kth.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1234 1 - 50 of 199
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Aad, G.
    et al.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Leopold, Alexander
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Lundberg, Olof
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Lund-Jensen, Bengt
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ohm, Christian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ripellino, Giulia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Shaheen, Rabia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Shope, David R.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Strandberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland..
    et al.,
    Search for invisible Higgs-boson decays in events with vector-boson fusion signatures using 139 fb(-1) of proton-proton data recorded by the ATLAS experiment2022In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 8, article id 104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A direct search for Higgs bosons produced via vector-boson fusion and subsequently decaying into invisible particles is reported. The analysis uses 139 fb(-1) of pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of root s =13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The observed numbers of events are found to be in agreement with the background expectation from Standard Model processes. For a scalar Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV and a Standard Model production cross section, an observed upper limit of 0.145 is placed on the branching fraction of its decay into invisible particles at 95% confidence level, with an expected limit of 0.103. These results are interpreted in the context of models where the Higgs boson acts as a portal to dark matter, and limits are set on the scattering cross section of weakly interacting massive particles and nucleons. Invisible decays of additional scalar bosons with masses from 50 GeV to 2 TeV are also studied, and the derived upper limits on the cross section times branching fraction decrease with increasing mass from 1.0 pb for a scalar boson mass of 50 GeV to 0.1 pb at a mass of 2 TeV.

  • 2.
    Agerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Kuester, A.
    Bachmann, J.
    Breitholtz, M.
    Ebert, I.
    Rechenberg, B.
    Ruden, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Reporting and evaluation criteria as means towards a transparent use of ecotoxicity data for environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, no 10, p. 2487-2492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecotoxicity data with high reliability and relevance are needed to guarantee the scientific quality of environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals. The main advantages of a more structured approach to data evaluation include increased transparency and predictability of the risk assessment process, and the possibility to use non-standard data. In this collaboration, between the research project MistraPharma and the German Federal Environment Agency, a new set of reporting and evaluation criteria is presented and discussed. The new criteria are based on the approaches in the literature and the OECD reporting requirements, and have been further developed to include both reliability and relevance of test data. Intended users are risk assessors and researchers performing ecotoxicological experiments, but the criteria can also be used for education purposes and in the peer-review process for scientific papers. This approach intends to bridge the gap between the regulator and the scientist's needs and way of work.

  • 3.
    Albers, Eva
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Div Ind Biotechnol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Malmhall-Bah, Eric
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Div Ind Biotechnol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Olsson, Joakim
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Div Ind Biotechnol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Sterner, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Mayers, Joshua J.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Div Ind Biotechnol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Nylund, Goran M.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci Tjarno, SE-45296 Stromstad, Sweden..
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Built Environm & Energy Technol, Luckligs Plats 3, SE-35195 Växjö, Sweden..
    Abdollahi, Mehdi
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Div Food & Nutr Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Cvijetinovic, Suzana
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Div Ind Biotechnol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Built Environm & Energy Technol, Luckligs Plats 3, SE-35195 Växjö, Sweden..
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Pavia, Henrik
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci Tjarno, SE-45296 Stromstad, Sweden..
    Undeland, Ingrid
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Div Food & Nutr Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Influence of preservation methods on biochemical composition and downstream processing of cultivated Saccharina latissima biomass2021In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 55, article id 102261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saccharina latissima biomass cultivated along the Swedish west coast was subjected to four different scalable preservation methods after harvest; freezing, sun-drying, oven-drying and ensiling. Freeze-drying and freezing at -80 ?C were also included to provide dry and wet references. The effects of the different preservation methods on the composition of Saccharina biomass (on dry weight, DW, basis), and the recovery as well as properties of high-quality protein, alginate and biogas were evaluated. Sun-drying significantly reduced protein, alginate and fatty acid content of the seaweeds and thereby concentrated ash in the biomass compared to the other methods. Protein/amino acids and fatty acids were significantly concentrated in ensiled biomass, while mannitol and laminarin were reduced compared to the other biomasses. Oven-drying and -20 ?C freezing affected the composition the least, with lower ash content and alterations in some specific amino and fatty acids. Sun-drying and ensiling resulted in significantly lower protein solubility at high pH compared to the other biomasses which translated into the lowest total seaweed protein recovery using the pH-shift process. Highest protein yield was obtained with the freeze-dried reference. Ensiling lead to a significant decrease in the molecular weight of alginate, while sun-drying caused a negative effect on alginate by inducing a shift in the guluronic and mannuronic acids composition of alginate. Sun-drying gave the lowest methane yield in the anaerobic digestion experiments while freezing at -80 ?C gave the highest yield, closely followed by freezing at -20 ?C and ensiling. To conclude, preservation methods must be carefully chosen to protect the valuable component in Saccharina latissima, and to achieve an efficient downstream processing ultimately yielding high quality products as part of a seaweed biorefinery.

  • 4.
    Alneberg, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sundh, John
    Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Solna, Sweden.
    Bennke, Christin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Beier, Sara
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Hugerth, Luisa
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Kisand, Veljo
    University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Section for Marine Biological Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark.
    Jürgens, Klaus
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    BARM and BalticMicrobeDB, a reference metagenome and interface to meta-omic data for the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is one of the world’s largest brackish water bodies and is characterised by pronounced physicochemical gradients where microbes are the main biogeochemical catalysts. Meta-omic methods provide rich information on the composition of, and activities within microbial ecosystems, but are computationally heavy to perform. We here present the BAltic Sea Reference Metagenome (BARM), complete with annotated genes to facilitate further studies with much less computational effort. The assembly is constructed using 2.6 billion metagenomic reads from 81 water samples, spanning both spatial and temporal dimensions, and contains 6.8 million genes that have been annotated for function and taxonomy. The assembly is useful as a reference, facilitating taxonomic and functional annotation of additional samples by simply mapping their reads against the assembly. This capability is demonstrated by the successful mapping and annotation of 24 external samples. In addition, we present a public web interface, BalticMicrobeDB, for interactive exploratory analysis of the dataset.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Anderson, Pippin
    et al.
    University of Cape Town.
    Charles-Dominique, Tristan
    University of Cape Town.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Department of Geography, The University of Manchester; African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University.
    Goodness, Julie
    Stockholm University.
    Post-apartheid ecologies in the City of Cape Town: An examination of plant functional traits in relation to urban gradients2020In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 193, p. 1-10, article id 103662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore species richness and traits across two urban gradients in the City of Cape Town. The first is the natural-urban boundary and the second is a socio-economic gradient informed by historical race-based apartheid planning. Plant species and cover were recorded in 156 plots sampled from conservation areas, private gardens, and public open green space. The socio-economic gradient transitioned from wealthier, predominantly white neighbourhoods to poorer, pre- dominantly black neighbourhoods. The socio-economic gradient was selected to fall within one original vegetation type to ensure a consistent biophysical template. There is a marked shift between the natural and urban plant communities in the City of Cape Town, with little structural affinity. Urban landscapes are dominated by grass, with low diversity compared to natural counterparts. A significant ecological gradient of reduced biodiversity, traits, and in turn functionality, was found across the socio-economic gradient. Wealthier communities benefit from more private green space, more public green space, and a greater plant diversity. Poorer communities have limited green space on all fronts, and lower plant and trait diversity. Plant communities with limited diversity are less resilient and if exposed to environmental perturbation would lose species, and associated ecosystem services faster than a species rich community. These species-poor plant communities mirror historical apartheid planning that is resistant to change. Based on how biodiversity, functionality, and associated ecosystem services and ecosystem stability are linked, the results of this study suggests how significant environmental injustice persists in the City of Cape Town.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gren, Åsa
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Chemistry.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Chemistry.
    Wiklund, C.
    Sexual conflict and anti-aphrodisiac titre in a polyandrous butterfly: male ejaculate tailoring and absence of female control2004In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 271, no 1550, p. 1765-1770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males of the green-veined butterfly Pieris napi synthesize and transfer the volatile methyl salicylate (MeS) to females at mating, a substance that is emitted by non-virgin females when courted by males, curtailing courtship and decreasing the likelihood of female re-mating. The volatile is released when females display the 'mate-refusal' posture with spread wings and elevated abdomen, when courted by conspecific males. Here, we assess how the amount of MeS released by courted females changes over time since mating, and whether it is influenced by the frequency with which females display the mate-refusal posture. We also assess whether males tailor the anti-aphrodisiac content of ejaculates with respect to the expected degree of sperm competition, by comparing how males allocate MeS proportionately to first and second ejaculates in relation to ejaculate mass. The results show that females housed for 5 days in individual cages where they were able to fly and oviposit normally, released similar amounts of MeS. However, females housed together for the same period of time, causing them to frequently display the mate-refusal posture, released significantly lower levels of MeS than the individually housed females. This indicates that female display of the mate-refusal posture depletes their anti-aphrodisiac stores, and suggests that females are unable to voluntarily control their release of the anti-aphrodisiac. A comparison of relative proportion of MeS transferred by males in their first and second ejaculates showed that proportionately more MeS was allocated to the first ejaculate, in accordance with the idea that these are tailored to delay female re-mating.

  • 8.
    Ardalan, Arman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kluetsch, Cornelya F. C.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Zhang, Ai-bing
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Erdogan, Metin
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Houshmand, Massoud
    Tepeli, Cafer
    Ashtiani, Seyed Reza Miraei
    Savolainen, Peter
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Comprehensive study of mtDNA among Southwest Asian dogs contradicts independent domestication of wolf, but implies dog–wolf hybridization2011In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 373-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity indicate explicitly that dogs were domesticated, probably exclusively, in southern East Asia. However, Southwest Asia (SwAsia) has had poor representation and geographical coverage in these studies. Other studies based on archaeological and genome-wide SNP data have suggested an origin of dogs in SwAsia. Hence, it has been suspected that mtDNA evidence for this scenario may have remained undetected. In the first comprehensive investigation of genetic diversity among SwAsian dogs, we analyzed 582 bp of mtDNA for 345 indigenous dogs from across SwAsia, and compared with 1556 dogs across the Old World. We show that 97.4% of SwAsian dogs carry haplotypes belonging to a universal mtDNA gene pool, but that only a subset of this pool, five of the 10 principal haplogroups, is represented in SwAsia. A high frequency of haplogroup B, potentially signifying a local origin, was not paralleled with the high genetic diversity expected for a center of origin. Meanwhile, 2.6% of the SwAsian dogs carried the rare non-universal haplogroup d2. Thus, mtDNA data give no indication that dogs originated in SwAsia through independent domestication of wolf, but dog–wolf hybridization may have formed the local haplogroup d2 within this region. Southern East Asia remains the only region with virtually full extent of genetic variation, strongly indicating it to be the primary and probably sole center of wolf domestication. An origin of dogs in southern East Asia may have been overlooked by other studies due to a substantial lack of samples from this region.

  • 9. Arlt, Debora
    et al.
    Forslund, Pär
    Jeppsson, Tobias
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Inst för ekologi.
    Pärt, Tomas
    Habitat-Specific Population Growth of a Farmland Bird2008In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 3, no 8, p. e3006-e3006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Armiero, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    von Hardenberg, Wilko Graf
    On History, Nature and Nation An Interview with David Blackbourn2014In: Environment and History, ISSN 0967-3407, E-ISSN 1752-7023, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 143-159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Armiero, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    von Hardenberg, Wilko Graf
    special issue: Nature and Nation Introduction2014In: Environment and History, ISSN 0967-3407, E-ISSN 1752-7023, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Aronson, M.F.J.
    et al.
    La Sorte, F.A.
    Nilon, C.H.
    Katti, M.
    Goddard, M.A.
    Lepczyk, C.A.
    Warren, P.S.
    Williams, W.P.S.
    Cilliers, S.
    Clarkson, B.
    Dobbs, Cynnamon
    Dolan, R.
    Hedblom, M.
    Klotz, S.
    Louwe Kooijmans, Jip
    Kühn, I.
    MacGregor-Fors, I.
    McDonnell, Mark
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Pyšek, P.
    Siebert, S.
    Sushinsky, J.
    Werner, Peter
    Winter, M.
    A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1780, p. 20133330-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization contributes to the loss of the world's biodiversity and the homogenization of its biota. However, comparative studies of urban biodiversity leading to robust generalities of the status and drivers of biodiversity in cities at the global scale are lacking. Here, we compiled the largest global dataset to date of two diverse taxa in cities: birds (54 cities) and plants (110 cities). We found that the majority of urban bird and plant species are native in the world's cities. Few plants and birds are cosmopolitan, the most common being Columba livia and Poa annua. The density of bird and plant species (the number of species per km2) has declined substantially: only 8% of native bird and 25% of native plant species are currently present compared with estimates of non-urban density of species. The current density of species in cities and the loss in density of species was best explained by anthropogenic features (landcover, city age) rather than by non-anthropogenic factors (geography, climate, topography). As urbanization continues to expand, efforts directed towards the conservation of intact vegetation within urban landscapes could support higher concentrations of both bird and plant species. Despite declines in the density of species, cities still retain endemic native species, thus providing opportunities for regional and global biodiversity conservation, restoration and education.

  • 13.
    Axelsson, Karolin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Chemical signals in interactions between Hylobius abietis and associated bacteria2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) is one of the two topmost economically important insect pests in Swedish conifer forests. The damage increase in areas were the silvicultural practice is to use clear cuttings were the insects gather and breed. During egglaying the female protects her offspring by creating a cave in roots and stumps were she puts her egg and covers it with frass, a mixture of weevil feces and chewed bark. Adult pine weevils have been observed to feed on the other side of the egg laying site and antifeedant substance has been discovered in the feces of the pine weevil. We think it is possible that microorganisms present in the frass contribute with antifeedant/repellent substances. Little is known about the pine weevils associated bacteria community and their symbiotic functions. In this thesis the bacterial community is characterized in gut and frass both from pine weevils in different populations across Europe as well as after a 28 day long diet regime on Scots pine, silver birch or bilberry. Volatile substances produced by isolated bacteria as well as from a consortium of microorganisms were collected with solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and analyzed with GC-MS. The main volatiles were tested against pine weevils using a two-choice test. Wolbachia, Rahnella aquatilis, Serratia and Pseudomonas syringae was commonly associated with the pine weevil. 2-Methoxyphenol, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol were found in the headspace from Rahnella aquatilis when grown in substrate containing pine bark. 2-Methoxyphenol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenol and methyl salicylate were found in pine feces. Birch and bilberry feces emitted mainly linalool oxides and bilberry emitted also small amounts of 2-phenylethanol.

    A second part of the thesis discusses the role of fungi in forest insect interactions and the production of oxygenated monoterpenes as possible antifeedants. Spruce bark beetles (Ips typhographus L.) aggregate with the help of pheromones and with collected forces they kill weakened adult trees as a result of associated fungi growth and larval development. A fungi associated with the bark beetle, Grosmannia europhoides, was shown to produce de novo 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, the major component of the spruce bark beetle aggregation pheromone. Chemical defense responses against Endoconidiophora polonica and Heterobasidion parviporum were investigated using four clones of Norway spruce with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion sp. Clone specific differences were found in induced mono-, sesqui and diterpenes. A number of oxygenated monoterpenes which are known antifeedants for the pine weevil were produced in the infested areas.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Axelsson, Karolin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Louise
    Nordlander, Göran
    Dep. of Ecology, SLU.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Terenius, Olle
    Dep of Ecology, SLU.
    Do pine weevil microbiota and corresponding volatiles change due to selective feeding?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Axelsson, Karolin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Zendegi-Shiraz, Amene
    Swedjemark, Gunilla
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Zhao, Tao
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Clone specific chemical defense responses in Norway spruce to infestations by two pathogenic fungi2016In: Forest Pathology, ISSN 1437-4781, E-ISSN 1439-0329Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterobasidion parviporum (Hp) were investigated using four clones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion sp. Eight year old trees were inoculated with Ep and Hp to minimize the variation due to environment. After three weeks the bark tissue at the upper border of the inoculation hole were extracted with hexane and analyzed by GC-MS. Both treatment and clonal differences were found based on induced mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes. In addition, the Hp produced toxin, fomanoxin, was identified in lowest amount in the most Hp susceptible clone. The clonal trees seem to use different defense strategies towards the two fungi. One of the clones was able to induce strong chemical defense against both fungi, one clone induced chemical defense only against Ep and the most susceptible clone exhibited the least capacity to produce an effective defense against Ep and Hp. Two diterpenes were found to be distinctly different between clones with different susceptibilities, which can be used as chemical indication of Norway spruce resistance against fungi.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Azeem, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology.
    Nordenhem, Henrik
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Nordlander, Göran
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Penicillium expansum Volatiles Reduce Pine Weevil Attraction to Host Plants2013In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 120-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

  • 17.
    Bartish, Igor V.
    et al.
    Université de Rennes 1, CNRS Research Unit Ecosystèmes Biodiversité Evolution (ECOBIO), Campus de Beaulieu, 35042, Rennes, France; Department of Genetic Ecology, Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences, CZ-25243 Pruhonice 1, Czech Republic.
    Bonnefoi, Salomé
    Université de Rennes 1, CNRS Research Unit Ecosystèmes Biodiversité Evolution (ECOBIO), Campus de Beaulieu, 35042, Rennes, France.
    Aïnouche, Abdelkader
    Université de Rennes 1, CNRS Research Unit Ecosystèmes Biodiversité Evolution (ECOBIO), Campus de Beaulieu, 35042, Rennes, France.
    Bruelheide, Helge
    Institute of Biology/Geobotany & Botanical Garden, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Am Kirchtor 1, 06108, Halle, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Puschstr. 4, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.
    Bartish, Mark
    KTH.
    Prinzing, Andreas
    Université de Rennes 1, CNRS Research Unit Ecosystèmes Biodiversité Evolution (ECOBIO), Campus de Beaulieu, 35042, Rennes, France.
    Fewer chromosomes, more co-occurring species within plant lineages: A likely effect of local survival and colonization2023In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 110, no 4, article id e16139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise:Plant lineages differ markedly in species richness globally, regionally, and locally. Differences in whole-genome characteristics (WGCs) such as monoploid chromosome number, genome size, and ploidy level may explain differences in global species richness through speciation or global extinction. However, it is unknown whether WGCs drive species richness within lineages also in a recent, postglacial regional flora or in local plant communities through local extinction or colonization and regional species turnover.

    Methods:We tested for relationships between WGCs and richness of angiosperm families across the Netherlands/Germany/Czechia as a region, and within 193,449 local vegetation plots.

    Results:Families that are species-rich across the region have lower ploidy levels and small monoploid chromosomes numbers or both (interaction terms), but the relationships disappear after accounting for continental and local richness of families. Families that are species-rich within occupied localities have small numbers of polyploidy and monoploid chromosome numbers or both, independent of their own regional richness and the local richness of all other locally co-occurring species in the plots. Relationships between WGCs and family species-richness persisted after accounting for niche characteristics and life histories.

    Conclusions:Families that have few chromosomes, either monoploid or holoploid, succeed in maintaining many species in local communities and across a continent and, as indirect consequence of both, across a region. We suggest evolutionary mechanisms to explain how small chromosome numbers and ploidy levels might decrease rates of local extinction and increase rates of colonization. The genome of a macroevolutionary lineage may ultimately control whether its species can ecologically coexist.

  • 18. Bengtsson, Göran
    et al.
    Nilsson, Elna
    Rydén, Tobias
    Lund University.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Irregular walks and loops combines in small-scale movement of a soil insect: implications for dispersal biology2004In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 231, no 2, p. 299-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of small-scale movement patterns of animals we may help to understand and predict movement at a larger scale, such as dispersal, which is a key parameter in spatial population dynamics. We have chosen to study the movement of a soil-dwelling Collembola, Protaphorura armata, in an experimental system consisting of a clay surface with or without physical obstacles. A combination of video recordings, descriptive statistics, and walking simulations was used to evaluate the movement pattern. Individuals were found to link periods of irregular walk with those of looping in ahomogeneous environment as well as in one structured to heterogeneity by physical obstacles. The number of loops varied between 0 and 44 per hour from one individual to another and some individuals preferred to make loops by turning right and others by turning left. P. armata spent less time at the boundary of small obstacles compared to large, presumably because of a lower probability to track the steepness of the curvature as the individual walks along a highly curved surface. Food deprived P. armata had amore winding movement and made more circular loops than those that were well fed. The observed looping behaviour is interpreted in the context of systematic search strategies and compared with similar movement patterns found in other species.

  • 19.
    Berasategui, Aileen
    et al.
    Dep. of Biochemistry, Max Planck institute for Chemical Ecology.
    Axelsson, Karolin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Nordlander, Göran
    Dep. of Ecology, SLU.
    Schmidt, Axel
    Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Gershenzon, Jonathan
    Dep of Biochemistry, Max Planck institute for Chemical Ecology.
    Terenius, Olle
    Dep of Ecology, SLU.
    Kaltenpoth, Martin
    Insect Symbiosis Research Group, Max Planck institute for Chemical Ecology.
    The Gut microbiota of the pine weevil is similar across Europe and resembles that of other conifer-feeding beetles2016In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, no 16, p. 4014-4031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of conifer seedlings in Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the composition of its gut microbial community and the role it plays in mediating the weevil's ability to utilize conifers as a food source. Here, we characterized the gut bacterial communities of different populations of H. abietis across Europe and compared them to those of other beetles that occupy similar ecological niches. We demonstrate that the microbial community of H. abietis is similar at higher taxonomic levels (family and genus) across locations in Europe, with Wolbachia as the dominant microbe, followed by Enterobacteria and Firmicutes. Despite this similarity, we observed consistent differences between countries and locations, but not sexes. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the gut bacterial community of the pine weevil is very similar to that of bark beetles that also exploit conifers as a food source. The Enterobacteriaceae symbionts of both host taxa are especially closely related phylogenetically. Conversely, the microbiota of H. abietis is distinct from that of closely related weevils feeding on non-conifer food sources, suggesting that the microbial community of the pine weevil is determined by the environment and may be relevant to host ecology. Furthermore, several H. abietis-associated members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are known to contain genes involved in terpenoid degradation. As such, we hypothesize that the gut microbial community is important for the utilization of conifer seedlings as a food source, either through the detoxification of plant secondary metabolites or supplementation of essential nutrients.

  • 20.
    Biasillo, Roberta
    et al.
    European Univ Inst, Robert Schuman Ctr Adv Studies, Fiesole, Italy..
    de Majo, Claudio
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Rachel Carson Ctr Environm & Soc, Munich, Germany..
    Valisena, Daniele
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Environmental History of Migration (EHM): its roots and most recent developments. An interview with Marco Armiero2021In: Modern Italy, ISSN 1353-2944, E-ISSN 1469-9877, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 217-222Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Bin Ashraf, Faisal
    et al.
    Univ Oulu, Water Energy & Environm Engn Res, Oulu, Finland..
    Haghighi, Ali Torabi
    Univ Oulu, Water Energy & Environm Engn Res, Oulu, Finland..
    Riml, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Kondolf, G. Mathias
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Landscape Architecture & Environm Planning, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Klove, Bjorn
    Univ Oulu, Water Energy & Environm Engn Res, Oulu, Finland..
    Marttila, Hannu
    Univ Oulu, Water Energy & Environm Engn Res, Oulu, Finland..
    A Method for Assessment of Sub-Daily Flow Alterations Using Wavelet Analysis for Regulated Rivers2022In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 58, no 1, article id e2021WR030421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New tools are needed to evaluate the impacts of short-term hydropower regulation practices on downstream river systems and to progress towards sustainable river-flow management. As hydropower is increasingly being used to balance the energy load deficit caused by other less flexible sources, sub-daily flow conditions across many regulated river (RR) systems are changing. To address this, we used wavelet analyses to quantify the discharge variability in RRs and categorized the level of variability based on the conditions in natural free-flowing rivers. The presented framework used the definition of fluvial connectivity (Grill et al., 2019) to identify free-flowing rivers used in the study. We tested the developed framework in 12 different RRs in Finland and found higher overall averaged sub-daily variations, with up to 20 times larger variability than natural conditions. A large, highly regulated Finnish river system was found to have the highest sub-daily variations in winter, while smaller RRs with lower levels of regulation the highest variations in summer. The proposed framework offers a novel tool for sustainable river management and can be easily applied to various rivers and regions globally. It had flexibility to analyze sub-daily variations in desired seasonal or other ecologically sensitive periods.

  • 22.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    von Scheele, J.
    "Flameless" oxyfuel combustion development for process improvement, emission reduction in furnaces and incinerators2006In: Waste Management and the Environment III / [ed] Popov, V; Kungolos, A; Brebbia, CA; Itoh, H, ASHURST, SOUTHAMPTON: WIT PRESS/COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS PUBLICATIONS , 2006, Vol. 92, p. 247-256Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the focus for the development of combustion technology focus has been set on the following main aims: fuel consumption reduction, nitrogen oxides emission reduction, increased productivity and product quality. Fuel consumption reduction has been reduced by as much as 30-40%, and also CO2 emission reduction was achieved by replacing combustion air with oxygen. To achieve very low emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) the new combustion technology is characterised by: lower temperature of flame, more uniform temperature distribution and reduced concentration of oxygen as well as nitrogen inside the combustion chamber. As in this combustion technique a flame is replaced by a large chemical reaction zone and thus is often not visible the process was named as "flameless" combustion. "Flameless" combustion process that use oxygen, so called oxyfuel combustion, as well as its technical application is the subject of this work. The work presents a description and main features of the "flameless" oxyfuel combustion, results of laboratory tests of a new type of burner, REBOX (R), as well as examples of industrial applications including waste incineration are included.

  • 23.
    Bokore, Getachew E.
    et al.
    Int Ctr Insect Physiol & Ecol, POB 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.;Maseno Univ, Sch Phys & Biol Sci, Dept Zool, Maseno, Kenya.;Ethiopian Publ Hlth Inst, POB 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Svenberg, Linus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Tamre, Richard
    Int Ctr Insect Physiol & Ecol, POB 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.;Maseno Univ, Sch Phys & Biol Sci, Dept Zool, Maseno, Kenya..
    Onyango, Patrick
    Maseno Univ, Sch Phys & Biol Sci, Dept Zool, Maseno, Kenya..
    Bukhari, Tullu
    Int Ctr Insect Physiol & Ecol, POB 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Emmer, Åsa
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Fillinger, Ulrike
    Int Ctr Insect Physiol & Ecol, POB 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Grass-like plants release general volatile cues attractive for gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes2021In: Parasites & Vectors, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Understanding the ecology and behaviour of disease vectors, including the olfactory cues used to orient and select hosts and egg-laying sites, are essential for the development of novel, insecticide-free control tools. Selected graminoid plants have been shown to release volatile chemicals attracting malaria vectors; however, whether the attraction is selective to individual plants or more general across genera and families is still unclear. Methods: To contribute to the current evidence, we implemented bioassays in two-port airflow olfactometers and in large field cages with four live graminoid plant species commonly found associated with malaria vector breeding sites in western Kenya: Cyperus rotundus and C. exaltatus of the Cyperaceae family, and Panicum repens and Cynodon dactylon of the Poaceae family. Additionally, we tested one Poaceae species, Cenchrus setaceus, not usually associated with water. The volatile compounds released in the headspace of the plants were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results: All five plants attracted gravid vectors, with the odds of a mosquito orienting towards the choice-chamber with the plant in an olfactometer being 2-5 times higher than when no plant was present. This attraction was maintained when tested with free-flying mosquitoes over a longer distance in large field cages, though at lower strength, with the odds of attracting a female 1.5-2.5 times higher when live plants were present than when only water was present in the trap. Cyperus rotundus, previously implicated in connection with an oviposition attractant, consistently elicited the strongest response from gravid vectors. Volatiles regularly detected were limonene, beta-pinene, beta-elemene and beta-caryophyllene, among other common plant compounds previously described in association with odour-orientation of gravid and unfed malaria vectors. Conclusions: The present study confirms that gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto use chemical cues released from graminoid plants to orientate. These cues are released from a variety of graminoid plant species in both the Cyperaceae and Poaceae family. Given the general nature of these cues, it appears unlikely that they are exclusively used for the location of suitable oviposition sites. The utilization of these chemical cues for attract-and-kill trapping strategies must be explored under natural conditions to investigate their efficiency when in competition with complex interacting natural cues.

  • 24.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cousins, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Outside the boundary - land use changes in the surroundings of urban nature reserves2012In: Applied Geography, ISSN 0143-6228, E-ISSN 1873-7730, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 350-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the landscape surrounding a protected area for sustaining its values is frequently discussed in conservation literature. Studies on the interactions of urbanisation and nature conservation at the global scale suggest that protected nature attracts urbanisation, and that this in turn might negatively impact the area. However, studies specifically addressing such land use dynamics at city scale are largely missing. In this study we examine the change in proportion of built up area in two zones (500 m and 1000 m) surrounding 15 urban nature reserves in southern Sweden. By using comprehensive maps from the last 50 years, we compared the zones to the overall urbanisation in the cities to reveal discrepancies in land use surrounding the nature reserves. We found that the amount of built up area in the buffer zones surrounding nature reserves followed the same trend as the corresponding cities and this relation was stable over time, although the positive relationship was not significant. The establishment of nature reserves had no detectable effect on surrounding land use, however two distinguished groups of reserves were identified with either more or less built up area in buffers zones compared to cities. These differences were related to specific local drivers such as land ownership, land use history and nature reserve location. In contrast to earlier studies at global scale, our study did not show that nature reserves attract urbanisation. Instead, we stress that the great variety of contextual factors at the city scale makes quantitative analysis of this kind extremely difficult. However, a general neglect from planning and nature conservation agencies to recognise nature reserves’ dependence on the surrounding landscape configuration could be detrimental to sustain their values in the long-term. Hence we suggest that zones surrounding nature-protected areas should be planned and managed according to local land use history and current landscape conditions to enable and enhance necessary cross-boundary interactions.

  • 25.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nature conservation for what?: Analyses of urban and rural nature reserves in southern Sweden 1909-20062013In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 117, p. 66-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To effectively integrate nature conservation in sustainable landscape management, it isessential to deepen the understanding of why, what, where and for whom nature isprotected. This is especially important for nature conservation in human dominatedlandscapes such as cities, where the distance between built up and protected areas is inconstant decline due to urbanisation worldwide. In this study we use historical andcurrent data from Sweden to examine how urban compared to rural nature conservationhave been using formal nature reserve objectives. The focal nature conservationobjectives in our study area were preservation of biodiversity, restoration ofenvironments and outdoor recreation, as well as subdivision of those. The use of theseobjectives were analysed for 1869 nature reserves in relation to degree of urbanisation.We found that nature reserves in more urbanised landscapes were based on a highernumber of objectives. The urban reserves also had a different composition of objectives,where the objectives outdoor recreation and biodiversity preservation were morecommon in urban than in rural reserves. During the last decades we detected a shift inuse of objectives in urban areas, going from biodiversity preservation to a strongerfocus on outdoor recreation. National and global trends in the nature conservationdebate could also be seen as reflected in the use of objectives. To ensure its adaptivecapacity, we stress that urban nature conservation needs a more proactive strategy,where potential future social as well as ecological values must be embraced and notonly existing ones.

  • 26.
    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Singer, Gabriel
    Univ Vienna, Dept Freshwater Ecol.
    Zaramella, Mattia
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Battin, Tom
    Univ Vienna, Dept Freshwater Ecol.
    Marion, Andrea
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Effects of Streambed Morphology and Biofilm Growth on the Transient Storage of Solutes2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 19, p. 7337-7342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial biofilms are the prime site of nutrient and contaminant removal in streams. It is therefore essential to understand how biofilms affect hydrodynamic exchange, solute transport and retention in systems where geomorphology and induced hydrodynamics shape their growth and structure. We experimented with large-scale streamside flumes with streambed landscapes constructed from graded bedforms of constant height and wavelength. Each flume had a different bedform height and was covered with a layer of gravel as substratum for benthic microbial biofilms. Biofilms developed different biomass and physical structures in response to the hydrodynamic conditions induced by the streambed morphology. Step injections of conservative tracers were performed at different biofilm growth stages. The experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed with the STIR model, using a residence time approach to characterize the retention effects associated with biofilms. The retained mass of the solute increased with biofilm biomass and the biofilm-associated retention was furthermore related to bedform height We tentatively relate this behavior to biofilm structural differentiation induced by bed morphology, which highlights the strong linkage between geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and biofilms in natural streams and provide important clues for stream restoration.

  • 27.
    Brandt, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Fahlberg, Kristin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Uppföljning av åtgärder inom Stockholms stads Handlingsprogram mot växthusgaser 2000-20052007Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28. Brito de Figueiredo, Maria Clea
    et al.
    de Boer, Imke J. M.
    Kroeze, Carolien
    Barros, Viviane da Silva
    de Sousa, Joao Alencar
    Souza de Aragao, Fernando Antonio
    Gondim, Rubens Sonsol
    Potting, Jose
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons2014In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 437-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in irrigation volume, yield, and production location. The product system boundary encompasses production of seeds, seedlings, and melon plants; melon packing; disposal of solid farm waste; and farm input and melon transportation to European ports. The primary data in the study were collected from farmers in order to quantify freshwater consumption related to packing and to production of seeds, seedlings, and melons. Open-field melon irrigation was also estimated, considering the region's climate and soil characteristics. Estimated and current water consumptions were compared in order to identify impact reduction opportunities. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate variations in the impact because of changes in melon field irrigation, yield, and farm location. This study shows that the average impact on freshwater availability of 1 kg of exported Brazilian yellow melons is 135 l H2O-e, with a range from 17 to 224 l H2O-e depending on the growing season's production period. Irrigation during plant production accounts for 98 % of this impact. Current melon field water consumption in the Low Jaguaribe and A double dagger u region is at least 39 % higher than necessary, which affects the quality of fruits and yield. The impact of melon production in other world regions on freshwater availability may range from 0.3 l H2O-e/kg in Costa Rica to 466 l H2O-e/kg in the USA. The impact of temporary crops, such as melons, on water availability should be presented in ranges, instead of as an average, since regional consumptive water and water stress variations occur in different growing season periods. Current and estimated water consumption for irrigation may also be compared in order to identify opportunities to achieve optimization and reduce water availability impact.

  • 29.
    Bruce Rosete, Citlali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Microsatellite Constellation for Wildfire Monitoring2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For several years, the occurrence of more severe and uncontrolled wildfires has been increasing. There is a need to detect wildfires with a higher spatial and temporal resolution than the ones currently provided by operational satellites. In this thesis, an imager study and orbital design of a microsatellite constellation using near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imagers for wildfire monitoring, with enhanced spatial and temporal resolution, was conducted. After a state of the art review, different alternatives of imaging systems were discerned: two commercial sensors with spectral range of 0.7 to 1.7 μm and spatial resolution of 140 m and 112 m, respectively; one commercial sensor with spectral range up to 2.2 μm and spatial resolution of 168 m; and one sensor proposal with higher spatial resolution of 20 m or 50 m, achieved by increasing the focal length. Several conclusions were reached with regards to the imagers: the appropriateness of lenses found for each sensor was confirmed, the Earth rotation distortion was found to increase as the exposure time is extended, as did the signal-to noise ratio. A proposal for a circular sun-synchronous polar orbit with a daily repeating pattern was made. Applying a simplified method to calculate the semi-major axis, an altitude of 561 km and inclination of 97.64° were determined. Accordingly, the number of satellites for both global and regional (Sweden) coverage was estimated for all imager alternatives. For global coverage, the necessary number of satellites to achieve a spatial resolution of 140.25 m was calculated to be 15 satellites, whereas for a spatial resolution of 50 m the number of satellites increased to 84. On the other hand, for regional coverage (Sweden), the number of satellites to achieve a spatial resolution of 140.25 m were 6, and for a spatial resolution of 50 m the number of satellites was 32. This thesis shows how many satellites are required for either global or regional coverage, considering different imager configurations, to detect wildfires with a higher spatial and temporal resolution.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Cai, Zhichang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Ecological urban design through Material and Energy Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment: From an architect's perspective2010In: Wit Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, ISSN 1746-448X, E-ISSN 1743-3541, Vol. 142, p. 3-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of ecological urban design was studied through the perspective of Material/Energy Flow Analysis from an architect's viewpoint. The study examined how to control and adjust the production, transportation, distribution and consumption of material and energy flows in built environment systems, and how to analyse the relevant ecological design methods. Two environmental methods were used, Material/Energy Flow Analysis as the main method and Life Cycle Assessment as a parallel method, to analyse the 'integrated efficiency' of material and energy utilisation in the built environment and its significance for sustainable design. The analysis was applied to two cases: Material Flow Analysis of household wastewater treatment and Energy Flow Analysis of energy for heating and cooling buildings.

  • 31.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Nature and History: A Symposium on Human-Nature Relations in the Longterm2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Rangarajan, Mahesh
    Ashoka University, India.
    The Problem2015In: Seminar, ISSN 0971-6742, Vol. 672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    THE twenty-first century has brought concerns about the future of the earth and human-nature relations to centre stage. This has happened in ways that make the environment as a theme ubiquitous in our lives. Leaders of both the industrialized and emerging economies talked across the table on global warming in Copenhagen in 2009 and will do so again in Paris later this year. This is a far cry from the first UN Conference on the Human Environment at Stockholm in September 1972 that was attended by only two heads of government from Sweden (the host) and India. It is also unlikely that any world leader would repeat the words of the late Ronald Reagan that, ‘If you have seen one redwood, you’ve seen them all.’ Today, leaders in polities as diverse as Russia and the US, China and South Africa, vie to win for themselves the tag of being earth friendly, green and caring.

    Needless to add, public rhetoric is not always easy to match with action. All nation states and peoples share the same planet but rarely the views on its future. Stockholm saw a divide between those who claimed population as the problem and others who saw inter-state inequity as a root cause of environmental decay. Today, the same divide assumes a new form. The fulcrum of the world economy is moving from the Atlantic to the Asia-Pacific with countries like India and China emerging as global economic players for the first time in over three centuries. In the last decade, the BRICS countries (still only a fifth of the global Gross World Product) have been the engines of economic expansion. Countries once under imperial domination may differ in many fundamental aspects, but together they share their refusal to pay the environmental costs of other countries’ industrialization. This is the case with Brazil and South Africa, India and China.

    The post-Cold War expansion of economies opens up new opportunities for a better life for many, but also takes forms that deeply strain the web of life and nature’s cycles of renewal and its mechanisms of repair. Richard Tucker’s lucid history of the US impact on the tropics was titled Insatiable Appetite. Rubber and fruits, timber and beef demand in the country that accounted for over 40 per cent of gross wealth product in the mid-20th century (and just under half today) remade the land, water, flora and fauna of the tropics, often in deeply damaging ways. Over eighty years earlier, a prescient Mahatma Gandhi wrote to the left wing Indian advocate of industrialization, Saklatwala, on the larger implications of India following the development path of England. It would, he confidently asserted, strip the earth ‘like a pack of locusts.’ No doubt his words in 1928 ring true, but it is also difficult for any formerly colonized country to ignore the hard reality that political freedom to be meaningful needs the artifices of economic growth to protect and sustain it.

    The fact is that the idea of a path away from an industrial order, though it has many adherents, has rarely won space in the plans of those who rule and seek to guide the destiny of states. Stalin’s dictum that if his country did not catch up it would be reduced to a cipher, has takers in many who find little else attractive in the Soviet dictator. ‘Catch up’ often entails conquering internal frontiers. This has been the leitmotif in Brazil (which saw the Amazon as a frontier), in China (as in the desert and plateau regions) and in Indonesia (where mass resettlement was aimed to unify and weld together its peoples). Surprisingly similar collisions take place at another location of the development spectrum. Internal frontiers and marginal regions are also present in countries like Australia, Canada and Sweden, where extraction of gas, timber and minerals makes few exceptions for landscape damages and local community priorities.

    If the 20th century was about the rivalry of an ascendant American power, with militarism in the first half and state socialism in the latter, there is little doubt that a rising Asia will see more, not less, intensive resource use and higher levels of material development. Will the newly rising powers avoid the kind of resource destructiveness of earlier powers and how far can they moderate their impact without giving in to an upstairs/downstairs world?

    The larger dilemma is how to evolve in ways that lessen or moderate the ecological footprint of peoples and societies. Are there other, better ways to generate wealth in a manner that does not rupture the webs that sustain life? It is a positive sign that debate has moved beyond alarmism and denial to look at why, how and when changes took shape in the past. This is essential for a better future. The past cannot give any easy ‘turn-key’ lessons but can generate insight indispensable for all. We need the long-term view into the past in order for us to find a long-term sustainability into the future.

    Increasingly, this has meant a dialogue across the traditional divide of the humanities and the natural sciences. The complexities of the natural world and human social life demands studies in which we need to understand and connect across the scientific terrain. The interconnection of species and interrelation of the atmosphere and life forms of earth requires an informed analysis of how the knowledge of science mediates human action. The determinism imbued in arguments of how human futures are trapped by nature’s forces needs to be confronted by an understanding of how societies in the past dealt with large-scale disasters, pollution, and waste. Scientists need to integrate complex social analysis into their work. The humanities in turn can gain much by drawing on scientific insights even as they make us sensitive to multiple, often contested, ways of knowing nature. It is not a question of keeping to either of the favoured long-term perspectives into the past – of preferring the emergence of humankind, the agricultural revolution, the introduction of fossil fuels, or the European exploitation of global resources on other continents. We need a multiple vision of time as we understand the challenges of the present. In short, we need to speak across and beyond disciplines.

    This is easier said than done. The planet is one unified ecological entity, a home of life powered by the sun. Yet, it is divided into different nation states. Political borders of nation states (or former empires) by which research is often organized, funded or conducted can scarcely do justice to ever-changing markers across land- and waterscapes. Monsoons, earthquakes, or migrating birds make no exception for such borders. Nor do people. Looking at longer-term trajectories – labour, knowledge, capital, and goods have flowed across landscapes irrespective of politically bounded spaces; they have moved with or against tides and natural ruptures. This has been especially true in recent centuries, periods when the global wealth (the gross world product) doubled (1500-1800) or when it rose fourteen fold (1800-1900).

    But even these changes cannot be seen in isolation in time and space. New historical and archaeological works indicate considerable landscape shaping by use of fire by early hominids, and the colonization of islands, as in the Indian Ocean, even many centuries ago, led to large-scale extinctions of local fauna unable to adapt to new pressures. Not all changes were entirely negative and much of southern Africa and South Asia had extensive grasslands remade by a mix of anthropogenic and natural influences, so much so that it is difficult to draw a line between the two. Even many plant cultivars (yam or cassava or sugarcane) or trees now gone wild (such as neem in mainland India) or animals (such as the grey squirrel in England or the dingo in Australia) spread due to human interventions in history.

    Fluidity is a fact of human history. Economic exchange and human mobility has cut across bounds of empire and nation state. Unsurprisingly, new historical works go a step further and often cut across boundaries of space, time and species in a search for better explanations. Maize, in its march across Africa post-1492, became a major factor in changing more than just nutrition and food habits. The Bay of Bengal unified, not separated, the east coast of India from South East Asia, with migrant labourers remaking lands and waters to create a sense of home. Import of horses across the western Indian Ocean and the central Asian land routes was a major factor in South, Central and West Asian history for centuries, as they were paid for in coin. Domestic animals taken from India for the British forces in the 1890s may have helped the rinderpest virus hop across the waters, leading to a huge dying-off of the wild ungulate herds. On a more prosaic level, the plague virus taken across the Eurasian land mass in the mid-14th century brought demographic collapse in its wake, sparking fears similar to AIDS in the 20th century and ebola in the 21st. Mosquitoes and the diseases they spread played a greater role in 18th and 19th century wars in the Americas than those in battle may have suspected. And the potato and its spread helped revolutionize agriculture across much of Europe and Asia in more ways than any one might have imagined in its native home in the Andes. Plants and pathogens, succulent tubers and sturdy mounts, shade giving trees and edible feral animals, are all part of our connected and ever changing history.

    The flow of commodities and cultural contact has had deep impact on the ecosystems of the earth in ways often little realized. The markets for opium in China, integral to Pax Britannica in the triangular trade, powered the transformation of fields in Malwa and market places of Bombay. Rubber making a trans-oceanic trip from its native home in Brazil was part of Britain’s struggle for empire.

    In another era, much of the Mughal power was built on its ability to be the hinge between Monsoon India, with the rice paddies and densely settled people and Arid India, with wide open spaces and herds of horses and cattle. The Mughal, Safavid, Ottoman and the Ming/Manchu empires in the 16th and 17th centuries accounted not only for a disproportionate share of the world’s wealth, they generated enormous demand for resources from afar. Jahangir’s court in Agra (1608-28) brought in narwhal whale ivory from the Arctic, goshawks for hunts from Europe, horses from central and West Asia and shatoosh wool from the cold plateau of Tibet. Estimates of China and India’s share of the global wealth in 1700 place it at 55 per cent.

    There is still little doubt that the era of European dominance, based as it was on maritime power and control of sea routes and powered by merchant capital, was qualitatively different from many earlier land based empires. There was no one Vasco da Gama moment when dominance was established, but there is little doubt that between the late 18th and the mid-19th century, there was a decisive shift of power.

    Two large ecological changes signified this: the hunting down of Africa’s elephants for ivory to make piano keys in Europe and the diminution of the great whales by steam powered ships with harpoons for whale oil. Less noticeable, but presciently pointed out by a pioneering environmentally minded economic historian Malcolm Caldwell in his The Wealth of Some Nations, were two other developments. The British built the first coal fired empire in history and yet, even before its collapse, there was a qualitatively new power in place. This was the United States which had few direct colonial possessions but relied on economic and military power over other states. More important, its main fuel source was oil and gas. At the end of WW2, the US accounted for 45 per cent of the gross world product.

    Yet, as is often the case, empires not only exploited resources, natural and human; they also created controls, often for self-interest. Trautmann’s recent work argues that elephants as a source of war animals were part of a four-cornered relationship in early India – between kings, forest peoples, other peoples and the elephants. Though this was most pronounced in India by the 3rd century BCE, there were similar trends at work in other Asian societies. More recently, it has been argued that early European island colonies were in favour of controls on land, water and forest use lest changes in the water cycle lead to dearth and disorder. The US, in its ascent to global power from the 1890s to the 1940s, took steps to alleviate overuse of vital strategic resources. The creation of the Forest Service (1900s) and the National Parks (1876), and even earlier, the protection of the bison (or American buffalo) and the treaties to protect migratory birds in the Americas were steps in this direction. In Bolshevik Russia, the early post-revolution years saw Lenin sign a law for protecting rare fauna in 1919. Within a decade, Africa had its first parks in the Virungas (Congo) and Kruger (South Africa) and India soon followed in 1935 with Hailey, now Corbett Park.

    The relationship of power to exploitation and protection was both complex and multilayered. New works show how many parks from America to Africa rested on assertion of dominance over nature by white settler states over resident peoples. Often saving nature also meant the obliteration of rival livelihoods and cultures, a process that finds echoes in the still intense conflicts and contests over access and control. What is important is the deeper historical process that underlies not only conflict zones but also often circumscribes the kinds of cooperation that are workable or practical.

    One consequence of the dialogue of the historical and ecological disciplines is that geography and history are once again on speaking terms. The new awareness that we live on one planet is graphically captured in the iconic photo from Apollo Seven of a green blue planet against the darkness of space. It is also evident in ways in which even specific focused studies in anthropology and history, ecology and planning, now draw links to the rhythms of nature, and the complex ways they are tied in with the consequences of human action. El Niño, first studied in the late 19th century, is now seen in conjunction with other climatic patterns as well as the changing ways in which societies adapted to them. New knowledge that brings geological time frames into contact with historical transitions in the human pasts throws fresh light on well known historical events. Geoffrey Parker argues how the two decades after 1640, a time of immense turmoil in the Mughal Empire, was also the driest spell in a thousand years, thereby connecting dearth and unrest. Richard Grove points to an extreme climatic anomaly in the late 18th century. Peaks of famine mortality coincided with the most severe and prolonged El Niño events of the last millennium. Yet alternations of dry and wet spells or of hot and cold years of the past now have an added dimension, the distinct impress of human actions that may precipitate irreversible change.

    Climate change due to changing greenhouse gas levels, though first debated in 1851, today evokes wider concern and debate. So too does specie extinction, known widely since the cases of the Dodo in Mauritius or the Moa in New Zealand, but probably now taking place on a larger scale than since the five great prehistoric extinctions. The larger impact of the extensive extraction of fossil fuels, of redirecting river courses, cutting channels across isthmuses, of petrochemical production and use – all these and more raise afresh an old question. Will human ingenuity and adaptability (including conservation and environmental repair) prove equal to the task? And a larger issue: are these mere small holes in the wider fabric of nature or a tearing apart of the web that sustains life and ecological systems as we know them?

    Given the rapid escalation and global scale of human induced environmental change, we need analyses viewed in the deep-time perspective. What aspects of our present times are unique and what are common to the human-nature entanglement across ages? Arguments for a return to earlier golden age landscapes, arguably with ecosystems in balance, are now more difficult to find. Human life has always made an imprint on landscapes; ancient societies too could cause large-scale landscape change. Pollen and fossil charcoal analyses in the Kruger and Limpopo National Parks show how human induced fires can have both positive and negative impacts on the changes between savannah and forest cover, depending on the vegetational phase. Similarly, in contrast to today’s wildfires occurring late in the dry season, the burning of lands prior to European settlement in northern Australia was carried out for a great many purposes. Ethnographic sources and diaries show that these happened early in the dry season and contributed to a heterogeneous habitat, favouring some tree species and reducing others, including the animals that fed from them.

    Forests were not only wiped out by the onslaught of human extraction for timber, woodlands also regrew. Croplands of millets and maize, wheat or rice sustained not only humans but also a range of taxa such as birds and insects, small mammals and reptiles. New research suggests far more complex human-nature relations than the simple model of degradation through the process of development.

    Similarly, the deep-rooted misconception that, in former days, people tended to stay in one place – that mobility was the exception and settlement the norm – has been empirically disproved. Or, shall we say, historians have learned to listen more to archaeologists. People move and, with them, also knowledge, goods, plants, habits, disease and any other aspect of human society. Conventional perceptions of societies expanding uphill from the settled lowlands are now confronted by new research on hill-based polities expanding downhill – as from the Himalayan plateau into northern Indian foothills, to form significant polities. The movement of cattle, livelihood patterns, or farming practices alter ecosystems. On larger scales – in marine, savannah, or forest ecologies – they may be disturbed and significantly changed.

    The rapid flux of capital investment has passed like a scythe through Brazilian forests, Nigerian oil fields, and South Asian mineral reserves. Such global flows are susceptible to complex influences, at times causing unexpected consequences. Opportunities for mineral extraction in the Arctic have generated expectations of large untapped oil resources, resulting in researchers and activists sounding the alarm and producing informed responses about environmental effects. But, with shale oil reserves in the US now being tapped and the Gulf countries more willing to tolerate lower selling prices of oil, extraction in the Arctic suddenly looks far less promising as capital moves away.

    The deeply interlinked ecologies of water and land make it clear that rivers are as much about water as about sand. Massive amounts of sand and silt are annually spread across surrounding lands, adding fertile soil or destructive sand. Over millennia, flora, fauna and human life have adjusted. The modern infrastructure of canals and dams can barely contain such monsoonal ecologies. Added to this is the industrial and household sewage that causes the death of river courses as the Yangtze and Ganga, Yamuna and Mekong, Irrawaddy and Indus.

    This issue of Seminar cannot answer these large issues but can help pose them in new, better, more insightful ways. Some authors address the need for long-term, deep history in order to understand critical environmental issues that are relevant today. Others are located in a specific moment in historical and ecological time, but place it in a larger perspective. What do we really mean by words like collapse and how unique is the day and age we live in? There is a less well known trope of human adaptation and recovery from adversity and it is worth asking how far it is useful to reflect on and learn from.

    In a recent dialogue of regional specialists, Peter Perdue, a leading China scholar, was reluctant to view environmental crises as irreversible and pointed to longer-term cycles of recovery as in the case of shifts of capitals and populations and adoption of new crops and practices. Related to this is the idea of vulnerability: is it planet wide or species specific, and can we historicize it to make it more amenable to action or meaningful thought?

    There are certain larger, secular trends that are planetary in nature. Recent decades have seen mounting evidence of the human role in climate change, not merely via the carbon cycle but other related modes of global warming, often related to the long Industrial Revolution since the late 19th century. Less spectacular, but equally critical, is the decline of species across the world’s oceans and in a host of terrestrial landscapes, prompting some to compare the scale of human driven extinction to the die offs of the past, as at the end of Triassic era. A third issue which rarely figures today but loomed large in the 1980s – the impact of possible nuclear war on the global ecological system. Whichever way one looks at these mega trends, climate change, species die out and nuclear threats, the reality is these require careful and rigorous thought.

    Writing in 1962 in a book that would not only warn about the threat of petrochemical contamination, Rachel Carson declaimed about ‘the obligation to endure the right to know.’ She was referring to the pesticides which have, as she said, silenced the voices of birds that heralded the spring in America. Incidentally, Carson never called for a ban on chemicals. As a leading marine biologist, she argued against reductionism and favoured a holistic approach. Our aims here are more modest than hers. The small crew of scholars and practitioners here is drawn from different countries, disciplines and schools of thought. But they share with Carson a willingness to begin with the particular and draw links to the larger general insight in the long view of time.

    We do hope the dialogue of ecology, the science of life and of history, the study of human pasts and presents will be productive. The structure and functions of nature in a simple material sense can no more be viewed in isolation from human actions. In turn, the latter increasingly hinge on not just how we achieve peace with one another but establish the lineament of a peace with nature.

    GUNNEL CEDERLÖF and MAHESH RANGARAJAN

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sivaramakrishnan, KalyanakrishnanYale University.
    Ecological Nationalisms: Nature, Livelihoods, and Identities in South Asia2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The works presented in this collection take environmental scholarship in South Asia into novel territory by exploring how questions of national identity become entangled with environmental concerns in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and India. The essays provide insight into the motivations of colonial and national governments in controlling or managing nature, and bring into fresh perspective the different kinds of regional political conflicts that invoke nationalist sentiment through claims on nature. In doing all this, the volume also offers new ways to think about nationalism and, more specifically, nationalism in South Asia from the vantage point of interdisciplinary environmental studies. The contributors to this innovative volume show that manifestations of nationalism have long and complex histories in South Asia. Terrestrial entities, imagined in terms of dense ecological networks of relationships, have often been the space or reference point for national aspirations, as shared memories of Mother Nature or appropriated economic, political, and religious geographies. In recent times, different groups in South Asia have claimed and appropriated ancient landscapes and territories for the purpose of locating and justifying a specific and utopian version of nation by linking its origin to their nature-mediated attachments to these landscapes. The topics covered include forests, agriculture, marine fisheries, parks, sacred landscapes, property rights, trade, and economic development. Gunnel Cederlof is associate professor of history, Uppsala University, Sweden. K. Sivaramakrishnan is professor of anthropology and international studies and director of the South Asia Center, Jackson School of International Studies, at the University of Washington. The other contributors are Nina Bhatt, Vinita Damodaran, Claude A. Garcia, Urs Geiser, Goetz Hoeppe, Bengt G. Karlsson, Antje Linkenbach, Wolfgang Mey, Kathleen D. Morrison, J. P. Pascal, and Sarah Southwold-Llewellyn.

  • 34.
    Chang, Tingru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Khort, Aliaksandr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Saeed, Anher
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Nielsen, Maria Bille
    Hansen, Steffen Foss
    Odnevall, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. AIMES - Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska, Institutet and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroscience, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effects of interactions between natural organic matter and aquatic organism degradation products on the transformation and dissolution of cobalt and nickel-based nanoparticles in synthetic freshwater2023In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 445, p. 130586-130586, article id 130586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expanding applications and production of engineered nanoparticles lead to an increased risk for their environmental dispersion. Systematic knowledge of surface transformation and dissolution of nanoparticles is essential for risk assessment and regulation establishment. Such aspects of Co- and Ni-based nanoparticles including metals, oxides, and solution combustion synthesized metal nanoparticles (metal cores with carbon shells) were investigated upon environmental interaction with organic matter, simulated by natural organic matter (NOM) and degradation products from zooplankton and algae (eco-corona biomolecules, EC) in freshwater (FW). The presence of NOM and EC in FW results in negative surface charges of the nanoparticles reduces the extent of nanoparticles agglomeration, and increases concentration, mainly due to the surface adsorption of carboxylate groups of the organic matter. The dissolution of the Co-based nanoparticles was for all conditions (FW, FW with NOM or EC) higher than the Ni-based, except for Co3O4 being nearly non-soluble. The surface transformation and dissolution of nanoparticles are highly exposure and time-dependent, and surface- and environment specific. Therefore, no general correlation was observed between dissolution and, particle types, surface conditions, or EC/NOM adsorption. This underlines the importance of thorough investigations of nanoparticles adsorption/desorption, degradation, and exposure scenarios for developing regulatory relevant protocols and guidelines.

  • 35.
    Chaudhury, Ayan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS). KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Barron, John L.
    Univ Western Ontario, Dept Comp Sci, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada..
    Plant Species Identification from Occluded Leaf Images2020In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology & Bioinformatics, ISSN 1545-5963, E-ISSN 1557-9964, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 1042-1055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an approach to identify the plant species from the contour information from occluded leaf image using a database of full plant leaves. Although contour based 2D shape matching has been studied extensively in the last couple of decades, matching occluded leaves with full leaf databases is an open and little worked on problem. Classifying occluded plant leaves is even more challenging than full leaf matching because of large variations and complexity of leaf structures. Matching an occluded contour with all the full contours in a database is an NP-hard problem, so our algorithm is necessarily suboptimal. First, we represent the 2D contour points as a beta-Spline curve. Then, we extract interest points on these curves via the Discrete Contour Evolution (DCE) algorithm. We use subgraph matching using the DCE points as graph nodes, which produces a number of open curves for each closed leaf contour. Next, we compute the similarity transformation parameters (translation, rotation, and uniform scaling) for each open curve. We then "overlay" each open curve with the inverse similarity transformed occluded curve and use the Frechet distance metric to measure the quality of the match, retaining the best eta matched curves. Since the Frechet metric is cheap to compute but not perfectly correlated with the quality of the match, we formulate an energy functional that is well correlated with the quality of the match, but is considerably more expensive to compute. The functional uses local and global curvature, Shape Context descriptors, and String Cut features. We minimize this energy functional using a convex-concave relaxation framework. The curve among these best eta curves, that has the minimum energy, is considered to be the best overall match with the occluded leaf. Experiments on three publicly available leaf image database shows that our method is both effective and efficient, outperforming other current state-of-the-art methods. Occlusion is measured as the percentage of the overall contour (and not leaf area) that is missing. We show that our algorithm can, even for leaves with a high amounts of occlusion (say 50 percent occlusion), still identify the best full leaf match from the databases.

  • 36. Chen, Lin
    et al.
    Wang, Mei
    Han, Kai
    Zhang, Peili
    Gloaguen, Frederic
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    A super-efficient cobalt catalyst for electrochemical hydrogen production from neutral water with 80 mV overpotential2014In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 329-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled molecular iron and cobalt catalysts (MP4N2, M = Fe, Co) bearing a multihydroxy-functionalized tetraphosphine ligand electrocatalyze H-2 generation from neutral water on a mercury electrode at -1.03 and -0.50 V vs. NHE, respectively. Complex CoP4N2 displays extremely low overpotential (E-onset = 80 mV) while maintaining high activity and good stability. Bulk electrolysis of CoP4N2 in a neutral phosphate buffer solution at -1.0 V vs. NHE produced 9.24 x 10(4) mol H-2 per mol cat. over 20 h, with a Faradaic efficiency close to 100% and without apparent deactivation.

  • 37.
    Chen, Yuanying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Goldenberg, Romain
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nutrient source attribution: Quantitative typology distinction of active and legacy source contributions to waterborne loads2021In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 35, no 7, article id e14284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distinction between active and legacy sources of nutrients is needed for effective reduction of waterborne nutrient loads and associated eutrophication. This study quantifies main typological differences in nutrient load behaviour versus water discharge for active and legacy sources. This quantitative typology is used for source attribution based on monitoring data for water discharge and concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) from 37 catchments draining into the Baltic Sea along the coastline of Sweden over the period 2003-2013. Results indicate dominant legacy source contributions to the monitored loads of TN and TP in most (33 of the total 37) study catchments. Dominant active sources are indicated in 1 catchment for TN, and mixed sources are indicated in 3 catchments for TN, and 4 catchments for TP. The TN and TP concentration contributions are quantified to be overall higher from the legacy than the active sources. Legacy concentrations also correlate well with key indicators of human activity in the catchments, agricultural land share for TN (R-2 = 0.65) and population density for TP (R-2 = 0.56). Legacy-dominated nutrient concentrations also change more slowly than in catchments with dominant active or mixed sources. Various data-based results and indications converge in indicating legacy source contributions as largely dominant, mainly anthropogenic, and with near-zero average change trends in the present study of catchments draining into the Baltic Sea along the coastline of Sweden, as in other parts of the world. These convergent indications emphasize needs to identify and map the different types of sources in each catchment, and differentiate strategies and measures to target each source type for possible achievement of shorter- and longer-term goals of water quality improvement.

  • 38.
    Chopin, Thierry
    et al.
    Seaweed and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture Research Laboratory, University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Street, Saint John, New Brunswick E2L 4L5, Canada, 100 Tucker Park Street; Chopin Coastal Health Solutions Inc., Quispamsis, New Brunswick E2E 1W4, Canada; Turquoise Revolution Inc., Quispamsis, New Brunswick E2E 1W4, Canada.
    Costa-Pierce, Barry A.
    Faculty of Biosciences & Aquaculture, Nord University, Postboks 1490, Bodoe 8049, Norway, Postboks 1490; Ecological Aquaculture, LLC, 8 Coastal Lane, Biddeford, ME 04005, USA, 8 Coastal Lane.
    Troell, Max
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Box 5000, Lilla Frescativagen 4, 104 05 Stockholm, Sweden, Box 5000, Lilla Frescativägen 4; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hurd, Catriona L.
    Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, 20 Castray Esplanade, Hobart, TAS 7004, Australia, 20 Castray Esplanade.
    Costello, Mark John
    Faculty of Biosciences & Aquaculture, Nord University, Postboks 1490, Bodoe 8049, Norway, Postboks 1490.
    Backman, Steven
    Turquoise Revolution Inc., Quispamsis, New Brunswick E2E 1W4, Canada; Magellan Aqua Farms Inc., 130 King Street, St. Stephen, New Brunswick E3L 2C8, Canada, 130 King Street, St. Stephen.
    Buschmann, Alejandro H.
    Centro i-mar & CeBiB Nucleo Milenio MASH, Universidad de Los Lagos, Puerto Montt 1080000, Chile.
    Cuhel, Russell
    Great Lakes WATER Institute, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 600 E. Greenfield Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53204, USA, 600 E. Greenfield Avenue.
    Duarte, Carlos M.
    Red Sea Research Center and Computational Bioscience Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Heasman, Kevin
    Blue Technology Group, Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax St., Nelson 7010, New Zealand, 98 Halifax St..
    Haroun, Ricardo J.
    Research Institute ECOAQUA, Scientific & Technological Marine Park, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Crta. Taliarte s/n, 35214 Telde, Spain, Crta. Taliarte s/n.
    Johansen, Johan
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Kudalsveien 6, Bodoe 8927, Norway, Kudalsveien 6.
    Jueterbock, Alexander
    Faculty of Biosciences & Aquaculture, Nord University, Postboks 1490, Bodoe 8049, Norway, Postboks 1490.
    Lench, Mitchell
    Ocean's Balance, 10 West Point Ln. #105, Biddeford, ME 04005, USA, 10 West Point Ln. #105.
    Lindell, Scott
    Applied Ocean Physics & Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 266 Woods Hole Road, MS #24, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA, 266 Woods Hole Road, MS #24.
    Pavia, Henrik
    Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Laboratorievagen 10, 452 96 Strömstad, Sweden, Strömstad.
    Ricart, Aurora M.
    Institut de Ciencies del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37-49; Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, 60 Bigelow Dr., East Boothbay, ME 04544, USA, 60 Bigelow Dr..
    Sundell, Kristina S.
    Swedish Mariculture Research Centre (SWEMARC) and Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 463, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden, P.O. Box 463, Göteborg.
    Yarish, Charles
    Applied Ocean Physics & Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 266 Woods Hole Road, MS #24, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA, 266 Woods Hole Road, MS #24; Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, 1 University Place, Stamford, CT 06901-2315, USA.
    Deep-ocean seaweed dumping for carbon sequestration: Questionable, risky, and not the best use of valuable biomass2024In: One Earth, ISSN 2590-3330, E-ISSN 2590-3322, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 359-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep-ocean seaweed dumping is not an ecological, economical, or ethical answer to climate-change mitigation via carbon “sequestration.” Without sound science and sufficient knowledge on impacts to these fragile ecosystems, it distracts from more rational and effective blue-carbon interventions. We call for a moratorium on sinking seaweeds to deep-ocean ecosystems until its efficacy is established, and there is robust, evidence-based assessment of its environmental, economic, and societal sustainability.

  • 39. Cockshott, P.
    et al.
    Zachariah, Dave
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Conservation laws, financial entropy and the Eurozone crisis2014In: Economics, E-ISSN 1864-6042, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 20145-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article starts by examining the idea of conservation laws as applied to market economies. It formulates a measure of financial entropy and gives numerical simula-tions indicating that this tends to rise. We discuss an analogue for free energy released during this process. The concepts of real and symbolic appropriation are introduced as a means to analyse debt and taxation. We then examine the conflict between the conservation laws that apply to commodity exchange with the exponential growth implied by capital accumulation and how these have necessitated a sequence of evolutionary forms for money, and go on to present a simple stochastic model for the formation of rates of interest and a model for the time evolution of the rate of profit.

  • 40.
    Cole, Scott
    et al.
    WSP Sweden, Sweden previously EnviroEcon Sweden Consultancy, Arenavagen 7, S-12188 Johanneshov, Sweden..
    Hasselström, Linus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jonsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad Univ, Dept Environm Sci, SE-29188 Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Lindblom, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Box 21060, SE-10031 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Soderqvist, Tore
    Holmboe & Skarp AB, Sweden previously Anthesis Enveco AB, Norr Kallstavagen 9, SE-14896 Sorunda, Brazil..
    Expert guidance for environmental compensation is consistent with public preferences - Evidence from a choice experiment in Sweden2022In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 118, p. 106127-, article id 106127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public acceptance of environmental compensation (offsetting) as a mechanism to address negative human impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services is critical. Given that "in-kind/on-site" compensation is rarely possible, proposals must address trade-offs with respect to design. We measure Swedish citizens' support for compensation and analyze preferences for design attributes based on a choice experiment in which respondents choose between various compensation alternatives to address the hypothetical loss of green space due to urban development. We find citizens' support for compensation is high, but the activity causing the damage affects acceptance. Our model suggests that several design attributes affect choice but size of the compensation area was valued highest, both in relative and absolute terms. Further, our results suggest that compensation should be primarily focused on creating or improving biodiversity and nature values in order to be in line with public preferences. Additionally, choice depends on interactions between attributes: a larger compensation site matters more when it is relatively further away; and the importance of size and distance from damage depends on whether compensation type focuses on nature or recreational values. Observable characteristics such as a respondent's age, income and education affect compensation design preferences, but perceptions and previous experiences have the largest effect on choice. Our findings suggest that public preferences are consistent with many of the general recommendations found in guidance documents, but local context may argue for alternative priorities with respect to certain species, habitats, and/or the wellbeing of certain groups. To engender broad support, compensatory offsets will need to balance scientific rigor with transparent involvement of the public.

  • 41.
    Cole, Scott
    et al.
    EnviroEcon Sweden Consultancy, Grantappevagen 3, S-46158 Trollhättan, Sweden..
    Moksnes, Per-Olav
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Box 461, S-1040530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Soderqvist, Tore
    Anthesis Enveco, Barnhusgatan 4, S-11123 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wikstrom, Sofia A.
    Stockholm Univ, Balt Sea Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sundblad, Goran
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Inst Freshwater Res 16, Stangholmsvagen 2, S-17893 Drottningholm, Sweden..
    Hasselström, Linus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Bergstrom, Ulf
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolgatan 6, S-2574242 Örebro, Sweden..
    Kraufvelin, Patrik
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolgatan 6, S-2574242 Örebro, Sweden..
    Bergstrom, Lena
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolgatan 6, S-2574242 Örebro, Sweden..
    Environmental compensation for biodiversity and ecosystem services: A flexible framework that addresses human wellbeing2021In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 50, article id 101319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental compensation should address negative impacts from human activities on nature, including loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, successful compensation, achieving no net loss, requires broad quantitative information on different types of losses and gains. We find that the scope of compensatory schemes varies in what is considered compensable, which makes it challenging to apply a conceptual approach consistently across schemes with different needs. We propose a flexible yet structured framework for determining which values should be compensated and how. Our framework focuses specifically on habitat deterioration and is illustrated with a case study involving loss of eelgrass habitat. The framework helps identify compensation needs and selects among suitable compensation options, merging science-based information with normative issues and local concerns. By integrating the ecosystem services cascade model, it encompasses aspects from biodiversity structure to human wellbeing. The framework prefers in-kind compensation because this targets the structure level and thus meets compensation needs in all subsequent levels of the cascade model; further, it is more likely to capture non-instrumental values (i.e. in nature) and reduce exposure to uncertainty. We highlight the importance of spatial aspects of ecosystem functions, services and their subsequent impacts on wellbeing. Although our selection hierarchy assumes a "similar and nearby" principle for habitat restoration (preference for in-kind/on-site), this criterion is not universal. We underscore the hierarchy's implicit normative assumptions and suggest that apparent disagreement about who should benefit may be traced to an unresolved conflict between egalitarianism and utilitarianism.

  • 42. Corell, Hanna
    et al.
    Moksnes, Per-Olav
    Engqvist, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Döös, Kristofer
    Jonsson, Per R.
    Depth distribution of larvae critically affects their dispersal and the efficiency of marine protected areas2012In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 467, p. 29-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to improve estimates of dispersal by including information on larval traits, and in particular to explore how larval depth distribution affects connectivity and MPA (marine protected area) functionality in the Baltic Sea. A field survey showed that both invertebrates and fish differed in their larval depth distribution, ranging from surface waters to >100 m. A biophysical model of larval dispersal in the Baltic Sea showed that decreased depth distribution increased average dispersal distance 2.5-fold, decreased coastal retention and local recruitment, and substantially increased connectivity. Together with pelagic larval duration (PLD), depth distribution explained 80% of total variation in dispersal distance, whereas spawning season, and geographic and annual variations in circulation had only marginal effects. Median dispersal distances varied between 8 and 46 km, with 10% of simulated trajectories dispersing 30 to 160 km depending on drift depth and PLD. In the Baltic Sea, the majority of shallow Natura 2000 MPAs are <8 km in diameter. In the present study, only 1 of the 11 assessed larval taxa would have a recruitment >10% within MPAs of this size. Connectivity between MPAs was expected to be low for most larval trait combinations. Our simulations and the empirical data suggest that the MPA size within the Natura 2000 system is considerably below what is required for local recruitment of most sessile invertebrates and sedentary fish. Future designs of MPA networks would benefit from spatially explicit biophysical models that consider dispersal and connectivity for complex circulation patterns and informed larval traits.

  • 43. Costanza, Robert
    et al.
    van der Leeuw, Sander
    Hibbard, Kathy
    Aulenbach, Steve
    Brewer, Simon
    Burek, Michael
    Cornell, Sarah
    Crumley, Carole
    Dearing, John
    Folke, Carl
    Graumlich, Lisa
    Hegmon, Michelle
    Heckbert, Scott
    Jackson, Stephen T.
    Kubiszewski, Ida
    Scarborough, Vernon
    Sinclair, Paul
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Steffen, Will
    Developing an Integrated History and future of People on Earth (IHOPE)2012In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 106-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Integrated History and future of People on Earth (IHOPE) initiative is a global network of researchers and research projects with its International Program Office (IPO) now based at the Stockholm Resilience Center (SRC), Uppsala University, Arizona State University, Portland State University, and the Australian National University. Research linked to IHOPE demonstrates that Earth system changes in the past have been strongly associated with changes in the coupled human-environment system. IHOPE supports integrating knowledge and resources from the biophysical and the social sciences and the humanities to address analytical and interpretive issues associated with coupled human-earth system dynamics. This integration of human history and Earth system history is a timely and important task. Until recently, however, there have been few attempts at such integration. IHOPE will create frameworks that can be used to help achieve this integration. The overarching goal is to produce a rich understanding of the relationships between environmental and human processes over the past millennia. HOPE recognizes that one major challenge for reaching this goal is developing 'workable' terminology that can be accepted by scholars of all disciplines. The specific objectives for IHOPE are to identify slow and rapidly moving features of complex social-ecological systems, on local to continental spatial scales, which induce resilience, stress, or collapse in linked systems of humans in nature. These objectives will be reached by exploring innovative ways of conducting interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary science, including theory, case studies, and integrated modeling. Examples of projects underway to implement this initiative are briefly discussed.

  • 44. D'Alisa, Giacomo
    et al.
    Armiero, Marco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    De Rosa, Salvatore Paolo
    Rethink Campania's toxic-waste scandal2014In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 509, no 7501, p. 427-427Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Dargahi, Bijan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagrangian Coherent Structures and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea2022In: Dynamics of atmospheres and oceans (Print), ISSN 0377-0265, E-ISSN 1872-6879, Vol. 97, article id 101286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial and temporal variations of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) in the Baltic Sea are extracted from finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields. A validated 3-D hydrodynamic model of the Baltic Sea coupled with a water quality model is applied for the years 2000-2009. The novelty of the work is on the variation of LCSs with the sea depth, the state of hypoxia and the possible relationship with the blooming patterns in the Baltic. The study reveals a variety of LCSs with a typical core diameter of 10-40 km and a duration of 2-7 days that are formed offshore in all the basins of the Baltic Sea. They occur throughout the year even during winter times when the sea at the northern basins is partially covered with ice. The LCSs are more abundant in the southern basins where extensive algae blooms occur. The dominant structures are large vortex dipoles and anti-rotating vortex pairs that are not limited to the surface water layer but spread to a depth of 143.5 m. Likely mechanisms for the formation and the spread of LCSs are Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities, Proudman-Taylor column and Ekman Spiral. In the vicinity of the shorelines, the LCSs are smaller in diameter scaling with the mean Rossby radius to around 5 km. In the southern basins of the Baltic Sea; the dissolved oxygen (DO) content is permanently below 2 mg/l at depths below 80 m. DO contents vary seasonally with high values during winter and early spring times as opposed to lower values during summer and autumn periods. During late summers, the decline in DO content appears related to the extensive algae blooming consuming oxygen through the decomposition process. The LCSs map the patterns of Algae blooms detected by satellites. The duration of Algae blooming agrees with the persisting time of LCSs as well as the spatial surface water extents. The major 2003 inflow (MBI) increased the seabed DO content only in the lower part of the Arkona Basin that lasted just for about 3 weeks. The inputs of DO from the rivers and the 2003 MBI were not sufficient to counteract the seabed hypoxia in the Baltic Proper for the years 2000-2009.

  • 46. De Prins, Jurate
    et al.
    Mozuraitis, Raimondas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos
    Rougerie, Rodolphe
    Sex attractant, distribution and DNA barcodes for the Afrotropical leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter melanosparta (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae))2009In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, no 2281, p. 53-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sex attractant for Phyllonorycter melanosparta (Meyrick, 1912) has been determined as (10E)-dodec-10-en-1-yl acetate and (10E)-dodec-10-en-1-ol combined in a ratio 10:1. The distribution of this species in Eastern Africa is updated and its presence in Kenya is recorded for the first time. We discuss the taxonomic status of P. melanosparta with reference to three character sets: semiochemicals, morphological and molecular characters (DNA barcodes). This combination of characters is also proposed as a new approach to study the diversity and phylogeny of Phyllonorycter in the Afrotropical region.

  • 47.
    De Roode, Alexander Francois
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Resilience hubs: A Maui case study to inform strategies for upscaling to resilience hub networks across coastal, remote, and island communities2020In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, IOP Publishing , 2020, Vol. 588, no 5, p. 052050-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience hubs are buildings that enhance community cohesion during normal operations, while also enhancing resilience during emergencies. Maui Island is part of the Hawaiian archipelago, approximately 2500 miles from the nearest major continent. Due to its remote location, Maui is ideal to pilot projects that enhance resilience in isolated communities. At the neighborhood-scale, there is a need for establishing sites that empower communities to strengthen their cohesion, resilience and self-sufficiency. This can be achieved by investing in facilities that offer critical community services during emergencies (e.g. backup power, telecommunications, medical supplies, shelter from weather, and food and water rations). Ideally, local communities have a sense of ownership of resilience hubs and frequently use them during both normal and emergency periods. This ensures that hubs are accepted and trusted. Use cases presented in this research offer a methodology for assessing the suitability of proposed resilience hub pilot sites. Resilience hubs must also be assessed for vulnerabilities to climate change impacts and natural disasters, such as flooding, tsunamis, hurricanes, wildfires, and sea level rise. Resilient power systems can be developed for resilience hubs to ensure services are powered whether the power grid is operational or down, as well as to provide additional benefits during normal periods. These methodologies can be used by communities pursuing the establishment of resilience hubs. The highlighted methodologies are particularly applicable to island communities, coastal areas and remote locations, which are disproportionately affected by climate change impacts and natural disasters. This research paper describes three sites on Maui assessed for their suitability as resilience hubs by using the aforementioned methodologies. This research provides a methodology for establishing local resilience hubs on Maui, and how to upscale for application in other communities facing similar conditions. Once established, resilience hubs become a critical part of community resilience planning, while providing year-round benefits and services to local residents and enhancing community cohesion and emergency response and recovery capabilities.

  • 48. Ehrlén, J.
    et al.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Kolb, A.
    Selection on plant optical traits and floral scent: Effects via seed development and antagonistic interactions2012In: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 509-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary explanations of plant reproductive traits have usually emphasized optical characteristics of plants and selection mediated by pollinators. In recent years, studies have been broadened by incorporating also interactions with antagonists and by studying plant fragrant cues. Here, we examined if optical and fragrance traits of the perennial herb Primula veris correlated with reproductive success, in terms of fruit and seed set, and with avoidance of seed predators. Selection path analysis showed that both optical and fragrance traits influenced total seed production, and effects occurred both via fruit and seed set and via predator avoidance. In one case the same trait, inflorescence height, influenced total seed production both positively and negatively through effects on different components of fitness. Our results lend support to the notion that selection by mutualists and antagonists simultaneously acts on optical and fragrance traits.

  • 49.
    Ekvall, Mikael T.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Aquat Ecol, Ecol Bldg, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Ctr Mol Prot Sci, Dept Biochem & Struct Biol, POB 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, NanoLund, POB 118, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Univ Western Ontario, Surface Sci Western, 999 Collip Circle, London, ON N6G 0J3, Canada..
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Malmendal, Anders
    Lund Univ, Ctr Mol Prot Sci, Dept Biochem & Struct Biol, POB 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, NanoLund, POB 118, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Roskilde Univ, Dept Sci & Environm, POB 260, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark..
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Aquat Ecol, Ecol Bldg, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, NanoLund, POB 118, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Cedervall, Tommy
    Lund Univ, Ctr Mol Prot Sci, Dept Biochem & Struct Biol, POB 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, NanoLund, POB 118, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Adsorption of bio-organic eco-corona molecules reduces the toxic response to metallic nanoparticles in Daphnia magna2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 10784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the use of engineered nanomaterials increases, so does the risk of them spreading to natural ecosystems. Hitherto, knowledge regarding the toxic properties of nanoparticles (NP's) and their potential interactions with natural bio-organic molecules adsorbed to them, and thereby forming surface coronas, is limited. However, we show here that the toxic effect of NPs of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) and cobalt (Co) on the crustacean Daphnia magna is postponed in the presence of natural biological degradation products (eco-corona biomolecules). For Daphnia exposed to WC-Co NPs the survival time increased with 20-25% and for Co NPs with 30-47% after mixing the particles with a solution of eco-corona biomolecules before exposure. This suggests that an eco-corona, composed of biomolecules always present in natural ecosystems, reduces the toxic potency of both studied NPs. Further, the eco-coronas did not affect the particle uptake, suggesting that the reduction in toxicity was related to the particle-organism interaction after eco-corona formation. In a broader context, this implies that although the increasing use and production of NPs may constitute a novel, global environmental threat, the acute toxicity and long-term effects of some NPs will, at least under certain conditions, be reduced as they enter natural ecosystems.

  • 50.
    Elgstrand, Kaj
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Svenskt Utvecklingssamarbete inom Arbetsmiljöområdet2010Other (Other academic)
1234 1 - 50 of 199
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf