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  • 1. Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Eklund, Robert
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Karlgren, Jussi
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Molinder, Lars
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalization2017In: 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 2.
    Bicanski, Andrej
    et al.
    School of Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Ryczko, Dimitri
    Département de Physiologie, Université de Montréa.
    Knuesel, Jérémie
    School of Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Harischandra, Nalin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Charrier, Vanessa
    INSERM U862, Neurocentre Magendie, Université Bordeaux.
    Ekeberg, Örjan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Cabelguen, Jean-Marie
    Neurocentre Magendie, Bordeaux University, Bordeaux Cedex, France.
    Ijspeert, Auke Jan
    School of Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Decoding the mechanisms of gait generation in salamanders by combining neurobiology, modeling and robotics2013In: Biological Cybernetics, ISSN 0340-1200, E-ISSN 1432-0770, Vol. 107, no 5, 545-564 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertebrate animals exhibit impressive locomotor skills. These locomotor skills are due to the complex interactions between the environment, the musculo-skeletal system and the central nervous system, in particular the spinal locomotor circuits. We are interested in decoding these interactions in the salamander, a key animal from an evolutionary point of view. It exhibits both swimming and stepping gaits and is faced with the problem of producing efficient propulsive forces using the same musculo-skeletal system in two environments with significant physical differences in density, viscosity and gravitational load. Yet its nervous system remains comparatively simple. Our approach is based on a combination of neurophysiological experiments, numerical modeling at different levels of abstraction, and robotic validation using an amphibious salamander-like robot. This article reviews the current state of our knowledge on salamander locomotion control, and presents how our approach has allowed us to obtain a first conceptual model of the salamander spinal locomotor networks. The model suggests that the salamander locomotor circuit can be seen as a lamprey-like circuit controlling axial movements of the trunk and tail, extended by specialized oscillatory centers controlling limb movements. The interplay between the two types of circuits determines the mode of locomotion under the influence of sensory feedback and descending drive, with stepping gaits at low drive, and swimming at high drive.

  • 3.
    Harischandra, Nalin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Knuesel, Jeremei
    EPFL.
    Kozlov, Alexander
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Bicanski, Andrej
    EPFL.
    Cabelguen, Jean-Marie
    Neurocentre Magendie, Bordeaux University, Bordeaux Cedex, France.
    Ijspeert, Auke
    EPFL.
    Ekeberg, Örjan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Sensory feedback plays a significant role in generating walking gait and in gait transition in salamanders: a simulation study2011In: Frontiers in Neurorobotics, ISSN 1662-5218, Vol. 5, 3:1-3:13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we investigate the role of sensory feedback in gait generation and transition by using a three-dimensional, neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a salamander with realistic physical parameters. Activation of limb and axial muscles were driven by neural output patterns obtained from a central pattern generator (CPG) which is composed of simulated spiking neurons with adaptation. The CPG consists of a body-CPG and four limb-CPGs that are interconnected via synapses both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. We use the model both with and without sensory modulation and four different combinations of ipsilateral and contralateral coupling between the limb-CPGs. We found that the proprioceptive sensory inputs are essential in obtaining a coordinated lateral sequence walking gait (walking). The sensory feedback includes the signals coming from the stretch receptor like intraspinal neurons located in the girdle regions and the limb stretch receptors residing in the hip and scapula regions of the salamander. On the other hand, walking trot gait (trotting) is more under central (CPG) influence compared to that of the peripheral or sensory feedback. We found that the gait transition from walking to trotting can be induced by increased activity of the descending drive coming from the mesencephalic locomotor region and is helped by the sensory inputs at the hip and scapula regions detecting the late stance phase. More neurophysiological experiments are required to identify the precise type of mechanoreceptors in the salamander and the neural mechanisms mediating the sensory modulation.

  • 4. Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg
    et al.
    Skog, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Frossling, Jenny
    Wahlstrom, Helene
    Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-20102011In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 53, 51- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods: Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. Results: No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses.

  • 5.
    LONKAR, S
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, R.T.Road, Civil Lines, Nagpur 440008, M.S. India.
    KEDAR, G
    Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, R.T.Road, Civil Lines, Nagpur 440008, M.S. India.
    KOTANGALE, J
    Ex-Scientist, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur, 440 020, M.S. India.
    KALE, MANOJ
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    DYES AND CHEMICALS USED IN BIOMATERIAL STUDY AS STAINS FOR INVERTEBRATES2011In: International Journal of Chemistry Research, ISSN 0976-5689, Vol. 2, no 4, 22-25 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the dyes used in histology and cytology are manufactured for use in the textile industry, printing, food, cosmetics and other colorant industries. Chemicals used in the study include dyes and stains; the stains used are eosin, acetocarmine, rose bengal, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulphate, cocaine, menthol, propylene phenoxetol, osmic mercuric chloride, mercuric chloride, acetic acid, glycerin alcohol, phenoxetol, nitric acid, potassium cyanide. The dyes and stains as chemicals are used to preserve whole mount or to anesthetize the large animals like trematodes, nematodes, cestodes, arthropods, and molluscs. The study of fresh water and marine invertebrates is not possible unless the use of above mentioned chemicals.

  • 6. Lu, Jun
    et al.
    Zhao, Tao
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Ye, Hui
    The shoot-feeding ecology of three Tomicus species in Yunnan Province, southwestern China2014In: Journal of Insect Science, ISSN 1536-2442, E-ISSN 1536-2442, Vol. 14, 37- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three Tomicus pine shoot beetles, T. yunnanensis (Kirkendall and Faccoli) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), T. minor (Hartig), and T. brevipilosus (Wood and Bright), have been causing serious damage to Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis (Franchet) (Pinales: Pinaceae)) stands in Yunnan, southwestern China. However, their ability to coexist in the crowns of the same trees during the shoot-feeding phase has not been elucidated. In our study, we investigated and compared the shoot-feeding ecology of the three species of pine shoot beetle in P. yunnanensis in Anning County, Yunnan Province. Shoot-feeding by T. yunnanensis, T. minor, and T. brevipilosus initiated in April, May, and June, and ended in February, April, and May, respectively. Individual T. yunnanensis and T. minor adults fed in shoots for about seven months, and T. brevipilosus for nine months, before initiating reproduction. All three Tomicus species fed in the current-year shoots close to the apical bud. No specific overwintering behavior was observed prior to reproduction. The entrance hole of T. yunnanensis was furthest away from the apical bud, and T. minor was the closest to the apical bud. Differences in the spatial distribution of these shoot-feeding sites might reduce competition among the three beetle species. The long-lasting and overlapping shoot-feeding by the three Tomicus species may reduce the resistance of P. yunnanensis and facilitate the reproduction of these beetles in the trunks of living trees, and thus help explain the severe damage by Tomicus in P. yunnanensis.

  • 7.
    Mozuraitis, Raimondas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Buda, V
    Pheromone release behaviour in females of Phyllonorycter junoniella (Z.) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) under constant and cycling temperatures2006In: Journal of insect behavior, ISSN 0892-7553, E-ISSN 1572-8889, Vol. 19, no 1, 129-142 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The calling activity of virgin Phyllonorycter junoniella (Z.) females under a cycling thermal regime differed from that under constant temperature in the following ways: the percentage of females calling at the morning activity peak was increased; the morning period of calling activity was prolonged; the total period of calling activity of an individual female was increased; an extra peak of activity occurred at the end of the photophase, and females changed the calling pattern during the active period. We assume that the occurrence of two calling peaks and the extension of the calling period might be adaptive for a Ph. junoniella species with a sex ratio strongly shifted towards females (8:1 females:males), as it could lead to an increased proportion of females mated.

  • 8.
    Mozuraitis, Raimondas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Nature Research Center, Lithuania.
    Radziute, Sandra
    Nature Research Center, Lithuania.
    Apsegaite, Violeta
    Nature Research Center, Lithuania.
    Cravcenco, Alexei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Moldova State University, Moldova.
    Buda, Vincas
    Nature Research Center, Lithuania.
    Nylin, Soren
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Volatiles released from foliar extract of host plant enhance landing rates of gravid Polygonia c-album females, but do not stimulate oviposition2016In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, ISSN 0013-8703, E-ISSN 1570-7458, Vol. 158, no 3, 275-283 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of olfactory cues for host search is much less investigated in day-active butterflies than in their relatives, the nocturnal moths. The goal of this study was to investigate whether host-plant volatiles from foliar extracts of hop, Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae), evoke electroantennographic (EAG) responses, increase landing rates, and stimulate egg-laying behavior of gravid Polygonia c-album L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) females. Eighty-nine volatile compounds were detected in a non-concentrated methanol extract of hop by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 11 of which elicited an EAG response. Concentration of the crude extract significantly reduced landing rates on artificial leaves treated with the sample due to loss of volatile compounds, but after landing the oviposition response of gravid females was not affected. A mixture of eight commercially available EAG-active volatiles increased the landing rate of gravid females to their source but did not act as oviposition stimulants. Dividing the volatile compounds into two groups - consisting of (1) hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal, and (2) sulcatone, humulene, and benzyl alcohol - obliterated effectiveness, revealing synergism between compounds. Although volatiles did not stimulate oviposition, they significantly contributed to the distribution of eggs by increasing the landing rates on treated artificial leaves.

  • 9. Natesan, D.
    et al.
    Saxena, N.
    Ekeberg, Örjan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Sane, S. P.
    Airflow mediated antennal positioning in flying hawkmoths2016In: Integrative and Comparative Biology, ISSN 1540-7063, E-ISSN 1557-7023, Vol. 56, E159-E159 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 9 of 9
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