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  • 1.
    Agerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Kuester, A.
    Bachmann, J.
    Breitholtz, M.
    Ebert, I.
    Rechenberg, B.
    Ruden, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Reporting and evaluation criteria as means towards a transparent use of ecotoxicity data for environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals2011Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, nr 10, s. 2487-2492Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecotoxicity data with high reliability and relevance are needed to guarantee the scientific quality of environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals. The main advantages of a more structured approach to data evaluation include increased transparency and predictability of the risk assessment process, and the possibility to use non-standard data. In this collaboration, between the research project MistraPharma and the German Federal Environment Agency, a new set of reporting and evaluation criteria is presented and discussed. The new criteria are based on the approaches in the literature and the OECD reporting requirements, and have been further developed to include both reliability and relevance of test data. Intended users are risk assessors and researchers performing ecotoxicological experiments, but the criteria can also be used for education purposes and in the peer-review process for scientific papers. This approach intends to bridge the gap between the regulator and the scientist's needs and way of work.

  • 2.
    Alneberg, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sundh, John
    Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Solna, Sweden.
    Bennke, Christin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Beier, Sara
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Hugerth, Luisa
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Kisand, Veljo
    University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Section for Marine Biological Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark.
    Jürgens, Klaus
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    BARM and BalticMicrobeDB, a reference metagenome and interface to meta-omic data for the Baltic SeaManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is one of the world’s largest brackish water bodies and is characterised by pronounced physicochemical gradients where microbes are the main biogeochemical catalysts. Meta-omic methods provide rich information on the composition of, and activities within microbial ecosystems, but are computationally heavy to perform. We here present the BAltic Sea Reference Metagenome (BARM), complete with annotated genes to facilitate further studies with much less computational effort. The assembly is constructed using 2.6 billion metagenomic reads from 81 water samples, spanning both spatial and temporal dimensions, and contains 6.8 million genes that have been annotated for function and taxonomy. The assembly is useful as a reference, facilitating taxonomic and functional annotation of additional samples by simply mapping their reads against the assembly. This capability is demonstrated by the successful mapping and annotation of 24 external samples. In addition, we present a public web interface, BalticMicrobeDB, for interactive exploratory analysis of the dataset.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gren, Åsa
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 445-453Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Kemi.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Kemi.
    Wiklund, C.
    Sexual conflict and anti-aphrodisiac titre in a polyandrous butterfly: male ejaculate tailoring and absence of female control2004Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 271, nr 1550, s. 1765-1770Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Males of the green-veined butterfly Pieris napi synthesize and transfer the volatile methyl salicylate (MeS) to females at mating, a substance that is emitted by non-virgin females when courted by males, curtailing courtship and decreasing the likelihood of female re-mating. The volatile is released when females display the 'mate-refusal' posture with spread wings and elevated abdomen, when courted by conspecific males. Here, we assess how the amount of MeS released by courted females changes over time since mating, and whether it is influenced by the frequency with which females display the mate-refusal posture. We also assess whether males tailor the anti-aphrodisiac content of ejaculates with respect to the expected degree of sperm competition, by comparing how males allocate MeS proportionately to first and second ejaculates in relation to ejaculate mass. The results show that females housed for 5 days in individual cages where they were able to fly and oviposit normally, released similar amounts of MeS. However, females housed together for the same period of time, causing them to frequently display the mate-refusal posture, released significantly lower levels of MeS than the individually housed females. This indicates that female display of the mate-refusal posture depletes their anti-aphrodisiac stores, and suggests that females are unable to voluntarily control their release of the anti-aphrodisiac. A comparison of relative proportion of MeS transferred by males in their first and second ejaculates showed that proportionately more MeS was allocated to the first ejaculate, in accordance with the idea that these are tailored to delay female re-mating.

  • 5.
    Ardalan, Arman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kluetsch, Cornelya F. C.
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi.
    Zhang, Ai-bing
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Erdogan, Metin
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik (stängd 20130101).
    Houshmand, Massoud
    Tepeli, Cafer
    Ashtiani, Seyed Reza Miraei
    Savolainen, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Comprehensive study of mtDNA among Southwest Asian dogs contradicts independent domestication of wolf, but implies dog–wolf hybridization2011Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 373-385Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity indicate explicitly that dogs were domesticated, probably exclusively, in southern East Asia. However, Southwest Asia (SwAsia) has had poor representation and geographical coverage in these studies. Other studies based on archaeological and genome-wide SNP data have suggested an origin of dogs in SwAsia. Hence, it has been suspected that mtDNA evidence for this scenario may have remained undetected. In the first comprehensive investigation of genetic diversity among SwAsian dogs, we analyzed 582 bp of mtDNA for 345 indigenous dogs from across SwAsia, and compared with 1556 dogs across the Old World. We show that 97.4% of SwAsian dogs carry haplotypes belonging to a universal mtDNA gene pool, but that only a subset of this pool, five of the 10 principal haplogroups, is represented in SwAsia. A high frequency of haplogroup B, potentially signifying a local origin, was not paralleled with the high genetic diversity expected for a center of origin. Meanwhile, 2.6% of the SwAsian dogs carried the rare non-universal haplogroup d2. Thus, mtDNA data give no indication that dogs originated in SwAsia through independent domestication of wolf, but dog–wolf hybridization may have formed the local haplogroup d2 within this region. Southern East Asia remains the only region with virtually full extent of genetic variation, strongly indicating it to be the primary and probably sole center of wolf domestication. An origin of dogs in southern East Asia may have been overlooked by other studies due to a substantial lack of samples from this region.

  • 6.
    Armiero, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    von Hardenberg, Wilko Graf
    On History, Nature and Nation An Interview with David Blackbourn2014Inngår i: Environment and History, ISSN 0967-3407, E-ISSN 1752-7023, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 143-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Armiero, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    von Hardenberg, Wilko Graf
    special issue: Nature and Nation Introduction2014Inngår i: Environment and History, ISSN 0967-3407, E-ISSN 1752-7023, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8. Aronson, M.F.J.
    et al.
    La Sorte, F.A.
    Nilon, C.H.
    Katti, M.
    Goddard, M.A.
    Lepczyk, C.A.
    Warren, P.S.
    Williams, W.P.S.
    Cilliers, S.
    Clarkson, B.
    Dobbs, Cynnamon
    Dolan, R.
    Hedblom, M.
    Klotz, S.
    Louwe Kooijmans, Jip
    Kühn, I.
    MacGregor-Fors, I.
    McDonnell, Mark
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Pyšek, P.
    Siebert, S.
    Sushinsky, J.
    Werner, Peter
    Winter, M.
    A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, nr 1780, s. 20133330-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization contributes to the loss of the world's biodiversity and the homogenization of its biota. However, comparative studies of urban biodiversity leading to robust generalities of the status and drivers of biodiversity in cities at the global scale are lacking. Here, we compiled the largest global dataset to date of two diverse taxa in cities: birds (54 cities) and plants (110 cities). We found that the majority of urban bird and plant species are native in the world's cities. Few plants and birds are cosmopolitan, the most common being Columba livia and Poa annua. The density of bird and plant species (the number of species per km2) has declined substantially: only 8% of native bird and 25% of native plant species are currently present compared with estimates of non-urban density of species. The current density of species in cities and the loss in density of species was best explained by anthropogenic features (landcover, city age) rather than by non-anthropogenic factors (geography, climate, topography). As urbanization continues to expand, efforts directed towards the conservation of intact vegetation within urban landscapes could support higher concentrations of both bird and plant species. Despite declines in the density of species, cities still retain endemic native species, thus providing opportunities for regional and global biodiversity conservation, restoration and education.

  • 9.
    Axelsson, Karolin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Chemical signals in interactions between Hylobius abietis and associated bacteria2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) is one of the two topmost economically important insect pests in Swedish conifer forests. The damage increase in areas were the silvicultural practice is to use clear cuttings were the insects gather and breed. During egglaying the female protects her offspring by creating a cave in roots and stumps were she puts her egg and covers it with frass, a mixture of weevil feces and chewed bark. Adult pine weevils have been observed to feed on the other side of the egg laying site and antifeedant substance has been discovered in the feces of the pine weevil. We think it is possible that microorganisms present in the frass contribute with antifeedant/repellent substances. Little is known about the pine weevils associated bacteria community and their symbiotic functions. In this thesis the bacterial community is characterized in gut and frass both from pine weevils in different populations across Europe as well as after a 28 day long diet regime on Scots pine, silver birch or bilberry. Volatile substances produced by isolated bacteria as well as from a consortium of microorganisms were collected with solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and analyzed with GC-MS. The main volatiles were tested against pine weevils using a two-choice test. Wolbachia, Rahnella aquatilis, Serratia and Pseudomonas syringae was commonly associated with the pine weevil. 2-Methoxyphenol, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol were found in the headspace from Rahnella aquatilis when grown in substrate containing pine bark. 2-Methoxyphenol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenol and methyl salicylate were found in pine feces. Birch and bilberry feces emitted mainly linalool oxides and bilberry emitted also small amounts of 2-phenylethanol.

    A second part of the thesis discusses the role of fungi in forest insect interactions and the production of oxygenated monoterpenes as possible antifeedants. Spruce bark beetles (Ips typhographus L.) aggregate with the help of pheromones and with collected forces they kill weakened adult trees as a result of associated fungi growth and larval development. A fungi associated with the bark beetle, Grosmannia europhoides, was shown to produce de novo 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, the major component of the spruce bark beetle aggregation pheromone. Chemical defense responses against Endoconidiophora polonica and Heterobasidion parviporum were investigated using four clones of Norway spruce with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion sp. Clone specific differences were found in induced mono-, sesqui and diterpenes. A number of oxygenated monoterpenes which are known antifeedants for the pine weevil were produced in the infested areas.

  • 10.
    Axelsson, Karolin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Nilsson, Louise
    Nordlander, Göran
    Dep. of Ecology, SLU.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Terenius, Olle
    Dep of Ecology, SLU.
    Do pine weevil microbiota and corresponding volatiles change due to selective feeding?Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Axelsson, Karolin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Zendegi-Shiraz, Amene
    Swedjemark, Gunilla
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Zhao, Tao
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Clone specific chemical defense responses in Norway spruce to infestations by two pathogenic fungi2016Inngår i: Forest Pathology, ISSN 1437-4781, E-ISSN 1439-0329Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterobasidion parviporum (Hp) were investigated using four clones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion sp. Eight year old trees were inoculated with Ep and Hp to minimize the variation due to environment. After three weeks the bark tissue at the upper border of the inoculation hole were extracted with hexane and analyzed by GC-MS. Both treatment and clonal differences were found based on induced mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes. In addition, the Hp produced toxin, fomanoxin, was identified in lowest amount in the most Hp susceptible clone. The clonal trees seem to use different defense strategies towards the two fungi. One of the clones was able to induce strong chemical defense against both fungi, one clone induced chemical defense only against Ep and the most susceptible clone exhibited the least capacity to produce an effective defense against Ep and Hp. Two diterpenes were found to be distinctly different between clones with different susceptibilities, which can be used as chemical indication of Norway spruce resistance against fungi.

  • 12.
    Azeem, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Miljömikrobiologi (stängd september 2009).
    Nordenhem, Henrik
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Nordlander, Göran
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Penicillium expansum Volatiles Reduce Pine Weevil Attraction to Host Plants2013Inngår i: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 120-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

  • 13. Bengtsson, Göran
    et al.
    Nilsson, Elna
    Rydén, Tobias
    Lund University.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Irregular walks and loops combines in small-scale movement of a soil insect: implications for dispersal biology2004Inngår i: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 231, nr 2, s. 299-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of small-scale movement patterns of animals we may help to understand and predict movement at a larger scale, such as dispersal, which is a key parameter in spatial population dynamics. We have chosen to study the movement of a soil-dwelling Collembola, Protaphorura armata, in an experimental system consisting of a clay surface with or without physical obstacles. A combination of video recordings, descriptive statistics, and walking simulations was used to evaluate the movement pattern. Individuals were found to link periods of irregular walk with those of looping in ahomogeneous environment as well as in one structured to heterogeneity by physical obstacles. The number of loops varied between 0 and 44 per hour from one individual to another and some individuals preferred to make loops by turning right and others by turning left. P. armata spent less time at the boundary of small obstacles compared to large, presumably because of a lower probability to track the steepness of the curvature as the individual walks along a highly curved surface. Food deprived P. armata had amore winding movement and made more circular loops than those that were well fed. The observed looping behaviour is interpreted in the context of systematic search strategies and compared with similar movement patterns found in other species.

  • 14.
    Berasategui, Aileen
    et al.
    Dep. of Biochemistry, Max Planck institute for Chemical Ecology.
    Axelsson, Karolin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Nordlander, Göran
    Dep. of Ecology, SLU.
    Schmidt, Axel
    Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Gershenzon, Jonathan
    Dep of Biochemistry, Max Planck institute for Chemical Ecology.
    Terenius, Olle
    Dep of Ecology, SLU.
    Kaltenpoth, Martin
    Insect Symbiosis Research Group, Max Planck institute for Chemical Ecology.
    The Gut microbiota of the pine weevil is similar across Europe and resembles that of other conifer-feeding beetles2016Inngår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, nr 16, s. 4014-4031Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of conifer seedlings in Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the composition of its gut microbial community and the role it plays in mediating the weevil's ability to utilize conifers as a food source. Here, we characterized the gut bacterial communities of different populations of H. abietis across Europe and compared them to those of other beetles that occupy similar ecological niches. We demonstrate that the microbial community of H. abietis is similar at higher taxonomic levels (family and genus) across locations in Europe, with Wolbachia as the dominant microbe, followed by Enterobacteria and Firmicutes. Despite this similarity, we observed consistent differences between countries and locations, but not sexes. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the gut bacterial community of the pine weevil is very similar to that of bark beetles that also exploit conifers as a food source. The Enterobacteriaceae symbionts of both host taxa are especially closely related phylogenetically. Conversely, the microbiota of H. abietis is distinct from that of closely related weevils feeding on non-conifer food sources, suggesting that the microbial community of the pine weevil is determined by the environment and may be relevant to host ecology. Furthermore, several H. abietis-associated members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are known to contain genes involved in terpenoid degradation. As such, we hypothesize that the gut microbial community is important for the utilization of conifer seedlings as a food source, either through the detoxification of plant secondary metabolites or supplementation of essential nutrients.

  • 15.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik.
    von Scheele, J.
    "Flameless" oxyfuel combustion development for process improvement, emission reduction in furnaces and incinerators2006Inngår i: Waste Management and the Environment III / [ed] Popov, V; Kungolos, A; Brebbia, CA; Itoh, H, ASHURST, SOUTHAMPTON: WIT PRESS/COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS PUBLICATIONS , 2006, Vol. 92, s. 247-256Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the focus for the development of combustion technology focus has been set on the following main aims: fuel consumption reduction, nitrogen oxides emission reduction, increased productivity and product quality. Fuel consumption reduction has been reduced by as much as 30-40%, and also CO2 emission reduction was achieved by replacing combustion air with oxygen. To achieve very low emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) the new combustion technology is characterised by: lower temperature of flame, more uniform temperature distribution and reduced concentration of oxygen as well as nitrogen inside the combustion chamber. As in this combustion technique a flame is replaced by a large chemical reaction zone and thus is often not visible the process was named as "flameless" combustion. "Flameless" combustion process that use oxygen, so called oxyfuel combustion, as well as its technical application is the subject of this work. The work presents a description and main features of the "flameless" oxyfuel combustion, results of laboratory tests of a new type of burner, REBOX (R), as well as examples of industrial applications including waste incineration are included.

  • 16.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cousins, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Outside the boundary - land use changes in the surroundings of urban nature reserves2012Inngår i: Applied Geography, ISSN 0143-6228, E-ISSN 1873-7730, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 350-359Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the landscape surrounding a protected area for sustaining its values is frequently discussed in conservation literature. Studies on the interactions of urbanisation and nature conservation at the global scale suggest that protected nature attracts urbanisation, and that this in turn might negatively impact the area. However, studies specifically addressing such land use dynamics at city scale are largely missing. In this study we examine the change in proportion of built up area in two zones (500 m and 1000 m) surrounding 15 urban nature reserves in southern Sweden. By using comprehensive maps from the last 50 years, we compared the zones to the overall urbanisation in the cities to reveal discrepancies in land use surrounding the nature reserves. We found that the amount of built up area in the buffer zones surrounding nature reserves followed the same trend as the corresponding cities and this relation was stable over time, although the positive relationship was not significant. The establishment of nature reserves had no detectable effect on surrounding land use, however two distinguished groups of reserves were identified with either more or less built up area in buffers zones compared to cities. These differences were related to specific local drivers such as land ownership, land use history and nature reserve location. In contrast to earlier studies at global scale, our study did not show that nature reserves attract urbanisation. Instead, we stress that the great variety of contextual factors at the city scale makes quantitative analysis of this kind extremely difficult. However, a general neglect from planning and nature conservation agencies to recognise nature reserves’ dependence on the surrounding landscape configuration could be detrimental to sustain their values in the long-term. Hence we suggest that zones surrounding nature-protected areas should be planned and managed according to local land use history and current landscape conditions to enable and enhance necessary cross-boundary interactions.

  • 17.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nature conservation for what?: Analyses of urban and rural nature reserves in southern Sweden 1909-20062013Inngår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 117, s. 66-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To effectively integrate nature conservation in sustainable landscape management, it isessential to deepen the understanding of why, what, where and for whom nature isprotected. This is especially important for nature conservation in human dominatedlandscapes such as cities, where the distance between built up and protected areas is inconstant decline due to urbanisation worldwide. In this study we use historical andcurrent data from Sweden to examine how urban compared to rural nature conservationhave been using formal nature reserve objectives. The focal nature conservationobjectives in our study area were preservation of biodiversity, restoration ofenvironments and outdoor recreation, as well as subdivision of those. The use of theseobjectives were analysed for 1869 nature reserves in relation to degree of urbanisation.We found that nature reserves in more urbanised landscapes were based on a highernumber of objectives. The urban reserves also had a different composition of objectives,where the objectives outdoor recreation and biodiversity preservation were morecommon in urban than in rural reserves. During the last decades we detected a shift inuse of objectives in urban areas, going from biodiversity preservation to a strongerfocus on outdoor recreation. National and global trends in the nature conservationdebate could also be seen as reflected in the use of objectives. To ensure its adaptivecapacity, we stress that urban nature conservation needs a more proactive strategy,where potential future social as well as ecological values must be embraced and notonly existing ones.

  • 18.
    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Singer, Gabriel
    Univ Vienna, Dept Freshwater Ecol.
    Zaramella, Mattia
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Battin, Tom
    Univ Vienna, Dept Freshwater Ecol.
    Marion, Andrea
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Effects of Streambed Morphology and Biofilm Growth on the Transient Storage of Solutes2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 19, s. 7337-7342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial biofilms are the prime site of nutrient and contaminant removal in streams. It is therefore essential to understand how biofilms affect hydrodynamic exchange, solute transport and retention in systems where geomorphology and induced hydrodynamics shape their growth and structure. We experimented with large-scale streamside flumes with streambed landscapes constructed from graded bedforms of constant height and wavelength. Each flume had a different bedform height and was covered with a layer of gravel as substratum for benthic microbial biofilms. Biofilms developed different biomass and physical structures in response to the hydrodynamic conditions induced by the streambed morphology. Step injections of conservative tracers were performed at different biofilm growth stages. The experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed with the STIR model, using a residence time approach to characterize the retention effects associated with biofilms. The retained mass of the solute increased with biofilm biomass and the biofilm-associated retention was furthermore related to bedform height We tentatively relate this behavior to biofilm structural differentiation induced by bed morphology, which highlights the strong linkage between geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and biofilms in natural streams and provide important clues for stream restoration.

  • 19.
    Brandt, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Fahlberg, Kristin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Uppföljning av åtgärder inom Stockholms stads Handlingsprogram mot växthusgaser 2000-20052007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20. Brito de Figueiredo, Maria Clea
    et al.
    de Boer, Imke J. M.
    Kroeze, Carolien
    Barros, Viviane da Silva
    de Sousa, Joao Alencar
    Souza de Aragao, Fernando Antonio
    Gondim, Rubens Sonsol
    Potting, Jose
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons2014Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 437-448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in irrigation volume, yield, and production location. The product system boundary encompasses production of seeds, seedlings, and melon plants; melon packing; disposal of solid farm waste; and farm input and melon transportation to European ports. The primary data in the study were collected from farmers in order to quantify freshwater consumption related to packing and to production of seeds, seedlings, and melons. Open-field melon irrigation was also estimated, considering the region's climate and soil characteristics. Estimated and current water consumptions were compared in order to identify impact reduction opportunities. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate variations in the impact because of changes in melon field irrigation, yield, and farm location. This study shows that the average impact on freshwater availability of 1 kg of exported Brazilian yellow melons is 135 l H2O-e, with a range from 17 to 224 l H2O-e depending on the growing season's production period. Irrigation during plant production accounts for 98 % of this impact. Current melon field water consumption in the Low Jaguaribe and A double dagger u region is at least 39 % higher than necessary, which affects the quality of fruits and yield. The impact of melon production in other world regions on freshwater availability may range from 0.3 l H2O-e/kg in Costa Rica to 466 l H2O-e/kg in the USA. The impact of temporary crops, such as melons, on water availability should be presented in ranges, instead of as an average, since regional consumptive water and water stress variations occur in different growing season periods. Current and estimated water consumption for irrigation may also be compared in order to identify opportunities to achieve optimization and reduce water availability impact.

  • 21.
    Cai, Zhichang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Ecological urban design through Material and Energy Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment: From an architect's perspective2010Inngår i: Wit Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, ISSN 1746-448X, E-ISSN 1743-3541, Vol. 142, s. 3-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of ecological urban design was studied through the perspective of Material/Energy Flow Analysis from an architect's viewpoint. The study examined how to control and adjust the production, transportation, distribution and consumption of material and energy flows in built environment systems, and how to analyse the relevant ecological design methods. Two environmental methods were used, Material/Energy Flow Analysis as the main method and Life Cycle Assessment as a parallel method, to analyse the 'integrated efficiency' of material and energy utilisation in the built environment and its significance for sustainable design. The analysis was applied to two cases: Material Flow Analysis of household wastewater treatment and Energy Flow Analysis of energy for heating and cooling buildings.

  • 22.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Nature and History: A Symposium on Human-Nature Relations in the Longterm2015Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Rangarajan, Mahesh
    Ashoka University, India.
    The Problem2015Inngår i: Seminar, ISSN 0971-6742, Vol. 672Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    THE twenty-first century has brought concerns about the future of the earth and human-nature relations to centre stage. This has happened in ways that make the environment as a theme ubiquitous in our lives. Leaders of both the industrialized and emerging economies talked across the table on global warming in Copenhagen in 2009 and will do so again in Paris later this year. This is a far cry from the first UN Conference on the Human Environment at Stockholm in September 1972 that was attended by only two heads of government from Sweden (the host) and India. It is also unlikely that any world leader would repeat the words of the late Ronald Reagan that, ‘If you have seen one redwood, you’ve seen them all.’ Today, leaders in polities as diverse as Russia and the US, China and South Africa, vie to win for themselves the tag of being earth friendly, green and caring.

    Needless to add, public rhetoric is not always easy to match with action. All nation states and peoples share the same planet but rarely the views on its future. Stockholm saw a divide between those who claimed population as the problem and others who saw inter-state inequity as a root cause of environmental decay. Today, the same divide assumes a new form. The fulcrum of the world economy is moving from the Atlantic to the Asia-Pacific with countries like India and China emerging as global economic players for the first time in over three centuries. In the last decade, the BRICS countries (still only a fifth of the global Gross World Product) have been the engines of economic expansion. Countries once under imperial domination may differ in many fundamental aspects, but together they share their refusal to pay the environmental costs of other countries’ industrialization. This is the case with Brazil and South Africa, India and China.

    The post-Cold War expansion of economies opens up new opportunities for a better life for many, but also takes forms that deeply strain the web of life and nature’s cycles of renewal and its mechanisms of repair. Richard Tucker’s lucid history of the US impact on the tropics was titled Insatiable Appetite. Rubber and fruits, timber and beef demand in the country that accounted for over 40 per cent of gross wealth product in the mid-20th century (and just under half today) remade the land, water, flora and fauna of the tropics, often in deeply damaging ways. Over eighty years earlier, a prescient Mahatma Gandhi wrote to the left wing Indian advocate of industrialization, Saklatwala, on the larger implications of India following the development path of England. It would, he confidently asserted, strip the earth ‘like a pack of locusts.’ No doubt his words in 1928 ring true, but it is also difficult for any formerly colonized country to ignore the hard reality that political freedom to be meaningful needs the artifices of economic growth to protect and sustain it.

    The fact is that the idea of a path away from an industrial order, though it has many adherents, has rarely won space in the plans of those who rule and seek to guide the destiny of states. Stalin’s dictum that if his country did not catch up it would be reduced to a cipher, has takers in many who find little else attractive in the Soviet dictator. ‘Catch up’ often entails conquering internal frontiers. This has been the leitmotif in Brazil (which saw the Amazon as a frontier), in China (as in the desert and plateau regions) and in Indonesia (where mass resettlement was aimed to unify and weld together its peoples). Surprisingly similar collisions take place at another location of the development spectrum. Internal frontiers and marginal regions are also present in countries like Australia, Canada and Sweden, where extraction of gas, timber and minerals makes few exceptions for landscape damages and local community priorities.

    If the 20th century was about the rivalry of an ascendant American power, with militarism in the first half and state socialism in the latter, there is little doubt that a rising Asia will see more, not less, intensive resource use and higher levels of material development. Will the newly rising powers avoid the kind of resource destructiveness of earlier powers and how far can they moderate their impact without giving in to an upstairs/downstairs world?

    The larger dilemma is how to evolve in ways that lessen or moderate the ecological footprint of peoples and societies. Are there other, better ways to generate wealth in a manner that does not rupture the webs that sustain life? It is a positive sign that debate has moved beyond alarmism and denial to look at why, how and when changes took shape in the past. This is essential for a better future. The past cannot give any easy ‘turn-key’ lessons but can generate insight indispensable for all. We need the long-term view into the past in order for us to find a long-term sustainability into the future.

    Increasingly, this has meant a dialogue across the traditional divide of the humanities and the natural sciences. The complexities of the natural world and human social life demands studies in which we need to understand and connect across the scientific terrain. The interconnection of species and interrelation of the atmosphere and life forms of earth requires an informed analysis of how the knowledge of science mediates human action. The determinism imbued in arguments of how human futures are trapped by nature’s forces needs to be confronted by an understanding of how societies in the past dealt with large-scale disasters, pollution, and waste. Scientists need to integrate complex social analysis into their work. The humanities in turn can gain much by drawing on scientific insights even as they make us sensitive to multiple, often contested, ways of knowing nature. It is not a question of keeping to either of the favoured long-term perspectives into the past – of preferring the emergence of humankind, the agricultural revolution, the introduction of fossil fuels, or the European exploitation of global resources on other continents. We need a multiple vision of time as we understand the challenges of the present. In short, we need to speak across and beyond disciplines.

    This is easier said than done. The planet is one unified ecological entity, a home of life powered by the sun. Yet, it is divided into different nation states. Political borders of nation states (or former empires) by which research is often organized, funded or conducted can scarcely do justice to ever-changing markers across land- and waterscapes. Monsoons, earthquakes, or migrating birds make no exception for such borders. Nor do people. Looking at longer-term trajectories – labour, knowledge, capital, and goods have flowed across landscapes irrespective of politically bounded spaces; they have moved with or against tides and natural ruptures. This has been especially true in recent centuries, periods when the global wealth (the gross world product) doubled (1500-1800) or when it rose fourteen fold (1800-1900).

    But even these changes cannot be seen in isolation in time and space. New historical and archaeological works indicate considerable landscape shaping by use of fire by early hominids, and the colonization of islands, as in the Indian Ocean, even many centuries ago, led to large-scale extinctions of local fauna unable to adapt to new pressures. Not all changes were entirely negative and much of southern Africa and South Asia had extensive grasslands remade by a mix of anthropogenic and natural influences, so much so that it is difficult to draw a line between the two. Even many plant cultivars (yam or cassava or sugarcane) or trees now gone wild (such as neem in mainland India) or animals (such as the grey squirrel in England or the dingo in Australia) spread due to human interventions in history.

    Fluidity is a fact of human history. Economic exchange and human mobility has cut across bounds of empire and nation state. Unsurprisingly, new historical works go a step further and often cut across boundaries of space, time and species in a search for better explanations. Maize, in its march across Africa post-1492, became a major factor in changing more than just nutrition and food habits. The Bay of Bengal unified, not separated, the east coast of India from South East Asia, with migrant labourers remaking lands and waters to create a sense of home. Import of horses across the western Indian Ocean and the central Asian land routes was a major factor in South, Central and West Asian history for centuries, as they were paid for in coin. Domestic animals taken from India for the British forces in the 1890s may have helped the rinderpest virus hop across the waters, leading to a huge dying-off of the wild ungulate herds. On a more prosaic level, the plague virus taken across the Eurasian land mass in the mid-14th century brought demographic collapse in its wake, sparking fears similar to AIDS in the 20th century and ebola in the 21st. Mosquitoes and the diseases they spread played a greater role in 18th and 19th century wars in the Americas than those in battle may have suspected. And the potato and its spread helped revolutionize agriculture across much of Europe and Asia in more ways than any one might have imagined in its native home in the Andes. Plants and pathogens, succulent tubers and sturdy mounts, shade giving trees and edible feral animals, are all part of our connected and ever changing history.

    The flow of commodities and cultural contact has had deep impact on the ecosystems of the earth in ways often little realized. The markets for opium in China, integral to Pax Britannica in the triangular trade, powered the transformation of fields in Malwa and market places of Bombay. Rubber making a trans-oceanic trip from its native home in Brazil was part of Britain’s struggle for empire.

    In another era, much of the Mughal power was built on its ability to be the hinge between Monsoon India, with the rice paddies and densely settled people and Arid India, with wide open spaces and herds of horses and cattle. The Mughal, Safavid, Ottoman and the Ming/Manchu empires in the 16th and 17th centuries accounted not only for a disproportionate share of the world’s wealth, they generated enormous demand for resources from afar. Jahangir’s court in Agra (1608-28) brought in narwhal whale ivory from the Arctic, goshawks for hunts from Europe, horses from central and West Asia and shatoosh wool from the cold plateau of Tibet. Estimates of China and India’s share of the global wealth in 1700 place it at 55 per cent.

    There is still little doubt that the era of European dominance, based as it was on maritime power and control of sea routes and powered by merchant capital, was qualitatively different from many earlier land based empires. There was no one Vasco da Gama moment when dominance was established, but there is little doubt that between the late 18th and the mid-19th century, there was a decisive shift of power.

    Two large ecological changes signified this: the hunting down of Africa’s elephants for ivory to make piano keys in Europe and the diminution of the great whales by steam powered ships with harpoons for whale oil. Less noticeable, but presciently pointed out by a pioneering environmentally minded economic historian Malcolm Caldwell in his The Wealth of Some Nations, were two other developments. The British built the first coal fired empire in history and yet, even before its collapse, there was a qualitatively new power in place. This was the United States which had few direct colonial possessions but relied on economic and military power over other states. More important, its main fuel source was oil and gas. At the end of WW2, the US accounted for 45 per cent of the gross world product.

    Yet, as is often the case, empires not only exploited resources, natural and human; they also created controls, often for self-interest. Trautmann’s recent work argues that elephants as a source of war animals were part of a four-cornered relationship in early India – between kings, forest peoples, other peoples and the elephants. Though this was most pronounced in India by the 3rd century BCE, there were similar trends at work in other Asian societies. More recently, it has been argued that early European island colonies were in favour of controls on land, water and forest use lest changes in the water cycle lead to dearth and disorder. The US, in its ascent to global power from the 1890s to the 1940s, took steps to alleviate overuse of vital strategic resources. The creation of the Forest Service (1900s) and the National Parks (1876), and even earlier, the protection of the bison (or American buffalo) and the treaties to protect migratory birds in the Americas were steps in this direction. In Bolshevik Russia, the early post-revolution years saw Lenin sign a law for protecting rare fauna in 1919. Within a decade, Africa had its first parks in the Virungas (Congo) and Kruger (South Africa) and India soon followed in 1935 with Hailey, now Corbett Park.

    The relationship of power to exploitation and protection was both complex and multilayered. New works show how many parks from America to Africa rested on assertion of dominance over nature by white settler states over resident peoples. Often saving nature also meant the obliteration of rival livelihoods and cultures, a process that finds echoes in the still intense conflicts and contests over access and control. What is important is the deeper historical process that underlies not only conflict zones but also often circumscribes the kinds of cooperation that are workable or practical.

    One consequence of the dialogue of the historical and ecological disciplines is that geography and history are once again on speaking terms. The new awareness that we live on one planet is graphically captured in the iconic photo from Apollo Seven of a green blue planet against the darkness of space. It is also evident in ways in which even specific focused studies in anthropology and history, ecology and planning, now draw links to the rhythms of nature, and the complex ways they are tied in with the consequences of human action. El Niño, first studied in the late 19th century, is now seen in conjunction with other climatic patterns as well as the changing ways in which societies adapted to them. New knowledge that brings geological time frames into contact with historical transitions in the human pasts throws fresh light on well known historical events. Geoffrey Parker argues how the two decades after 1640, a time of immense turmoil in the Mughal Empire, was also the driest spell in a thousand years, thereby connecting dearth and unrest. Richard Grove points to an extreme climatic anomaly in the late 18th century. Peaks of famine mortality coincided with the most severe and prolonged El Niño events of the last millennium. Yet alternations of dry and wet spells or of hot and cold years of the past now have an added dimension, the distinct impress of human actions that may precipitate irreversible change.

    Climate change due to changing greenhouse gas levels, though first debated in 1851, today evokes wider concern and debate. So too does specie extinction, known widely since the cases of the Dodo in Mauritius or the Moa in New Zealand, but probably now taking place on a larger scale than since the five great prehistoric extinctions. The larger impact of the extensive extraction of fossil fuels, of redirecting river courses, cutting channels across isthmuses, of petrochemical production and use – all these and more raise afresh an old question. Will human ingenuity and adaptability (including conservation and environmental repair) prove equal to the task? And a larger issue: are these mere small holes in the wider fabric of nature or a tearing apart of the web that sustains life and ecological systems as we know them?

    Given the rapid escalation and global scale of human induced environmental change, we need analyses viewed in the deep-time perspective. What aspects of our present times are unique and what are common to the human-nature entanglement across ages? Arguments for a return to earlier golden age landscapes, arguably with ecosystems in balance, are now more difficult to find. Human life has always made an imprint on landscapes; ancient societies too could cause large-scale landscape change. Pollen and fossil charcoal analyses in the Kruger and Limpopo National Parks show how human induced fires can have both positive and negative impacts on the changes between savannah and forest cover, depending on the vegetational phase. Similarly, in contrast to today’s wildfires occurring late in the dry season, the burning of lands prior to European settlement in northern Australia was carried out for a great many purposes. Ethnographic sources and diaries show that these happened early in the dry season and contributed to a heterogeneous habitat, favouring some tree species and reducing others, including the animals that fed from them.

    Forests were not only wiped out by the onslaught of human extraction for timber, woodlands also regrew. Croplands of millets and maize, wheat or rice sustained not only humans but also a range of taxa such as birds and insects, small mammals and reptiles. New research suggests far more complex human-nature relations than the simple model of degradation through the process of development.

    Similarly, the deep-rooted misconception that, in former days, people tended to stay in one place – that mobility was the exception and settlement the norm – has been empirically disproved. Or, shall we say, historians have learned to listen more to archaeologists. People move and, with them, also knowledge, goods, plants, habits, disease and any other aspect of human society. Conventional perceptions of societies expanding uphill from the settled lowlands are now confronted by new research on hill-based polities expanding downhill – as from the Himalayan plateau into northern Indian foothills, to form significant polities. The movement of cattle, livelihood patterns, or farming practices alter ecosystems. On larger scales – in marine, savannah, or forest ecologies – they may be disturbed and significantly changed.

    The rapid flux of capital investment has passed like a scythe through Brazilian forests, Nigerian oil fields, and South Asian mineral reserves. Such global flows are susceptible to complex influences, at times causing unexpected consequences. Opportunities for mineral extraction in the Arctic have generated expectations of large untapped oil resources, resulting in researchers and activists sounding the alarm and producing informed responses about environmental effects. But, with shale oil reserves in the US now being tapped and the Gulf countries more willing to tolerate lower selling prices of oil, extraction in the Arctic suddenly looks far less promising as capital moves away.

    The deeply interlinked ecologies of water and land make it clear that rivers are as much about water as about sand. Massive amounts of sand and silt are annually spread across surrounding lands, adding fertile soil or destructive sand. Over millennia, flora, fauna and human life have adjusted. The modern infrastructure of canals and dams can barely contain such monsoonal ecologies. Added to this is the industrial and household sewage that causes the death of river courses as the Yangtze and Ganga, Yamuna and Mekong, Irrawaddy and Indus.

    This issue of Seminar cannot answer these large issues but can help pose them in new, better, more insightful ways. Some authors address the need for long-term, deep history in order to understand critical environmental issues that are relevant today. Others are located in a specific moment in historical and ecological time, but place it in a larger perspective. What do we really mean by words like collapse and how unique is the day and age we live in? There is a less well known trope of human adaptation and recovery from adversity and it is worth asking how far it is useful to reflect on and learn from.

    In a recent dialogue of regional specialists, Peter Perdue, a leading China scholar, was reluctant to view environmental crises as irreversible and pointed to longer-term cycles of recovery as in the case of shifts of capitals and populations and adoption of new crops and practices. Related to this is the idea of vulnerability: is it planet wide or species specific, and can we historicize it to make it more amenable to action or meaningful thought?

    There are certain larger, secular trends that are planetary in nature. Recent decades have seen mounting evidence of the human role in climate change, not merely via the carbon cycle but other related modes of global warming, often related to the long Industrial Revolution since the late 19th century. Less spectacular, but equally critical, is the decline of species across the world’s oceans and in a host of terrestrial landscapes, prompting some to compare the scale of human driven extinction to the die offs of the past, as at the end of Triassic era. A third issue which rarely figures today but loomed large in the 1980s – the impact of possible nuclear war on the global ecological system. Whichever way one looks at these mega trends, climate change, species die out and nuclear threats, the reality is these require careful and rigorous thought.

    Writing in 1962 in a book that would not only warn about the threat of petrochemical contamination, Rachel Carson declaimed about ‘the obligation to endure the right to know.’ She was referring to the pesticides which have, as she said, silenced the voices of birds that heralded the spring in America. Incidentally, Carson never called for a ban on chemicals. As a leading marine biologist, she argued against reductionism and favoured a holistic approach. Our aims here are more modest than hers. The small crew of scholars and practitioners here is drawn from different countries, disciplines and schools of thought. But they share with Carson a willingness to begin with the particular and draw links to the larger general insight in the long view of time.

    We do hope the dialogue of ecology, the science of life and of history, the study of human pasts and presents will be productive. The structure and functions of nature in a simple material sense can no more be viewed in isolation from human actions. In turn, the latter increasingly hinge on not just how we achieve peace with one another but establish the lineament of a peace with nature.

    GUNNEL CEDERLÖF and MAHESH RANGARAJAN

  • 24.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Sivaramakrishnan, KalyanakrishnanYale University.
    Ecological Nationalisms: Nature, Livelihoods, and Identities in South Asia2014Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The works presented in this collection take environmental scholarship in South Asia into novel territory by exploring how questions of national identity become entangled with environmental concerns in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and India. The essays provide insight into the motivations of colonial and national governments in controlling or managing nature, and bring into fresh perspective the different kinds of regional political conflicts that invoke nationalist sentiment through claims on nature. In doing all this, the volume also offers new ways to think about nationalism and, more specifically, nationalism in South Asia from the vantage point of interdisciplinary environmental studies. The contributors to this innovative volume show that manifestations of nationalism have long and complex histories in South Asia. Terrestrial entities, imagined in terms of dense ecological networks of relationships, have often been the space or reference point for national aspirations, as shared memories of Mother Nature or appropriated economic, political, and religious geographies. In recent times, different groups in South Asia have claimed and appropriated ancient landscapes and territories for the purpose of locating and justifying a specific and utopian version of nation by linking its origin to their nature-mediated attachments to these landscapes. The topics covered include forests, agriculture, marine fisheries, parks, sacred landscapes, property rights, trade, and economic development. Gunnel Cederlof is associate professor of history, Uppsala University, Sweden. K. Sivaramakrishnan is professor of anthropology and international studies and director of the South Asia Center, Jackson School of International Studies, at the University of Washington. The other contributors are Nina Bhatt, Vinita Damodaran, Claude A. Garcia, Urs Geiser, Goetz Hoeppe, Bengt G. Karlsson, Antje Linkenbach, Wolfgang Mey, Kathleen D. Morrison, J. P. Pascal, and Sarah Southwold-Llewellyn.

  • 25. Chen, Lin
    et al.
    Wang, Mei
    Han, Kai
    Zhang, Peili
    Gloaguen, Frederic
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Molekylär elektronik, CMD.
    A super-efficient cobalt catalyst for electrochemical hydrogen production from neutral water with 80 mV overpotential2014Inngår i: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 329-334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled molecular iron and cobalt catalysts (MP4N2, M = Fe, Co) bearing a multihydroxy-functionalized tetraphosphine ligand electrocatalyze H-2 generation from neutral water on a mercury electrode at -1.03 and -0.50 V vs. NHE, respectively. Complex CoP4N2 displays extremely low overpotential (E-onset = 80 mV) while maintaining high activity and good stability. Bulk electrolysis of CoP4N2 in a neutral phosphate buffer solution at -1.0 V vs. NHE produced 9.24 x 10(4) mol H-2 per mol cat. over 20 h, with a Faradaic efficiency close to 100% and without apparent deactivation.

  • 26. Cockshott, P.
    et al.
    Zachariah, Dave
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Conservation laws, financial entropy and the Eurozone crisis2014Inngår i: Economics, ISSN 1864-6042, E-ISSN 1864-6042, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 20145-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article starts by examining the idea of conservation laws as applied to market economies. It formulates a measure of financial entropy and gives numerical simula-tions indicating that this tends to rise. We discuss an analogue for free energy released during this process. The concepts of real and symbolic appropriation are introduced as a means to analyse debt and taxation. We then examine the conflict between the conservation laws that apply to commodity exchange with the exponential growth implied by capital accumulation and how these have necessitated a sequence of evolutionary forms for money, and go on to present a simple stochastic model for the formation of rates of interest and a model for the time evolution of the rate of profit.

  • 27. Corell, Hanna
    et al.
    Moksnes, Per-Olav
    Engqvist, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Döös, Kristofer
    Jonsson, Per R.
    Depth distribution of larvae critically affects their dispersal and the efficiency of marine protected areas2012Inngår i: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 467, s. 29-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to improve estimates of dispersal by including information on larval traits, and in particular to explore how larval depth distribution affects connectivity and MPA (marine protected area) functionality in the Baltic Sea. A field survey showed that both invertebrates and fish differed in their larval depth distribution, ranging from surface waters to >100 m. A biophysical model of larval dispersal in the Baltic Sea showed that decreased depth distribution increased average dispersal distance 2.5-fold, decreased coastal retention and local recruitment, and substantially increased connectivity. Together with pelagic larval duration (PLD), depth distribution explained 80% of total variation in dispersal distance, whereas spawning season, and geographic and annual variations in circulation had only marginal effects. Median dispersal distances varied between 8 and 46 km, with 10% of simulated trajectories dispersing 30 to 160 km depending on drift depth and PLD. In the Baltic Sea, the majority of shallow Natura 2000 MPAs are <8 km in diameter. In the present study, only 1 of the 11 assessed larval taxa would have a recruitment >10% within MPAs of this size. Connectivity between MPAs was expected to be low for most larval trait combinations. Our simulations and the empirical data suggest that the MPA size within the Natura 2000 system is considerably below what is required for local recruitment of most sessile invertebrates and sedentary fish. Future designs of MPA networks would benefit from spatially explicit biophysical models that consider dispersal and connectivity for complex circulation patterns and informed larval traits.

  • 28. Costanza, Robert
    et al.
    van der Leeuw, Sander
    Hibbard, Kathy
    Aulenbach, Steve
    Brewer, Simon
    Burek, Michael
    Cornell, Sarah
    Crumley, Carole
    Dearing, John
    Folke, Carl
    Graumlich, Lisa
    Hegmon, Michelle
    Heckbert, Scott
    Jackson, Stephen T.
    Kubiszewski, Ida
    Scarborough, Vernon
    Sinclair, Paul
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Steffen, Will
    Developing an Integrated History and future of People on Earth (IHOPE)2012Inngår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 106-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Integrated History and future of People on Earth (IHOPE) initiative is a global network of researchers and research projects with its International Program Office (IPO) now based at the Stockholm Resilience Center (SRC), Uppsala University, Arizona State University, Portland State University, and the Australian National University. Research linked to IHOPE demonstrates that Earth system changes in the past have been strongly associated with changes in the coupled human-environment system. IHOPE supports integrating knowledge and resources from the biophysical and the social sciences and the humanities to address analytical and interpretive issues associated with coupled human-earth system dynamics. This integration of human history and Earth system history is a timely and important task. Until recently, however, there have been few attempts at such integration. IHOPE will create frameworks that can be used to help achieve this integration. The overarching goal is to produce a rich understanding of the relationships between environmental and human processes over the past millennia. HOPE recognizes that one major challenge for reaching this goal is developing 'workable' terminology that can be accepted by scholars of all disciplines. The specific objectives for IHOPE are to identify slow and rapidly moving features of complex social-ecological systems, on local to continental spatial scales, which induce resilience, stress, or collapse in linked systems of humans in nature. These objectives will be reached by exploring innovative ways of conducting interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary science, including theory, case studies, and integrated modeling. Examples of projects underway to implement this initiative are briefly discussed.

  • 29. D'Alisa, Giacomo
    et al.
    Armiero, Marco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    De Rosa, Salvatore Paolo
    Rethink Campania's toxic-waste scandal2014Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 509, nr 7501, s. 427-427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30. De Prins, Jurate
    et al.
    Mozuraitis, Raimondas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos
    Rougerie, Rodolphe
    Sex attractant, distribution and DNA barcodes for the Afrotropical leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter melanosparta (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae))2009Inngår i: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, nr 2281, s. 53-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sex attractant for Phyllonorycter melanosparta (Meyrick, 1912) has been determined as (10E)-dodec-10-en-1-yl acetate and (10E)-dodec-10-en-1-ol combined in a ratio 10:1. The distribution of this species in Eastern Africa is updated and its presence in Kenya is recorded for the first time. We discuss the taxonomic status of P. melanosparta with reference to three character sets: semiochemicals, morphological and molecular characters (DNA barcodes). This combination of characters is also proposed as a new approach to study the diversity and phylogeny of Phyllonorycter in the Afrotropical region.

  • 31. Ehrlén, J.
    et al.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Kolb, A.
    Selection on plant optical traits and floral scent: Effects via seed development and antagonistic interactions2012Inngår i: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 509-515Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary explanations of plant reproductive traits have usually emphasized optical characteristics of plants and selection mediated by pollinators. In recent years, studies have been broadened by incorporating also interactions with antagonists and by studying plant fragrant cues. Here, we examined if optical and fragrance traits of the perennial herb Primula veris correlated with reproductive success, in terms of fruit and seed set, and with avoidance of seed predators. Selection path analysis showed that both optical and fragrance traits influenced total seed production, and effects occurred both via fruit and seed set and via predator avoidance. In one case the same trait, inflorescence height, influenced total seed production both positively and negatively through effects on different components of fitness. Our results lend support to the notion that selection by mutualists and antagonists simultaneously acts on optical and fragrance traits.

  • 32.
    Elgstrand, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Svenskt Utvecklingssamarbete inom Arbetsmiljöområdet2010Inngår i: Ubullen, s. 12-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33. Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Angerbjorn, Anders
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boyd, Emily
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Dalén, Love
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för bioinformatik och genetik.
    Ehrlen, Johan
    Ermold, Matti
    Hamback, Peter A.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Lagerholm, Vendela K.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Moor, Helen
    Nykvist, Bjorn
    Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne
    Plue, Jan
    Prieto, Carmen
    van der Velde, Ype
    Lindborg, Regina
    Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services2015Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikkel-id UNSP 23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely unknown. An emerging question is how science can improve the understanding of change in biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery and of potential feedback mechanisms of adaptive governance. We analyzed past and future change in drivers in south-central Sweden. We used the analysis to identify main research challenges and outline important research tasks. Since the 19th century, our study area has experienced substantial and interlinked changes; a 1.6°C temperature increase, rapid population growth, urbanization, and massive changes in land use and water use. Considerable future changes are also projected until the mid-21st century. However, little is known about the impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services so far, and this in turn hampers future projections of such effects. Therefore, we urge scientists to explore interdisciplinary approaches designed to investigate change in multiple drivers, underlying mechanisms, and interactions over time, including assessment and analysis of matching-scale data from several disciplines. Such a perspective is needed for science to contribute to adaptive governance by constantly improving the understanding of linked change complexities and their impacts.

  • 34. Engqvist, Anders
    et al.
    Stenström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Flow regimes and long-term water exchange of the Himmerfjarden estuary2009Inngår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 83, nr 2, s. 159-174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical model of processes determining the water exchange encountered in Baltic coastal archipelagos is calibrated and validated against salinity and temperature field data spanning two decades with approximately bi-weekly resolution assessed in the Himmerfjärden estuary. This area is resolved into 17 basins interconnected by 38 individual straits of varying geometrical properties using GIS-based methods. All formulations of the strait exchange flows are free from parameters that need calibration and permit computations of the flow through a strait contraction with or without a coincident sill under a flow classification scheme, of which the first one (a) consists of two groups of multiple layers including aspirated layers from levels beneath the sill crest. The other regimes are as follows. (b) Pure barotropic flow; (c) rotationally controlled flow and (d) plug-flow, which serves as resort solution for flow situations that cannot be solved with (a) and also for computation of the barotropic part of the total flow. For long canals where friction effects act to reduce the flow, a fifth exchange regime is used. The vertical mixing formulation is based on energy balances between supplied wind energy and its work against buoyancy forces. The values of semi-empirical parameters involved in the mixing scheme have been established by calibration against measured data of the first decade period. A statistical evaluation is performed comparing the model results with the measurements of the second decade. It is found that the accuracy of the model is yet limited by the poor temporal resolution in the boundary and the thermal forcing. The overall accuracy of this approach is found to be comparable to earlier model studies in the same area. Since the exchange flows are now based on first principles and are applied to four times more basins, it seems that this more articulated model approach can confidently be applied to more complex archipelago areas.

  • 35.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    Land use in the future - needs and limitations2005Inngår i: Ecosystems and Sustainable Development V / [ed] Tiezzi, E; Brebbia, CA; Jorgensen, SE; Gomar, DA, ASHURST: WIT PRESS , 2005, Vol. 81, s. 365-374Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Suitable cropland is needed for production of food, forest products, bioenergy and other crops, and in all areas future projections have been made on the need for land. Projections of future contribution from biomass to the global energy system often take food production into consideration. But there is not only a conflict between different kinds of production: land has to be set aside also for protection of biological diversity. Saving species is important for reasons such as current and future commercial benefits, but also because of functional values of the ecosystems, to maintain productivity. In this study projections of future land use for different purposes are compared with total suitable land on a global scale. It discusses possibilities for realisation of the projections and potential strategies for making the fulfilment of the different needs compatible. Strategies for reducing land use are for example changed food consumption and energy saving measures. A main finding is that the available land can suffice for the needs according to the studied projections, but we might have to consider alterations for example in diet.

  • 36.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. University of Cape Town.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria (bytt namn 20120201).
    Ecosystem services as technology of globalization: On articulating values in urban nature2013Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, s. 274-284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper demonstrates how ecosystem services can be viewed and studied as a social practice of value articulation. With this follows that when ecosystem services appear as objects of calculated value in decision-making they are already tainted by the social and cannot be viewed as merely reflecting an objective biophysical reality. Using urban case studies of place-based struggles in Stockholm and Cape Town, we demonstrate how values are relationally constructed through social practice. The same analysis is applied on ecosystem services. Of special interest is the TEEB Manual that uses a consultancy report on the economic evaluation of Cape Town's 'natural assets' to describe a step-by-step method to catalog, quantify and price certain aspects of urban nature. The Manual strives to turn the ecosystem services approach into a transportable method, capable of objectively measuring the values of urban nature everywhere, in all cities in the world. With its gesture of being universal and objective, the article suggests that the ecosystem services approach is a technology of globalization that de-historicizes and de-ecologizes debates on urbanized ecologies, effectively silencing other and often marginalized ways of knowing and valuing. The paper inscribes ecosystem services as social practice, as part of historical process, and as inherently political. A call is made for critical ethnographies of how ecosystem services and urban sustainability indicators are put into use to change local decision-making while manufacturing global expertise.

  • 37. Francke, W.
    et al.
    Karalius, V.
    Plass, E.
    Lehmann, L.
    Dos Santos, A.
    Buda, V.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Kemi.
    Mozuraitis, Raimondas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    New type of sesiidae sex pheromone identified from the hornet moth Sesia apiformis2004Inngår i: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 805-817Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two components of the female-produced sex pheromone of the hornet moth, Sesia apiformis, were identified as (3Z, 13Z)-octadeca-3,13-dien-1-ol (3Z, 13Z-18:OH) and (2E, 13Z)-octadeca-2,13-dienal (2E, 13Z-18:Al), a pheromone structure new in Sesiidae. Pooled gland extracts showed the two major compounds in a proportion of ca. 2:3, while SPME-investigations on single calling females revealed a ratio of ca. 1:7. Although the single compounds were not attractive, a 2: 3 mixture proved to be highly active towards males in field tests. Small amounts of (2E, 13Z)-octadecadienol (2E, 13Z-18:OH) were found in the sex pheromone gland of females, however, the biological significance of the compound remains unclear. Methyl sulfide was found to readily react with 2-alkenals, providing an effective new method for the characterization of this type of compound upon GC/MS. The derivatives, 1,1,3-tris(methylthio)alkanes, are the products of the addition of methyl sulfide to the double bond and the transformation of the carbonyl group into the corresponding bis(methylthio)acetal. The mass spectra of these compounds are characterized by diagnostic signals at m/z 107 and/or m/z 121. These fragments represent the first carbon unit or the first two carbon units of the derivative, respectively. The parent signal in the spectra of thiomethyl derivatives of 2-alkenals showing no other double bonds is represented by m/z M+-121, formed upon loss of the first two carbon units. By employing a solution of methyl sulfide in dimethyl sulfide, the double bond positions in 2E, 13Z-18:Al could be fully characterized by GC/MS.

  • 38.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Karlsson, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production2009Inngår i: ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT VII / [ed] Brebbia CA; Tiezzi E, 2009, Vol. 122, s. 153-161Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is a major threat to the Baltic Sea, causing algae blooms and hypoxic bottoms. Ecological engineering methods aiming at help mitigating the nutrient imbalance problems have already been initiated or are being planned in the coastal zones of the Baltic Sea. This includes harvesting of reed, macro algae and blue mussels as nutrient and energy natural resources. The potential and feasibility of such methods to form the basis for sustainable use of natural resources is governed by the ecological, technical, economic and social aspects associated with the whole chain of processes from biomass to end products, e.g. biogas, fertilizers, and wastes. As a first step in a sustainability assessment, we show that biogas production from algae and reed is associated with a net energy benefit. Blue mussels do not result in a net energy benefit if used for biogas production, but represent the most efficient way of removing nutrients. Based on these preliminary results, we suggest that biogas production from reed and macro algae is worthy of further investigation, whereas for blue mussels, an alternative product must be found.

  • 39.
    Gulbinskas, Saulius
    et al.
    Klaipeda Univ, Coastal Res & Planning Inst, Klaipeda, Lithuania.
    Mileriene, Rosita
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Blazauskas, Nerijus
    Klaipeda Univ, Coastal Res & Planning Inst, Klaipeda, Lithuania.
    Sand Sources for Beach Replenishment: ocean observations, ecosystem-based management & forecasting2008Inngår i: 2008 IEEE/OES US/EU-Baltic International Symposium  , 2008, s. 391-391Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Halder, Dipti
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Bhowmick, Subhamoy
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Mandal, Ujjal
    Nriagu, Jerome
    Mazumdar, Debendra Nath Guha
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Consumption of Brown Rice: A Potential Pathway for Arsenic Exposure in Rural Bengal2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 7, s. 4142-4148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the arsenic (As) accumulation in different varieties of rice grain, that people in rural Bengal mostly prefer for daily consumption, to estimate the potential risk of dietary As exposure through rice intake. The rice samples have been classified according to their average length (L) and L to breadth (B) ratio into four categories, such as short-bold (SB), medium-slender (MS), long-slender (LS), and extra-long slender (ELS). The brown colored rice samples fall into the SB, MS, or LS categories; while all Indian Basmati (white colored) are classified as ELS. The study indicates that the average accumulation of As in rice grain increases with a decrease of grain size (ELS: 0.04; LS: 0.10; MS: 0.16; and SB: 0.33 mg kg(-1)), however people living in the rural villages mostly prefer brown colored SB type of rice because of its lower cost. For the participants consuming SB type of brown rice, the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) in 29% of the cases exceeds the previous WHO recommended provisional tolerable daily intake value (2.1 mu g day(-1) kg(-1) BW), and in more than 90% of cases, the As content in the drinking water equivalent to the inorganic As intake from rice consumption (C-W,C-eqv) exceeds the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 mu g L-1. This study further demonstrates that participants in age groups 18-30 and 51-65 yrs are the most vulnerable to the potential health threat of dietary As exposure compared to participants of age group 31-50 yrs, because of higher amounts of brown rice consumption patterns and lower BMI.

  • 41. Hallberg, M.
    et al.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Byman, L.
    Svenstam, G.
    Norling, M.
    Treatment of tunnel wash water and implications for its disposal2014Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 69, nr 10, s. 2029-2035Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of road tunnels in urban areas creates water pollution problems, since the tunnels must be frequently cleaned for traffic safety reasons. The washing generates extensive volumes of highly polluted water, for example, more than fivefold higher concentrations of suspended solids compared to highway runoff. The pollutants in the wash water have an affinity for particulate material, so sedimentation should be a viable treatment option. In this study, 12 in situ sedimentation trials were carried out on tunnel wash water, with and without addition of chemical flocculent. Initial suspended solids concentration ranged from 804 to 9,690 mg/L. With sedimentation times of less than 24 hours and use of a chemical flocculent, it was possible to reach low concentrations of suspended solids (< 15 mg/L), PAH (< 0.1 mu g/L), As (< 1.0 mu g/L), Cd (< 0.05 mu g/L), Hg (< 0.02 g/L), Fe (< 200 mu g/L), Ni (< 8 mu g/L), Pb (< 0.5 mu g/L), Zn (< 60 mu g/L) and Cr (< 8 mu g/L). Acute Microtox (R) toxicity, mainly attributed to detergents used for the tunnel wash, decreased significantly at low suspended solids concentrations after sedimentation using a flocculent. The tunnel wash water did not inhibit nitrification. The treated water should be suitable for discharge into recipient waters or a wastewater treatment plant.

  • 42.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Joelsson, Karin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Crop Biotechnology for the Environment?2013Inngår i: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 759-770Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In public debates, agricultural biotechnology is almost invariably discussed as a potential threat to the environment and to human health. Without downplaying the risks associated with this technology we emphasize that if properly regulated, it can be a forceful tool to solve environmental problems and promote human health. Agricultural biotechnology can reduce environmental problems in at least three ways: it can diminish the need for environmentally damaging agricultural practices such as pesticides, fertilizers, tillage, and irrigation. It can reduce the land area needed for agriculture, thus reducing the CO2 effect of agriculture and improving biodiversity. It can produce energy in a CO2-neutral way (especially if new technologies involving the cultivation of microalgae become successful). Furthermore, agricultural biotechnology can have positive effects on human health by decreasing occupational and dietary exposure to pesticides, improving the nutritional value of food, and producing pharmaceuticals more efficiently. We argue that those who wish to give high priority to environmental goals cannot afford any longer to be mere onlookers while others decide the future directions of agricultural biotechnology.

  • 43. Hasselstrom, Linus
    et al.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Detailed vs. fuzzy information in non-market valuation studies: the role of familiarity2013Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, nr 1, s. 123-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply a split-sample contingent valuation survey to test whether the level of ecological information affects the willingness to pay (WTP) and valuation uncertainty for improved water quality. For respondents who are unfamiliar with water quality problems, the WTP is significantly different between the sample that received detailed ecological information and the sample that received fuzzy information. This study also provides new empirical evidence for the counterfactual; in a situation with high familiarity, more information does not affect mean WTP. The main recommendation to future valuation practice is to provide detailed ecological information in the case when many respondents are unfamiliar with the good. The level of information did not influence valuation uncertainty.

  • 44.
    Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lidén, Carola
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Correlation between bulk- and surface chemistry of Cr-tanned leather and the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI)2014Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 280, s. 654-661Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    About 1-3% of the adult general population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). The assessment of the potential release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from leather is hence important from a human health and environmental risk perspective. The Cr(VI) content in leather was recently restricted in the European Union. The aim of this study was to assess possible correlations between the bulk and surface chemistry of leather, released Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and capacities of co-released leather specific species to reduce and complex released Cr. Four differently tanned leathers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and the diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method. Their characteristics were compared with results on Cr(III) and Cr(VI) release into artificial sweat (ASW, pH < 6.5) and phosphate buffer (PB, pH 7.5-8.0), measured by means of spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Co-released leather-specific species were shown to reduce Cr(VI), both in ASW and in PB. Their reduction capacities correlated with findings of the surface content of Cr and of released Cr. Leather samples without this capacity, and with less aromatic surface groups visible by ATR-FTIR, revealed Cr(VI) both at the surface and in solution (PB).

  • 45.
    Herlemann, D. P. R.
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Baltic Sea Res Warnemunde, Rostock, Germany.;Estonian Univ Life Sci, Ctr Limnol, Elva Parish, Tartu County, Estonia..
    Markert, S.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Pharm, Dept Pharmaceut Biotechnol, Greifswald, Germany.;Inst Marine Biotechnol eV, Greifswald, Germany..
    Meeske, C.
    Leibniz Inst Baltic Sea Res Warnemunde, Rostock, Germany..
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    de Bruijn, Ino
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hentschker, C.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Dept Microbial Prote, Inst Microbiol, Greifswald, Germany..
    Unfried, F.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Pharm, Dept Pharmaceut Biotechnol, Greifswald, Germany.;Inst Marine Biotechnol eV, Greifswald, Germany..
    Becher, D.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Dept Microbial Prote, Inst Microbiol, Greifswald, Germany..
    Juergens, K.
    Leibniz Inst Baltic Sea Res Warnemunde, Rostock, Germany..
    Schweder, T.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Pharm, Dept Pharmaceut Biotechnol, Greifswald, Germany.;Inst Marine Biotechnol eV, Greifswald, Germany..
    Individual Physiological Adaptations Enable Selected Bacterial Taxa To Prevail during Long-Term Incubations2019Inngår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 85, nr 15, artikkel-id UNSP e00825-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enclosure experiments are frequently used to investigate the impact of changing environmental conditions on microbial assemblages. Yet, how the incubation itself challenges complex bacterial communities is thus far unknown. In this study, metaproteomic profiling, 16S rRNA gene analyses, and cell counts were combined to evaluate bacterial communities derived from marine, mesohaline, and oligohaline conditions after long-term batch incubations. Early in the experiment, the three bacterial communities were highly diverse and differed significantly in their compositions. Manipulation of the enclosures with terrigenous dissolved organic carbon resulted in notable differences compared to the control enclosures at this early phase of the experiment. However, after 55 days, bacterial communities in the manipulated and the control enclosures under marine and mesohaline conditions were all dominated by gammaproteobacterium Spongiibacter. In the oligohaline enclosures, actinobacterial cluster I of the hgc group (hgc-I) remained abundant in the late phase of the incubation. Metaproteome analyses suggested that the ability to use outer membrane-based internal energy stores, in addition to the previously described grazing resistance, may enable the gammaproteobacterium Spongiibacter to prevail in long-time incubations. Under oligohaline conditions, the utilization of external recalcitrant carbon appeared to be more important (hgc-I). Enclosure experiments with complex natural microbial communities are important tools to investigate the effects of manipulations. However, species-specific properties, such as individual carbon storage strategies, can cause manipulation-independent effects and need to be considered when interpreting results from enclosures. IMPORTANCE In microbial ecology, enclosure studies are often used to investigate the effect of single environmental factors on complex bacterial communities. However, in addition to the manipulation, unintended effects ("bottle effect") may occur due to the enclosure itself. In this study, we analyzed the bacterial communities that originated from three different salinities of the Baltic Sea, comparing their compositions and physiological activities both at the early stage and after 55 days of incubation. Our results suggested that internal carbon storage strategies impact the success of certain bacterial species, independent of the experimental manipulation. Thus, while enclosure experiments remain valid tools in environmental research, microbial community composition shifts must be critically followed. This investigation of the metaproteome during long-term batch enclosures expanded our current understanding of the so-called "bottle effect," which is well known to occur during enclosure experiments.

  • 46.
    Hope, H
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Messmann, S
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Olsson, Monika
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Water Operation Lifelong Learning: An European Approach2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2nd International IWA Conference on Sewer Operation and Maintenance. October 26-28, 2006, Vienna, Austria., 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 47.
    Howells, Mark
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Welsch, Manuel
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Bazilian, Morgan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Segerström, Rebecka
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Alfstad, Thomas
    Gielen, Dolf
    Rogner, Holger
    Fischer, Guenther
    van Velthuizen, Harrij
    Wiberg, David
    Young, Charles
    Roehrl, R. Alexander
    Mueller, Alexander
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Ramma, Indoomatee
    Integrated analysis of climate change, land-use, energy and water strategies2013Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 3, nr 7, s. 621-626Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Land, energy and water are our most precious resources, but the manner and extent to which they are exploited contributes to climate change. Meanwhile, the systems that provide these resources are themselves highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Efficient resource management is therefore of great importance, both for mitigation and for adaptation purposes. We postulate that the lack of integration in resource assessments and policy-making leads to inconsistent strategies and inefficient use of resources. We present CLEWs (climate, land-use, energy and water strategies), a new paradigm for resource assessments that we believe can help to remedy some of these shortcomings.

  • 48.
    Howells, Mark
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Rogner, H-Holger
    Water-energy nexus: Assessing integrated systems2014Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 246-247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Hu, Yue
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Microbial DNA Sequencing in Environmental Studies2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of microbial ecology has just entered a new era of rapid technological development and generation of big data. The high-throughput sequencing techniques presently available provide an opportunity to extensively inventorize the blueprints of life. Now, millions of microbes of natural microbial communities can be studied simultaneously without prior cultivation. New species and new functions (genes) can be discovered just by mining sequencing data. However, there is still a tremendous number of microorganisms not yet examined, nor are the ecosystem functions these carry out. The modern genomic technologies can contribute to solve environmental problems and help us understand ecosystems, but to most efficiently do so, methods need to be continuously optimised.

     

    During my Ph. D. studies, I developed a method to survey eukaryotic microbial diversity with a higher accuracy, and applied various sequencing-based approaches in an attempt to answer questions of importance in environmental research and ecology. In PAPER-I, we developed a set of 18S rRNA gene PCR primers with high taxonomic coverage, meeting the requirements of currently popular sequencing technologies and matching the richness of 18S rRNA reference sequences accumulated so far. In PAPER-II, we conducted the first sequencing-based spatial survey on the combined eukaryotic and bacterial planktonic community in the Baltic Sea to uncover the relationship of microbial diversity and environmental conditions. Here, the 18S primers designed in PAPER-I and a pair of broad-coverage 16S primers were employed to target the rRNA genes of protists and bacterioplankton for amplicon sequencing. In PAPER-III, we integrated metagenomic, metabarcoding, and metatranscriptomic data in an effort to scrutinise the protein synthesis potential (i.e., activity) of microbes in the sediment at a depth of 460 m in the Baltic Sea and, thus, disclosing microbial diversity and their possible ecological functions within such an extreme environment. Lastly, in PAPER-IV, we compared the performance of E. coli culturing, high-throughput sequencing, and portable real-time sequencing in tracking wastewater contamination in an urban stormwater system. From the aspects of cost, mobility and accuracy, we evaluated the usage of sequencing-based approaches in civil engineering, and for the first time, validated the real-time sequencing device in use within water quality monitoring.

     

    In summary, these studies demonstrate how DNA sequencing of microbial communities can be applied in environmental monitoring and ecological research.

  • 50.
    Hugerth, Luisa
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi. Science for Life Laboratory.
    High-throughput DNA Sequencingin Microbial Ecology: Methods and Applications2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms play central roles in planet Earth’s geochemical cycles, in food production, and in health and disease of humans and livestock. In spite of this, most microbial life forms remain unknown and unnamed, their ecological importance and potential technological applications beyond the realm of speculation. This is due both to the magnitude of microbial diversity and to technological limitations. Of the many advances that have enabled microbiology to reach new depth and breadth in the past decade, one of the most important is affordable high-throughput DNA sequencing. This technology plays a central role in each paper in this thesis.

    Papers I and II are focused on developing methods to survey microbial diversity based on marker gene amplification and sequencing. In Paper I we proposed a computational strategy to design primers with the highest coverage among a given set of sequences and applied it to drastically improve one of the most commonly used primer pairs for ecological surveys of prokaryotes. In Paper II this strategy was applied to an eukaryotic marker gene. Despite their importance in the food chain, eukaryotic microbes are much more seldom surveyed than bacteria. Paper II aimed at making this domain of life more amenable to high-throughput surveys.

    In Paper III, the primers designed in papers I and II were applied to water samples collected up to twice weekly from 2011 to 2013 at an offshore station in the Baltic proper, the Linnaeus Microbial Observatory. In addition to tracking microbial communities over these three years, we created predictive models for hundreds of microbial populations, based on their co-occurrence with other populations and environmental factors.

    In paper IV we explored the entire metagenomic diversity in the Linnaeus Microbial Observatory. We used computational tools developed in our group to construct draft genomes of abundant bacteria and archaea and described their phylogeny, seasonal dynamics and potential physiology. We were also able to establish that, rather than being a mixture of genomes from fresh and saline water, the Baltic Sea plankton community is composed of brackish specialists which diverged from other aquatic microorganisms thousands of years before the formation of the Baltic itself.

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