-2 had similar migration and contact dynamics as cells grown in IL-2 alone. However, the addition of IL-7 decreased cell death creating a more viable cell population, which should be beneficial when preparing cells for immunotherapy.

  • 34. ten Berge, Josianne C.
    et al.
    van Rosmalen, Joost
    Vermeer, Jacolien
    Hellström, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lindskog, Cecilia
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Qundos, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rothova, Aniki
    Schreurs, Marco W. J.
    Serum Autoantibody Profiling of Patients with Paraneoplastic and Non-Paraneoplastic Autoimmune Retinopathy2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 12, article id e0167909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Although multiple serum antiretinal autoantibodies (ARAs) have been reported in patients with paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy ((n)pAIR), not all retinal antigens involved in (n)pAIR are specified. This study aims to serologically identify patients with presumed (n)pAIR through determination of both known and unknown ARAs by autoantibody profiling. Methods An antigen suspension bead array using 188 different antigens representing 97 ocular proteins was performed to detect ARAs in serum samples of patients with presumed (n)pAIR (n = 24), uveitis (n = 151) and cataract (n = 21). Logistic regressions were used to estimate the associations between ocular antigens and diagnosis. Validation of interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 2 (IMPG2) and recoverin antigens was performed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot, respectively. Results Samples of patients with presumed (n)pAIR exhibited a broad spectrum of ARAs. We identified retinal antigens that have already been described previously (e.g. recoverin), but also identified novel ARA targets. Most ARAs were not specific for (n)pAIR since their presence was also observed in patients with cataract or uveitis. High titers of autoantibodies directed against photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor and retinol-binding protein 3 were more common in patients with presumed (n)pAIR compared to uveitis (p = 0.015 and p = 0.018, respectively). The presence of all other ARAs did not significantly differ between groups. In patients with presumed (n)pAIR, anti-recoverin autoantibodies were the most prevalent ARAs. Validation of bead array results by immunohistochemistry (anti-IMPG2) and immunoblot (anti-recoverin) showed concordant results in (n)pAIR patients. Conclusions Patients with (n)pAIR are characterized by the presence of a broad spectrum of ARAs. The diagnosis of (n)pAIR cannot be based on the mere presence of serum ARAs, as these are also commonly present in uveitis as well as in age-related cataract patients.

  • 35.
    Thunberg, Sarah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Uhlin, M.
    Nfelt, B.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Differentiation and expansion of gamma delta T-cells by Zolodronic acid efficiently activates cytotoxicity in vitro2016In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 46, p. 154-154Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36. Uchtenhagen, Hannes
    et al.
    Abualrous, Esam T.
    Stahl, Evi
    Allerbring, Eva B.
    Sluijter, Marjolein
    Zacharias, Martin
    Sandalova, Tatyana
    van Hall, Thorbald
    Springer, Sebastian
    Nygren, Per-Åke
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Achour, Adnane
    Proline substitution independently enhances H-2D(b) complex stabilization and TCR recognition of melanoma-associated peptides2013In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 43, no 11, p. 3051-3060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The immunogenicity of H-2D(b) (D-b) restricted epitopes can be significantly increased by substituting peptide position 3 to a proline (p3P). The p3P modification enhances MHC stability without altering the conformation of the modified epitope allowing for T-cell cross-reactivity with the native peptide. The present study reveals how specific interactions between p3P and the highly conserved MHC heavy chain residue Y159 increase the stability of D-b in complex with an optimized version of the melanoma-associated epitope gp100(25-33). Furthermore, the p3P modification directly increased the affinity of the D-b/gp100(25-33)-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) pMel. Surprisingly, the enhanced TCR binding was independent from the observed increased stability of the optimized D-b/gp100(25-33) complex and from the interactions formed between p3P and Y159, indicating a direct effect of the p3P modification on TCR recognition.

  • 37. van der Griendt, J. C.
    et al.
    Eefting, M.
    van der Meijden, E. D.
    Ayoglu, Burcu
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Schwenk, Jochen M.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Falkenburg, J. H. F.
    Griffioen, M.
    Antibodies against intracellular antigens develop as a result of tissue damage induced by donor lymphocyte infusion after allogeneic stem cell transplantation2012In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 137, p. 737-737Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Wikman, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Friedman, Mikaela
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Pinitkiatisakul, S.
    Andersson, Christin
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Hemphill, A.
    Lovgren-Bengtsson, K.
    Lunden, A.
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    General strategies for efficient adjuvant incorporation of recombinant subunit immunogens2005In: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 23, no 17-18, p. 2331-2335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously reported strategies for Escherichia coli production of recombinant immunogens fused to hydrophobic peptides or lipid tags to improve their capacity to be incorporated into an adjuvant formulation, e.g., immunostimulating complexes (iscoms). Recently, we also explored the strong interaction between biotin and streptavidin to achieve iscom association of recombinant immunogens. Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antigens have served as model immunogens in the different studies. Generated fusion proteins have been found to be successfully incorporated into iscoms and high-titer antigen-specific antibody responses have been obtained upon immunization of mice. We believe that the different concepts presented, utilizing either hydrophobic peptide or lipid tags, or the recently explored biotin-streptavidin principle, offer convenient methods to achieve efficient adjuvant incorporation of recombinant immunogens.

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