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  • 1. Abu-Ghunmi, Diana
    et al.
    Abu-Ghunmi, Lina
    Kayal, Bassam
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Bino, Adel
    Circular economy and the opportunity cost of not 'closing the loop' of water industry: the case of Jordan2016Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 131, s. 228-236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The water industry is moving from an end-of-pipe approach consistent with the linear economic model to a circular approach consistent with the circular economy model. The economic dimension of wastewater circularity has not received the attention that other dimensions have; this study attempts to fill this research gap by studying the economic dimension, in order to estimate the net opportunity cost of a non-circular water industry The financial and environmental benefits of treating wastewater, along with the associated operating and capital costs, are calculated to arrive at the opportunity cost and the 'closing the loop charge'. The analytical results reveal an estimated net opportunity cost of 643 million Jordanian dinar (JOD) (907 million US$) if the option not to go circular is chosen, with JOD 212 million (US$ 299 million) of this amount currently squandered. Furthermore, this indicates an average 'closing the loop charge' of JOD0.70/m(3) ($1.0/m(3)), which represents the average shadow price of the associated environmental externalities. Having thus shown a strong economic case for the circular model in the water industry, movements in all economic sectors to adhere to this model appear to be highly desirable.

  • 2. Abu-Khader, M. M.
    et al.
    Shawaqfeh, A. T.
    Naddaf, Z.
    Maity, J. P.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Radon in the groundwater in the Amman-Zarqa Basin and related environments in Jordan2018Ingår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 7, s. 73-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of radon (222Rn) in environment (groundwater and indoor air) from geogenic sources is receiving an growing attention due to its adverse impact on human health worldwide including Jordan. Highlighting the current status of radon in Jordan, the present study of radon concentrations in ground waters in the Amman-Zarqa basin (AZB) was investigated. Groundwater samples were collected from fifteen wells located in three main areas of Ras Al-Ain, Al-Rsaifeh and Al-Hashemite. Radon concentration was measure using Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) Tri- Carb 3110 with discriminator and the highest values for radon concentration in water were observed in Al-Rsaifeh area and ranged from 4.52 up to 30.70 Bq/l with an average of 11.22 Bq/l, which were attributed to the decay of naturally distributed uranium in phosphate rock from Al-Rsaifeh mines. In Ras Al-Ain area, the radon concentration were noted ranged from 0.6 to 5.55 Bq/l with an average of 2.82 Bq/l, and also in Al-Hashemite area were ranged from 0.77 to 5.37 Bq/l with an average of 4.04 Bq/l. The overall average concentration of tested samples was 5.77 Bq/l and found within the acceptable international levels. Ground water samples of Ras Al-Ain area showed good quality as was tested of low salinity. It recorded the lowest average radon concentration of 2.82 Bq/l. Also, Radon indoor and building materials was reviewed. In conclusion, this study presented an urged need for developing national regulations and standards as well as awareness program concerning the radon status in Jordan.Elsevier B.V.

  • 3. Admass, M.
    et al.
    Dargahi, Bijan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattendragsteknik.
    3D numerical modelling of flow and sediment transport in rivers2007Ingår i: International Journal of Sediment Research, ISSN 1001-6279, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 168-174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Ahlberg, Fanny
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Ivansen, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Analys över variationer i vattenförbrukning och dess påverkandefaktorer: En fallstudie över områden i Borås2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    För människor är vatten en livsavgörande resurs och har många betydande användningsområden, såsom dricksvatten, i jordbruk och industri. Därför är vattenförsörjning viktig för att ett samhälle ska vara hållbart. En effektiv dimensionering av vatten- och avloppssystem (VA-system) är i sin tur en viktig komponent för att säkerställa en trygg vattenförsörjning. Dimensioneringen av VA-system görs utifrån en uppskattning av förbrukningen, som i sin tur beror av sex faktorer; folkmängd, hushållsförbrukning, allmän förbrukning, industriförbrukning, förluster och brandvattenförbrukning. Denna rapport har med bakgrund av detta till syfte att analysera hur vattenförbrukningen hos olika förbrukartyper varierar under tidsintervallen dygn och år samt utreda hur vattenförbrukningen beror av temperatur och medelåldern hos förbrukarna. Analysen utfördes genom en fallstudie på tillhandahållen mätdata från Tyréns på vattenförbrukningen i olika områden i Borås och Karlstad. Dessa data hade felsökts tidigare och de områden med minst antal osäkra värden valdes ut för vidare analys. För att analysera årsvariationerna jämfördes variationen i vattenförbrukningen mellan områden med olika förbrukartyper under åren 2013 och 2014. Vidare analyserades dygnsvariationen på motsvarande sätt genom att en medeldygnsförbrukning togs fram för de olika områdena. För att utreda hur vattenförbrukningen beror av temperatur användes korrelation- och regressionsanalys och för analys av medelålderns påverkan på vattenförbrukningen jämfördes ett medeldygn av ett område med väldigt hög medelålder med övriga områden. Resultatet av analysen på vattenförbrukningens variation under ett år och under ett medeldygn blev att inget samband kunde ses för områden med samma förbrukartyp. Vidare visade resultatet av medelålderns påverkan på vattenförbrukningen att området med hög medelålder (80 år) i alla fall hade högre förbrukning än de övriga områdena och att dess variation skiljde sig anmärkningsvärt jämfört med de andra områdena. Regressions- och korrelationsanalysen visade att vattenförbrukning har en positiv korrelation med temperaturen i alla områden mellan mars och september. Starkast var korrelationen i maj till och med juli och trenden var att korrelationen i villaområdet var starkare än i områden med flerbostadshus som förbrukartyp. 

  • 5.
    Ahlberg, Jesper
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Biogeofysik.
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Biogeofysik.
    Distributed snow modelling integrating ground penetrating radar data for improved runoff predictions in a Swedish mountain basin2009Ingår i: EGU General Assembly 2009, 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational forecasts of snow melt runoff in Sweden are currently running with precipitation and temperature as the main input variables and calibrated with runoff data, and there is an interest to make better use of new measurement systems for distributed snow data. At the same time, various data assimilation techniques are becoming more frequently used in hydrological modeling, in order to reduce uncertainties related to both model structure errors and errors in input and calibration data. Thus, it is important to address not only what type of snow data that can be used to improve the model predictions, but also what type of input data and model structures that are optimal in relation to the available snow data. The objective of this study is to investigate to what extent the runoff predictions can be improved by assimilation of temporal and spatially distributed snow data, and if the improvements depend on the choice of model structures, for instance the use of energy balance or day-degree snow models. In order to achieve these objectives a new distributed snow model has been implemented into the hydrological modeling framework HYSS/HYPE. This model can easily be setup with either an energy balance model or a day-degree model for the snow pack calculations, and it is easy to run the model with different spatial resolutions. In the fully distributed case, snow drift processes are implicitly included in the model through a precipitation distribution model, based on topographical information and wind direction. The model was applied to a mountain basin in northern Sweden used for hydropower production, where extensive snow measurements were taken during the last two winters 2007-2009. A climate station is located at the outlet of the regulation lake, including automated point measurements of snow depth, snow mass (snow pillow), snow wetness and snow temperature. Distributed snow cover data was sampled using ground-penetrating radar from snow mobiles. Measurements were taken at the time of the maximum snow cover, providing a data set with snow depth, snow density, snow water equivalent along 20 km long transects in representative areas of the basin. The precipitation distribution model was calibrated using the distributed SWE data from the GPR measurements. Application of the calibrated model to previous years without available snow data show that the runoff predictions was improved compared to calibrations without the distributed snow data, however the improvements were larger for the energy balance compared to the day-degree model. Further developments will include assimilation of the temporal and spatial snow data to adjust the distribution of various input variables, for instance air temperature and wind speed.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, K. Matin
    et al.
    Univ Dhaka, Dept Geol.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hasan, Md. Aziz
    Univ Dhaka, Dept Geol.
    Akhter, S. Humayun
    Univ Dhaka, Dept Geol.
    Alam, S. M. Mahbub
    Univ Dhaka, Dept Geol.
    Bhuyian, M. A. Hossain
    Univ Dhaka, Dept Geol.
    Imam, M. Badrul
    Univ Dhaka, Dept Geol.
    Khan, Aftab A.
    Univ Dhaka, Dept Geol.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Mineral Petrol & Geochem.
    Arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the alluvial aquifers in Bangladesh: an overview2004Ingår i: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 181-200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic in the groundwater of Bangladesh is a serious natural calamity and a public health hazard. Most groundwater from the shallow alluvial aquifers (<150 m), particularly in the Holocene plain lands, are vulnerable to As-enrichment. Delta plains and flood plains of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system are moderately to severely enriched and more than 60% of the tube wells are affected. Shallow aquifers in the Meghna river basin and coastal plains are extremely enriched with more than 80% of the tube wells affected. Aquifers in the Pleistocene uplands and Tertiary hills are low in As. The vertical lithofacies sequence of the sediments from highly enriched areas of the country show two distinct lithofacies associations-a dominantly sandy channel-fill association and a fine-grained over bank association. The sediments can be grouped into 4 distinct lithofacies, viz. clay, silty clay, silty sand and sand. Thin section petrography of the As-enriched aquifer sands shows that the sands are of quartzolithic type and derived from the collision suture and fold thrust belt of the recycled orogen provenance. Groundwater is characterized by circum-neutral pH with a moderate to strong reducing nature. The waters are generally of Ca-Mg-HCO3 or Ca-Na-HCO3 type, with HCO3- as the principal anion. Low SO42- and NO3-, and high dissolved organic C (DOC) and NH4+ concentrations are typical chemical characteristics of groundwater. The presence of dissolved sulfides in these groundwaters indicates reduction Of SO4. Total As concentration in the analyzed wells vary between 2.5 and 846 mug l(-1) with a dominance of As(III) species (67-99%). Arsenic(III) concentrations were fairly consistent with the DOC and NH4+ contents. The HNO3 extractable concentrations of As (As-NO3) in the sediments (0.5-17.7 mg kg(-1)), indicate a significant positive correlation with Fe-NO3, Mn-NO3, Al-NO3 and P-NO3. The concentrations Of S-NO3 (816-1306 mg kg(-1)) peaked in the clay sediments with high organic matter (up to 4.5 wt.%). Amounts of oxalate extractable As (As..) and Fe (Fe x) ranged between 0.1-8.6 mg kg(-1) and 0.4-5.9 g kg(-1), respectively. Arsenic(ox) was positively correlated with Fe-ox, Mn-ox, and Al-ox in these sediments. Insignificant amounts of opaque minerals (including pyrite/arsenopyrite) and the presence of high As contents in finer sediments suggests that some As is incorporated in the authigenically precipitated sulfides in the reducing sediments. Moreover, the chemical extractions suggest the presence of siderite and vivianite as solid phases, which may control the aqueous chemistry of Fe and PO43-. Reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide present as coatings on sand grains as well as altered mica (biotite) is envisaged as the main mechanism for the release of As into groundwater in the sandy aquifer sediments.

  • 7.
    Alderman, Carin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattendragsteknik.
    Andersson, Sophia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattendragsteknik.
    Cavitation assessment of the Baihetan discharge tunnel – Using Computational Fluid Dynamics2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently it has become more common in the construction of large dams to reuse diversion tunnels as flood discharge tunnels in the final structure. These tunnels handle large flows with the characteristics of open channel flow. When such large hydrological forces act upon a structure there are several problems to be expected. One of these is the occurrence of cavitation, which could have potential hazardous erosion as a consequence. Cavitation is the formation and collapse of bubbles that create a shockwave strong enough to erode the underlying material.

    The Baihetan dam is one of the largest hydro power projects in China at present. It has three discharge tunnels that all run the risk of developing cavitation damages. By modelling one of the tunnels using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it is possible to investigate where in the tunnel structure cavitation is likely to occur.

    This degree project assesses the risk of cavitation erosion in the Baihetan tunnel using the static pressure distribution, the velocity distribution and modern cavitation theory. Several modifications of the tunnel – including alterations in the gradient and construction parameters – are simulated in order to investigate if changes in the design can mitigate the cavitation problem. None of the analysed modifications completely eliminate the problem and aeration is recommended to counteract the problem. This study indicates where cavitation might be a problem in the Baihetan tunnel and can be used as a basis for further research.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Josefin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Hållbar Dagvattenhantering på Kvartersmark: En utvärdering av hur väl den planerade dagvattenhanteringen fungerar i verkligheten2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagvattenhantering på kvartersmark står inför stora utmaningar. Klimatförändringar medför ändrade nederbördsmönster med intensivare skyfall som i kombination med en allt högre exploateringsgrad ökar risken för översvämningar och dess negativa konsekvenser. EU:s ramdirektiv för vatten och beslutade miljökvalitetsnormer anger att god status ska uppnås i samtliga vattenförekomster. Införande av Weserdomen resulterar i en strängare tolkning av försämringsförbudet, som råder vid statusklassificeringen, vilket i sin tur gör att befintlig dagvattensituation inte får försämras. Detta gör att planeringsskede, anläggning och faktisk funktion hos implementerade dagvattenlösningar fått ett allt mer hållbart fokus.

     

    Detta examensarbete är av vikt då det identifierar problem i plan- och byggprocessen samt belyser hur dessa kan undvikas för att uppnå en mer hållbar dagvattenhantering i framtiden. En utvärdering är utförd i form av intervjuer och litteraturstudie samt dagvattenmodellering i modelleringsverktyget StormTac av två fallstudier. Resultat visar att kommunikation, otydliga direktiv, bristfällig utformning och skötsel av dagvattenanläggningar är orsaker till att dagvattenhanteringen inte uppnår rening- och flödesutjämningsbehov enligt miljömål och – krav.

     

    Resultat från modellering av dagvattensituationen före exploatering sattes som referensvärden som inte får överskridas vid modellering av området efter exploatering, för att befintlig dagvattensituation skulle säkerställas att inte försämras. Resultat av modellering efter exploatering överskred referensvärden i båda fallstudierna och därmed modellerades scenarier med dagvattenhanteringsförslag för att uppnå målsättning.

     

    StormTac fungerar som ett verktyg för att jämföra flödes- och föroreningsbelastning före och efter exploatering, förutsatt att samma markanvändningstyper används. Val av markanvändning bör ses över och osäkerheter hos resulterande flödes- och föroreningsmängder bör tas hänsyn till.

  • 9.
    Annaduzzaman, Md
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Chitosan biopolymer as an adsorbent for drinking water treatment: Investigation on Arsenic and Uranium2015Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I många länder världen runt (även i Sverige) orsakar metallers toxicitet besvärliga vattenkvalitetsproblem och utgör ett hot mot människors hälsa. Bland de toxiska metaller som finns i svenska vatten utgör arsenik och uran i dricksvatten allvarliga hälsorisker vid långvarig exposition då de kan orsaka cancer och neurologiska problem. Flertalet brunnar är installerade i kristallint berg och sedimentära bergarter och vattnet kommer vanligen från sprickor i berggrunden. Hanteringen av sådant vatten kan kräva reduktion av expositionen för arsenik- och uraninnehåll genom förbättrade processer och teknologier. Detta är ett angeläget problem som kräver en säker, pålitlig och ekovänlig teknologi att tillämpas innan vattnet distribueras. En rad olika behandlingssystem är tillgängliga men många av dem är inte lämpliga beroende på deras höga kostnad, den komplicerade tillämpningen och problem med hanteringen av restprodukter. I denna studie has biopolymeren chitosan, den näst vanligaste polymeren efter cellulosa, konstaterats vara en möjlig adsorbent för att avlägsna arsenik(V) och uran(VI) från vatten. Karakterisering av adsorbenten har också genomförts genom XRD, FTIR, SEM, UV och strålning i synligt ljus samt TGA/DTA undersökningar. Batch-tester i bänkskala har genomförts med användning av chitosan (DDA-85%) som adsorbent för att bestämma dess förmåga att avlägsna arsenik(V) och uran(VI)genom att variera fyra parametrar, nämligen kontakttid, pH, dos av chitosan och halt av föroreningen. Adsorptionsdata vid optimala förhållanden bestämdes genom tillämpning av Langmuir, Freundlich och Dubinin-Radushkhevic (D-R) isotermerna. Vidare tillämpades Lagergrens pseudo-first-order och pseudo-second-order kinetiska modell för att undersöka adsorptionsprocessen. Karakteriseringen av materialet visade förefintligheten av effektiva amino- (N-H), hydroxyl- (O-H) samt karboxylgrupper (C=O) i chitosan-polysackariden och att det är lätt nedbrytbart. Preliminära resultat visar att reduktionen av arsenik(V) och uran(VI) var 100 respektive 97,45 % efter 300 minuters kontakttid med optimalt pH på 6,0 respektive 7,0. De optimala doserna av adsorbent och den initiala koncentrationen var 60 och 80 g/L och 100 och 250 µg/L. Adsorptions process beskrevs bäst av Freundlich-isotermen för arsenik(V) (R2 = 0.9933) och med Langmuir-isotermen för uran(VI) (R2 = 0,9858) jämfört med andra isotermer vilket var en viktig indikation på en homogen monolager-adsorption. För både arsenik(V) och uran(VI) beskrev pseudo-second order adsorptionen bättre än pseudo-first-order. Second-order kinetiska regressionskoefficienten (R2) var 0.9959 och 0.9872 respektive. De ovanstående resultaten visar sammanfattningsvis att chitosan (DDA-85%) kan användas som en billig, pålitlig och miljövänlig behandlingsmetod av vatten för arsenik(V) och uran(VI).

  • 10.
    Arregul, Ane
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Innovative solutions for odours reduction from wastewater treatment.2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 11.
    Axelsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattendragsteknik.
    Knutsson, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattendragsteknik.
    Numerical modeling of a slotted flip bucket spillway system – The Shibuya Hydropower Project. 2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    CFD is today a big part of the design process in hydraulic engineering and is more economical and time efficient than traditional scale models. But, there are still issues concerning the agreement with scale models in large and complex geometries.

    In this degree project a high head, five channeled, slotted flip bucket spillway system is analyzed with the CFD software FLUENT and compared with existing scale model results.

    The sought hydraulic parameters in each channel were the discharge capacity, the pressure distribution and the throw distance from the flip buckets.

    The discharge capacity and pressure distribution was practically equal for all five channels and only the throw distance from Channel 1 deviated from the others. The agreement with data from the scale model is quite low.

    The biggest error sources behind the bad agreement may depend on the lack of computational power which led to bad choice of cell size, model delimitations and simplifications.

    CFD models can easily be built up by people without experience in hydraulics which can lead to fatal errors when building up the model and interpreting results. Hence, long experience in CFD or verification of the numerical results with several different hydraulic parameters is the only way to guarantee qualitative results from CFD modeling.

  • 12. Bakowska, A
    et al.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Medrzycka, K
    Influence of sulphanilamide in wastewater on Anammox process performance2006Ingår i: Water and Environmental Management Series / [ed] Stuetz, R., Teik-Thye, L., London: IWA Publishing, 2006, s. 69-76Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Bakyayita Kizito, Grace
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Equilibrium and Kinetic Batch Studies of Cadmium and Lead sorption using Low Cost Biosorbents2014Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural wastes; Albizia coriaria, Coffea canephora, Cyperus papyrus, Erythrina abyssinica and Musa spp were evaluated for uptake of aqueous Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions in single- and binary-component solutions. Untreated, base-treated and peroxide-treated biomasses were employed in batch studies. The optimal conditions for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions biosorption were  pH 3.5 – 5 for contact time 3.0 – 3.5 hours and biosorbent dosage 10 – 12.5 g/L. Base-treated biosorbents showed a 10 – 17 %  sorption enhancement for Cd2+ ions and a 1.6 – 2.3 % uptake reduction for Pb2+ ions. The sorption capacities for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions for base-treated biosorbents were between 1.738 and 1.760 mg g-1 compared to 1.415 – 1.539 mg g-1 for untreated materials. The maximum biosorption of peroxide treated materials in single component media was between 0.819 and 1.595 mg/g for Pb2+ ions and between 0.044 and 1.343 mg/g for Cd2+ ions while in binary component media it was between 0.472 and 1.303 mg/g for Pb2+ ions and between 0.008 and 0.195 mg/g for Cd2+ ions. The pseudo-second order kinetic model suitably fitted the Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions biosorption data with regression coefficients (R2); 0.892 – 1.000 for peroxide-treated materials and 0.9784 – 0.9999 for base-treated biosorbents which implied that the biosorption was mainly a chemisorption process. The base treated biosorbents had better sorption performance for Cd2+ ions than peroxide treated materials and untreated biomass whereas the order for Pb2+ ions biosorption was untreated > base treated > peroxide treated materials. All materials showed superior selectivity for Pb2+ ions biosorption in comparison to that of Cd2+ ions in single- and binary-component media. A. coriaria performed best of the base treated biosorbents while C. canephora performed best amongst peroxide treated materials for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions biosorption in single-and binary-component media. In the competitive biosorption, Cd2+ ions showed higher synergistic effects than Pb2+ ions although Pb2+ ions were preferentially sequestered even when the Cd2+:Pb2+ ions ratio was increased through 3:2, 2:1, 3:1 and 5:1. Of the three isotherm models evaluated against the experimental data, the Langmuir model generally fitted the sorption data for both metals. Regression coefficients for the Langmuir model were; 0.983 ≤ R2 ≥ 1.000 for single-component and 0.939 ≤ R2 ≥ 1.000 for binary-component solutions which revealed that the biosorption was potentially monolayer. The biosorption equilibrium coefficient                          values and change in Gibbs’ free energy  values showed that Pb2+ ions biosorption was more thermodynamically favoured than that of Cd2+ ions in single-component and binary-component media. The materials studied displayed potential for use as biosorbents for remediation of aqueous Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions.

  • 14.
    Bakyayita Kizito, Grace
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kulabako, Robinah
    2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University, Uganda.
    Nalubega, Mai
    Water and Sanitation Department, African Development Bank, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Equilibrium batch studies for biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from single-and binary-component aqueous mediaManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Bakyayita Kizito, Grace
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Nalubega, Mai
    Water and Sanitation Department, African Development Bank, Tunis.
    Robinah, Kulabako
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University, Uganda .
    Kinetic studies of Cd (II) and Pb (II) ions biosorption from aqueous media using untreated and chemically treated biosorbents2014Ingår i: Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, ISSN 1606-9749, E-ISSN 1607-0798, Vol. 69, nr 11, s. 2230-2236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Untreated and chemically treated Albizia coriaria, Erythrina abyssinica and Musa spp were studied in batch for uptake of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions at pH 2.0–9.0 and agitation time; 30–390 min. Optimum biosorption conditions were; pH 4 for Pb2+ ions and pH 5 for Cd2+ ions, contact time was 3.5 hours at 24 ± 1 °C for 10 mg/L biosorbent dosage and initial metal ions concentration of 20 mg/L. Chemical treatment had a 10–17% biosorption efficiency enhancement for Cd2+ ions and a 1.6–2.3% reduction effect for Pb2+ ions. The sorption capacities for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions for treated biosorbents were between 1.760–1.738 mg g−1 compared to 1.415–1.539 mg g−1 for untreated materials. The pseudo second order model suitably fitted the Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions biosorption data with regression coefficients (R2) between 0.9784–0.9999. Fitting of the Ho model to the experimental data showed that the biosorption mechanism for both metal ions studied was mainly a chemisorption process. Therefore, treated A. coriaria, E. abyssinica and Musa spp were potential biosorbents for remediation of Cd2+ ions and the untreated materials suitable for removing Pb2+ ions from contaminated aqueous media.

  • 16.
    Baresel, Christian
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Environmental management of water systems under uncertainty2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrological drainage/river basins constitute highly heterogeneous systems of coupled natural and anthropogenic water and pollutant flows across political, national and international boundaries. These flows need to be appropriately understood, quantified and communicated to stakeholders, in order to appropriately guide environmental water system management. In this thesis, various uncertainties about water and pollutant flows in drainage/river basins and their implications for effective and efficient water pollution abatement are investigated, in particular for mine-related heavy metal loadings in the Swedish Dalälven River basin and for nitrogen loadings in the Swedish Norrström drainage basin. Economic cost-minimization modeling is used to investigate the implications of pollutant load uncertainties for the cost-efficiency of catchment-scale abatement of water pollution.

    Results indicate that effective and efficient pollution abatement requires explicit consideration of uncertainties about pollution sources, diffuse contributions of the subsurface water system to downstream pollutant observations in surface waters, and downstream effects of different possible measures to reduce water pollution. In many cases, downstream load abatement measures must be used, in addition to source abatement, in order to reduce not only expected, but also uncertainties around expected pollutant loads. Effective and efficient environmental management of water systems must generally also consider the entire catchments of these systems, rather than focusing only on discrete pollutant sources. The thesis presents some relatively simple, catchment-scale pollutant flow analysis tools that may be used to decrease uncertainties about unmonitored water and pollutant flows and subsurface pollutant accumulation-depletion and diffuse loading to downstream waters.

  • 17.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Diffuse subsurface zinc loads from mining areas in the Dalälven River Basin, Sweden2009Ingår i: Hydrology Research, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 40, nr 5, s. 445-453Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The zinc load from the Dalalven River to the Baltic Sea is greater than for any other watercourse in Sweden. This paper investigates zinc mass flows into and through the Dalalven River from major mining areas within its drainage basin. Reported zinc mass flow data for this river are re-analyzed using an input-output flow analysis approach. Results show major inconsistencies in previous data interpretations which totally neglected possible zinc mass load contributions from the groundwater system to the river. This paper quantifies significant subsurface zinc load contributions that are consistent with all independently available data. Furthermore, a possible explanation for why these subsurface contributions may have been missed in previous studies and by the prevailing Swedish environmental monitoring system is provided. The study indicates that the input-output flow analysis approach may be generally useful for identifying and quantifying diffuse, unmonitored and uncertain pollutant load contributions from ground- to surface water systems.

  • 18.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Estimating subsurface nitrogen accumulation–depletion in catchments by input–output flow analysis2006Ingår i: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, ISSN 1474-7065, E-ISSN 1873-5193, Vol. 31, nr 17, s. 1030-1037Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use input-output analysis of nitrogen flows between various sources-sectors and natural waters in the Swedish Norrstrom drainage basin for investigating and bounding the implication range of some uncertainty sources for results of subsurface nitrogen accumulation-depletion in this basin. We quantify different possible base and extreme assumptions of nitrogen discharges and transport pathways from agriculture to surface and groundwater in the basin. The results are robust in showing considerable nitrogen accumulation-depletion flow interactions taking place between the basin's mobile water and accumulated nitrogen pools in soils, sediments and/or relatively immobile subsurface water zones for all different scenario assumptions. Similar scenario robustness is also found in resulting relative contributions of different active nitrogen source-sectors to nitrogen flows in natural water systems. In the Norrstrom basin, and possibly more generally, nitrogen accumulation-depletion flows to and from accumulated legacies for the future or from the past appear therefore to be more important for water quality than current nitrogen discharges from active source-sectors.

  • 19.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Novel Quantification of Coupled Natural and Cross-Sectoral Water and Nutrient/Pollutant Flows for Environmental Management.2005Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, nr 16, s. 6182-6190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human water use and anthropogenic water pollution and ecosystem deterioration have increased so much that it is now a strategic challenge to maximize benefits from various possible water uses, while ensuring that basic human needs are met and the environment is protected. We propose and develop a novel use of input-output flow analysis as a relatively simple, compact and powerful tool for quantification of coupled natural and cross-sectoral flows of water, nutrients, and pollutants in catchments. The tool quantifies implications of various environmental regulation and management scenarios for both natural water systems and engineered-economic systems and sectors that use and impact natural waters for meeting human needs. Specific case study application to water and nitrogen flows in the Swedish Norrstrom drainage basin indicates considerable nitrogen load contributions to surface and coastal waters from slow groundwater flow paths and legacies of accumulated nitrogen in subsurface and immobile water pools. This implies that effective nitrogen load abatement cannot focus only on active sources but must also include downstream measures, which can capture and abate nitrogen/pollutant loading from different types of known and yet unknown point and diffuse sources within associated catchments.

  • 20.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Subsurface Water System Contributions to Surface Water Zinc Loads in Mining AreasManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Uncertainty-Accounting Environmental Policy and Management of Water Systems2007Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, nr 10, s. 3635-3659Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policies for water quality and ecosystem management do not commonly require explicit stochastic accounts of uncertainty and risk associated with the quantification and prediction of waterborne pollutant loads and abatement effects. In this study, we formulate and investigate a possible environmental policy that does require an explicit stochastic uncertainty account. We compare both the environmental and economic resource allocation performance of such an uncertainty-accounting environmental policy with that of deterministic, risk-prone and risk-averse environmental policies under a range of different hypothetical, yet still possible, scenarios. The comparison indicates that a stochastic uncertainty-accounting policy may perform better than deterministic policies over a range of different scenarios. Even in the absence of reliable site-specific data, reported literature values appear to be useful for such a stochastic account of uncertainty.

  • 22.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    The influence of metal source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of mine water pollution abatement in catchments2006Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 78, nr 2, s. 138-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In mine water pollution abatement, it is commonly assumed that known mine waste sites are the major pollution sources, thus neglecting the possibility of significant contribution from other old and diffuse sources within a catchment. We investigate the influence of different types of pollution source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of abatement measures for mine water pollution. A catchment-scale cost-minimization model is developed and applied to the catchment of the river Dalalven, Sweden, in order to exemplify important effects of such source uncertainty. Results indicate that, if the pollution distribution between point and diffuse sources is partly unknown, downstream abatement measures, such as constructed wetlands, at given compliance boundaries are often cost-effective. If downstream abatement measures are not practically feasible, the pollution source distribution between point and diffuse mine water sources is critical for cost-effective solutions to abatement measure allocation in catchments. In contrast, cost-effective solutions are relatively insensitive to uncertainty in total pollutant discharge from mine water sources.

  • 23.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Larsén, Karin
    Destouni, Georgia
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Economic Analysis of Mine Water Pollution Abatement in a Catchment2004Ingår i: Mine Water and the Environment, ISSN 1025-9112, E-ISSN 1616-1068, Vol. 1, s. 57-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Basirat, Farzad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattendragsteknik.
    CO2 leakage in a Geological Carbon Sequestration system: Scenario development and analysis.2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to study the leakage of CO2 in a Geological Carbon Sequestration (GCS) system. To define the GCS system, a tool that is known as an FEP database was used. FEPs are the features, processes and events that develop scenarios for the goal of the study. Combinations of these FEPs can produce thousands of scenarios. However, among all of these scenarios, some are more important than others for leakage. The FEPs that were used as scenario developers were the formation of the liquid flow, the salinity of the formation liquid, diffusion as a process for gas bubble transport and the depth of the reservoir layer. In this study, the leakage path is considered as the presence of a fracture in sealed caprock. The fractures can be modeled using various approaches. Here, I represented the influence of fracture modeling by applying the Equivalent Continuum Method (ECM) and the Dual-Porosity and Multi-continuum methods to leakage. This study suggests that considering groundwater in the aquifer would reduce the leakage of CO2 and that a shallower formation leads to higher leakage. This study can be expanded to future studies by including external FEPs that are related to the FEPs that were used in this study.

  • 25. Battaleb-Looie, S.
    et al.
    Moore, F.
    Malde, M. K.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Fluoride in groundwater, dates and wheat: Estimated exposure dose in the population of Bushehr, Iran2013Ingår i: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, ISSN 0889-1575, E-ISSN 1096-0481, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 94-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to estimate the daily fluoride intake for residents of Bushehr province in southern Iran by determining their exposure to fluoride through consumption of drinking water, dates and wheat. The fluoride concentration of drinking water in this region varies between 0.5 and 3.0mg/L, with an average of 1.6mg/L; and 44.4% of the drinking water exceed the guideline value of 1.5mg/L recommended by WHO. The average fluoride content of dates is 10.0mg/kg; whereas wheat roots and shoots contain an average of 30.0 and 19.0mgF-/kg, respectively. The estimated intake from drinking water is 0.12mg/kg/d for children (20kg body weight) and 0.05mg/kg/d for adults (70kg body weight). The total estimated fluoride intake (from drinking water and dates) for children is 0.17mg/kg/d. Thus, dates contribute an average 30% to the daily fluoride intake in the population. The maximum estimated fluoride intake (from dates and drinking water) for children and adults are 3.4 and 1.6 times higher, respectively, than the minimum risk level of 0.05mg/kg/d calculated by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

  • 26.
    Bertino, Andrea
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Study on one-stage Partial Nitritation-Anammox process in Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors: a sustainable nitrogen removal.2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade, several novel and cost-effective biological nitrogen removal technologies have been developed. The discovery of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), about 15 years ago, has resulted in new opportunities for research and development of sustainable nitrogen removal systems. Compared to conventional nitrification/denitrification, Anammox eliminates necessity of external organic carbon source, has a smaller production of excess sludge, reduces energy demand for aeration (up to 60-90%) and CO2 emissions (up to 90%). Systems based on Anammox can be of great help to comply with stricter wastewater discharge regulations and reduce environmental problems caused by nutrients discharges (e.g. eutrophication).

    This thesis investigates the partial nitritation/Anammox in one stage system under oxygen limited condi-tions (also called CANON or Deammonification) and with the Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR™) technology. Anammox process coupled with partial nitritation can be particularly suitable to treat ammo-nium-rich wastewater with low content of biodegradable organic matter, such as the reject water from dewatering of digested sludge, which is usually recirculated back to the main stream of wastewater treat-ment plants, accounting for the 15-20% of the total nitrogen load.

    Partial nitritation/Anammox process was successfully tested on a pilot plant scale for four months at 25°C, in a 200 L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), filled with 40% of Kaldnes media (model K1). At an Ammonium Surface Load (ASL) of 3.45 gN m-2d-1, the removal rate was about 2.85 gN m-2d-1. Removal efficiencies of 95%, 85% and 83% were respectively achieved for NH4+-N, inorganic nitrogen, and Total Nitrogen (TN). Bacteria activity was followed by batch tests such as Specific Anammox Activity (SAA), Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) and Nitrate Uptake Rate (NUR), which revealed an increase in activi-ty for Nitrosomonas and Anammox bacteria within the biofilm. Dissolved oxygen concentration in the bulk liquid was a crucial parameter, whereas pH and conductivity turned out to be two useful monitoring tools.

    Two laboratory-scale reactors were previously run for two months each, in order to evaluate the one-stage partial nitritation/Anammox process with a lower ASL. One reactor was fed with diluted reject water, whereas the other one treated the effluent from UASB (Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor after sand filtration. Fairly good efficiency (>75%) were reached but, however, in the last case the low ammo-nium nitrogen load could represent a problem for a stable full-scale installation and long-term growth of Anammox bacteria.

    Some suggestions for full-scale implementation and further research are proposed in the last chapter of this master thesis.

  • 27. Bhowmick, S.
    et al.
    Nath, B.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Majumder, S.
    Mondal, P.
    Chakraborty, S.
    Nriagu, J.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Iglesias, M.
    Roman-Ross, G.
    Guha Mazumder, D.
    Bundschuh, J.
    Chatterjee, D.
    Arsenic mobilization in the aquifers of three physiographic settings of West Bengal, India: Understanding geogenic and anthropogenic influences2013Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 262, s. 915-923Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative hydrogeochemical study was carried out in West Bengal, India covering three physiographic regions, Debagram and Chakdaha located in the Bhagirathi-Hooghly alluvial plain and Baruipur in the delta front, to demonstrate the control of geogenic and anthropogenic influences on groundwater arsenic (As) mobilization. Groundwater samples (n=90) from tube wells were analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters. The low redox potential (Eh=-185 to -86mV) and dominant As(III) and Fe(II) concentrations are indicative of anoxic nature of the aquifer. The shallow (&lt;100m) and deeper (&gt;100m) aquifers of Bhagirathi-Hooghly alluvial plains as well as shallow aquifers of delta front are characterized by Ca2+HCO3 - type water, whereas Na+ and Cl- enrichment is found in the deeper aquifer of delta front. The equilibrium of groundwater with respect to carbonate minerals and their precipitation/dissolution seems to be controlling the overall groundwater chemistry. The low SO4 2- and high DOC, PO4 3- and HCO3 - concentrations in groundwater signify ongoing microbial mediated redox processes favoring As mobilization in the aquifer. The As release is influenced by both geogenic (i.e. geomorphology) and anthropogenic (i.e. unsewered sanitation) processes. Multiple geochemical processes, e.g., Fe-oxyhydroxides reduction and carbonate dissolution, are responsible for high As occurrence in groundwaters.

  • 28. Bhowmick, Subhamoy
    et al.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Kundu, Amit Kumar
    Saha, Debasree
    Iglesias, Monica
    Nriagu, Jerome
    Mazumder, Debendra Nath Guha
    Roman-Ross, Gabriela
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Is Saliva a Potential Biomarker of Arsenic Exposure?: A Case-Control Study in West Bengal, India2013Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 7, s. 3326-3332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Saliva is a biological fluid that has not been used extensively as a biomonitoring tool in epidemiological studies. This study presents the arsenic (As) concentrations in saliva and urine samples collected from populations of West Bengal, India who had been previously exposed to high As levels in their drinking water. We found a significant (p < 0.05) association between the Log transformed Daily Ingestion of As (mu g day(-1)) and the As concentration in saliva (r = 0.68). Additionally, As concentration of saliva and urine also had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). Male participants, smokers, and cases of skin lesion were independently and significantly associated with an increase in salivary As. Thus our findings show that saliva is a useful biomarker of As exposure in the study population. The study also advocates that measurement of the forms of As in saliva may additionally provide insight into the internal dose and any individual differences in susceptibility to As exposure.

  • 29.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Majumder, Santanu
    Neidhardt, Harald
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhowmick, Subhamoy
    Mukherjee-Goswami, Aishwarya
    Kundu, Amit
    Saha, Debasree
    Berner, Zsolt
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Groundwater chemistry and redox processes: Depth dependent arsenic release mechanism2011Ingår i: APPLIED GEOCHEMISTRY, 2011, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 516-525Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patchy occurrences of elevated As are often encountered in groundwater from the shallow aquifers (<50 m) of the Bengal Delta Plain (BDP). A clear understanding of various biogeochemical processes, responsible for As mobilization, is very important to explain this patchy occurrence and thus to mitigate the problem. The present study deals with the periodical monitoring of groundwater quality of five nested piezometeric wells between December 2008 and July 2009 to investigate the temporal changes in groundwater chemistry vis-a-vis the prevalent redox processes in the aquifer. Geochemical modeling has been carried out to identify key phases present in groundwater. A correlation study among different aqueous redox parameters has also been performed to evaluate prevailing redox processes in the aquifer. The long term monitoring of hydrochemical parameters in the multilevel wells together with hydrogeochemical equilibrium modeling has shown more subtle differences in the geochemical environment of the aquifer, which control the occurrence of high dissolved As in BDP groundwater. The groundwater is generally of Ca-HCO3 type. The dissolved As concentration in groundwater exceeded both WHO and National drinking water standard (Bureau of Indian Standards; BIS, 10 mu g L-1) throughout the sampling period. The speciation of As and Fe indicate persistent reducing conditions within the aquifer [As(III): 87-97% of As-T and Fe(II): 76-96% of Fe-T]. The concentration of major aqueous solutes is relatively high in the shallow aquifer (wells A and B) and gradually decreases with increasing depth in most cases. The calculation of SI indicates that groundwater in the shallow aquifer is also relatively more saturated with carbonate minerals. This suggests that carbonate mineral dissolution is possibly influencing the groundwater chemistry and thereby controlling the mobilization of As in the monitored shallow aquifer. Hydrogeochemical investigation further suggests that Fe and/or Mn oxyhydroxide reduction is the principal process of As release in groundwater from deeper screened piezometric wells. The positive correlations of U and V with As. Fe and Mn indicate redox processes responsible for mobilization of As in the deeper screened piezometric wells are possibly microbially mediated. Thus, the study advocates that mobilization of As is depth dependent and concentrations of As in groundwater depends on single/combined release mechanisms.

  • 30.
    Blix, Annika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Enhancing the capacity of seeds as turbidity removal agents in water treatment.: A Minor Field Study.2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this master’s thesis was to investigate if defattening of Parkinsonia aculeata (in

    swahili “mkeketa”) and Vigna unguiculata (in swahili “choroko”) would enhance the capacity of the seed’s properties in removing suspended particles from surface water. The seeds are used in local traditional treatment of drinking water in Tanzania. The aim was also to investigate the possibility to reduce high concentrations of fluoride with the seeds. The seeds contain proteins that act as coagulants. Coagulated particulate matter can be flocculated and separated from the water. A purification of the coagulants by defattening was expected to enhance the coagulating capacity. Experiments were conducted in jar-tests with dosages of coagulant solutions of undefattening and defattened seed solutions and alum (aluminium sulphate). The experiments showed that both Parkinsonia aculeata and Vigna unguiculata seeds can compete with alum in drinking water treatment of surface water, reaching the same or better final results in turbidity removal. Both seeds also produce less sludge volumes than alum and functions in turbidity removal together with alum. The seeds may be used as coagulant aids to reduce the usage of chemicals and sludge production. They were not able to clarify turbid waste water and did not reduce high concentrations of fluoride in groundwater. Further, the turbidity-removal capacity of the coagulants had reduced capacities in water with low pH-values.

  • 31.
    Boberg, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattendragsteknik.
    Holm, David
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattendragsteknik.
    FEM modeling of concrete gravity dams.2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 32.
    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Marion, Andrea
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Zaramella, Mattia
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Modellazione a tempi di residenza del trasporto di soluti nei corsi d'acqua: Applicazione al fiume Yarqon, Israele2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [it]

    Il trasporto di soluti nei corsi d’acqua è controllato dall’idrodinamica superficiale e da scambi di massa con distinte zone di ritenzione. La propagazione a valle delle sostanze trasportate è generalmente ritardata dall’immagazzinamento temporaneo in zone morte superficiali, tipicamente zone vegetate o sacche di ritenzione laterali, e nei sedimenti sottostanti, nella cosiddetta zona iporeica. In questo articolo viene presentato un modello concettuale per il trasporto di soluti nei corsi d’acqua (STIR, Solute Transport In Rivers) nel quale i singoli processi di scambio sono rappresentati separatamente da una probabilità di “uptake” e da un’appropriata distribuzione dei tempi di residenza. Ciò rende il modello flessibile e modulare, e consente di incorporare l’effetto di una varietà di processi d’immagazzinamento e reazioni chimiche in modo dettagliato. La capacità del modello di rappresentare situazioni reali è qui dimostrata dall’applicazione al fiume Yarqon, in Israele.

  • 33. Brandimarte, L.
    et al.
    D'Odorico, P.
    Montanari, A.
    A probabilistic approach to the analysis of contraction scour2006Ingår i: Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 44, nr 5, s. 654-662Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 34. Brandimarte, L.
    et al.
    Montanari, A.
    Briaud, J. -L
    D'Odorico, P.
    Stochastic flow analysis for predicting river scour of cohesive soils2006Ingår i: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 132, nr 5, s. 493-500Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Brandner, Hanna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Vattendragsteknik.
    Idenitfying the Influential Factors of the Temporal Variation of Water Consumption: A Case Study using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a part of the water development project conducted by Svenskt Vatten, which is the Swedish Water and Wastewater Association (SWWA) as well as Tyréns, a consultancy company with offices based in Stockholm, Sweden. Prior to this thesis work, a quality assessment was conducted for some of the locations provided by municipalities in Sweden. This thesis builds upon the revised water consumption data, and also continues to work with validating and modifying the water measurement data in order to proceed with the next step of the water development project, which is to identify any trends in the temporal variation of water consumption. The main objective of this thesis work is to investigate the influence of climatic, time-related and categorical factors on water consumption data collected for different regions in Sweden, and includes a number of different sectors such as residential, industrial and agricultural water user sectors. For the analysis of data, spectral analysis and sinusoidal modelling will be applied in order to find the periodicity of the data, and then simulate the fitted sinusoidal equation to the observed water consumption data for the hourly interval period. Multiple linear regression analysis is then used to assess what independent variables such as climate, time-related and categorical variables can explain the variation in water consumption over hourly and daily periods of time. 

    Spectral analysis identifies high peaks in the spectral density of the data at 12 and 24 hour cycles, for the hourly water consumption data. For the total daily consumption of water, there is a peak at 7 days, which clarifies that there is a weekly pattern occurring throughout the year. The results from the simple linear regression analysis, where the linear relationship between temperature and water consumption was determined, reveals that the water consumption tends to increase within an increasing temperature, where in Lönashult, Alvesta municipality the water demand increased by 5.5% with every 2 ºC rise in temperature, at a threshold of 12 ºC. For Kalix municipality the three areas selected have around 1-2 % increase in water demand with every 2 ºC rise in temperature for the period of May to December. In Gothenburg, areas that were mixed villa areas or areas with summer homes there was a rise of around 2-12 % in water demand, however areas that are situated in the inner city Gothenburg, or that have majority student housing, the water consumption tends to decrease by 2-7% in water demand with every 2 ºC rise in temperature, with a threshold of 12 ºC.

    In multiple regression analysis, the hourly water consumption results in adjusted R2 values were in the range from 0.58 to 0.87 (58-87%) for the best model approach and therefore has a significant relationship between water consumption and the explanatory variables chosen for this study. For the daily water consumption, the adjusted R2 values were in the range of 0.22-0.83 (22-83%).  The adjusted R2 values are lower for certain areas and can be explained by a number of factors, such as the different variables used for the daily water consumption analysis, as variables that explain more the periodicity of the data such as the sinusoidal fitted variable and hourly or night/day changes in consumption are not included. As well as this, not all independent variables such as the climate variables were available or complete for particular time periods, and also errors in the data can lead to a significantly lower R2 value. 

  • 36. Briaud, J. -L
    et al.
    Brandimarte, L.
    Wang, J.
    D’Odorico, P.
    Probability of scour depth exceedance owing to hydrologic uncertainty2007Ingår i: Georisk, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 77-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Brännström, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Lundgren, Elin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Metaller i Stockholms grundvatten: En studie om grundvattnets påverkan på ekosystem i ytvattnet2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stockholms grundvatten har sedan länge förorenats av utsläpp som följer av urbanisering av området. I nuläget används inte Stockholms grundvatten till dricksvattenförsörjning, det utvinns istället från ytvattnet i Mälaren. Grundvattnets tillstånd påverkar dock ytvattnet. För att nå miljökvalitetsmålen för grundvatten behövs bland annat mer kunskap om grundvattnets påverkan på ytvattnet. Således är syftet med studien att bidra med ytterligare kunskap huruvida förorening av Stockholms grundvatten, med avseende på förekomsten av metaller i grundvatten, kan ha skadliga effekter på ekosystem i ytvattenområden. Som underlag för detta användes data från undersökningar om grundvattenkvalitén i Stockholm, dessa är gjorda på uppdrag av Miljöförvaltningen Stockholmsstad. Studien utgår från 9 metaller som på flertalet platser förekommer i förhöjda halter - tillståndsklass 3-5 enligt bedömningsgrunder - eller för att de är toxiska. Utifrån föroreningsgrad bedömdes 8 provtagningsplatser med höga halter av dessa metaller vara relevanta för studien. Resultatet visar att föroreningsgraden och konsekvenserna på ekosystemen i ytvatten varierar mellan platserna, men kring flera provtagningsplatser finns risk för att förorenat grundvattnet kommer att påverka ekosystem i utströmningsområdena negativt. Denna studie bygger på data från en undersökning gjord 2012, ett mer gediget underlag skulle minska osäkerheten i det slutliga resultatet. Fler grundvattenundersökningar behövs för att fastställa resultatet av denna studie och likväl bidra till att öka kunskapen om grundvattnets kvalitet generellt. 

  • 38. Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hoinkis, Jan
    Kabay, Nalan
    Jean, Jiin-Shuh
    Litter, Marta I.
    Groundwater arsenic: From genesis to sustainable remediation2010Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 44, nr 19, s. 5511-5511Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Litter, Marta
    Ciminelli, Virginia S. T.
    Eugenia Morgada, Maria
    Cornejo, Lorena
    Hoyos, Sofia Garrido
    Hoinkis, Jan
    Teresa Alarcon-Herrera, Ma
    Aurora Armienta, Maria
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Emerging mitigation needs and sustainable options for solving the arsenic problems of rural and isolated urban areas in Latin America: A critical analysis2010Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 44, nr 19, s. 5828-5845Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, current information about the contamination of ground- and surface-water resources by arsenic from geogenic sources in Latin America is presented together with possible emerging mitigation solutions. The problem is of the same order of magnitude as other world regions, such as SE Asia, but it is often not described in English. Despite the studies undertaken by numerous local researchers, and the identification of proven treatment methods for the specific water conditions encountered, no technologies have been commercialized due to a current lack of funding and technical assistance. Emerging, low-cost technologies to mitigate the problem of arsenic in drinking water resources that are suitable for rural and urban areas lacking centralized water supplies have been evaluated. The technologies generally use simple and low-cost equipment that can easily be handled and maintained by the local population. Experiences comprise (i) coagulation/filtration with iron and aluminum salts, scaled-down for small community-and household-scale-applications, (ii) adsorption techniques using low-cost arsenic sorbents, such as geological materials (clays, laterites, soils, limestones), natural organic-based sorbents (natural biomass), and synthetic materials. TiO2-heterogeneous photocatalysis and zerovalent iron, especially using nanoscale particles, appear to be promising emergent technologies. Another promising innovative method for rural communities is the use of constructed wetlands using native perennial plants for arsenic rhizofiltration. Smallscale simple reverse osmosis equipment (which can be powered by wind or solar energy) that is suitable for small communities can also be utilized. The individual benefits of the different methods have been evaluated in terms of (i) size of the treatment device, (ii) arsenic concentration and distribution of species, chemical composition and grade of mineralization in the raw water, (iii) guidelines for the remaining As concentration, (iv) economical constrains, (v) complexity of installation and maintenance, and infrastructure constraints (e.g. electricity needs). (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 40.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Zilberbrand, M.
    Geochemical modeling of groundwater, vadose and geothermal systems2011Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Geochemical modeling is an important tool in environmental studies, and in the areas of subsurface and surface hydrology, pedology, water resources management, mining geology, geothermal resources, hydrocarbon geology, and related areas dealing with the exploration and extraction of natural resources. The book fills a gap in the literature through its discussion of geochemical modeling, which simulates the chemical and physical processes affecting the distribution of chemical species in liquid, gas, and solid phases. Geochemical modeling applies to a diversity of subsurface environments, from the vadose zone close to the Earth's surface, down to deep-seated geothermal reservoirs. This book provides the fundamental thermodynamic concepts of liquid-gas-solid phase systems. It introduces the principal types of geochemical models, such as speciation, reaction-path or forward, inverse- and reactive-transport models, together with examples of the most common codes and the best-practices for constructing geochemical models. The physical laws describing homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions, their kinetics, and the transport of reactive solutes are presented. The partial differential or algebraic equations representing these laws, and the principal numerical methods that allow approximate solutions of these equations that can provide useful solutions to model different geochemical processes, are discussed in detail. Case studies applying geochemical models in different scientific areas and environmental settings, conclude the book. The book is addressed to students, teachers, other professionals, and to the institutions involved in water, geothermal and hydrocarbon resources, mining, and environmental management. The book should prove useful to undergraduate and graduate students, postgraduates, professional geologists and geophysicists, engineers, environmental scientists, soil scientists, hydrochemists, and others interested in water and geochemistry. 

  • 41.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hydrodynamic capacity study of the wave-energized Baltic aeration pump: General applicability to the Baltic Sea and location study for a pilot project in Kanholmsfjärden2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    To counteract one of the most urgent environmental issues in the Baltic Sea; eutrophication, excessivealgal blooms and hypoxia, a proposal to use wave energy to pump oxygen-rich surface water towardsthe sea bottom is investigated. Proposals have suggested that 100 kg of oxygen per second is needed tooxygenate bottom water and enhance binding of phosphorus to bottom sediments. This corresponds to 10 000 m3/s of oxygen-rich surface water. This thesis investigates a wave-powered device to facilitatethis oxygen ux. Results give expected water flow rates between 0.15 - 0.40 m3/s and meter breakwater.The mean specic wave power for the analyzed wave data is calculated to be between 3 - 4 kW/m wavecrest and the median to 1 kW/m. This study indicate, however, that the energy uxes in the BalticProper are signicantly higher. The study gives that the wave climate of the Baltic Sea is suffciently intense to facilitate vertical pumping with a feasible number of breakwaters. A full-scale implementationin the Baltic Sea would require some 300 to 1 200 oating breakwaters of a length of 50 m each. Thetotal cost is roughly estimated to 170 - 680 million EURO. The study also concludes that the interleavingof surface water should be constrained to a relatively small vertical distance from the outlet depth(20 - 30 m) and not stir up deep water to the surface. Wave modelling for the proposed pilot locationKanholmsfjärden indicate that this bay is not large enough to permanently produce a favorable waveclimate. It is, however, still an interesting location consistently to its vicinity to Stockholm and relativelylong measurement series.

  • 42.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenvårdsteknik.
    In the Pipe or End of Pipe?: Transport and Dispersion of Water-borne Pollutants and Feasibility of Abatement Measures2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is one of the key environmental problems of today, both in terms of complexity and magnitude. For the Baltic Sea (BS), eutrophication is an acute problem, leading to hypoxic conditions at the bottom; a situation that is sustained and amplified, when phosphorus is released from hypoxic sediments. Reducing nutrient loading is a top political priority but the present situation is believed to require active measures within the catchments and recipients to reduce both loading and adverse effects. Implementation of effective and cost-efficient abatement methods requires understanding of natural processes in watersheds, streams and recipients as well as technological expertise in order to compare the effects of measures of different kinds and locations. This thesis tries to combine process understanding of catchment transport behaviour, especially in coastal zones, and feasibility of certain technologies for reducing nutrient loading and effects of eutrophication in-situ. The over-arching theme is the fate of the individual contaminant, from injection to removal. Transport and dispersion in catchments are investigated, combining physically-based, distributed, numerical groundwater models with Lagrangian stochastic advective reactive solute (LaSAR) transport modelling. The approach is powerful in the sense that it incorporates catchment structural, geomorphological dispersion in the numerical model with hydrodynamic and sub-scale dispersion as well as uncertainty in the LaSAR framework. The study exemplifies the complex nature of transport time distributions in catchments in general and when varying source size and location, importance of dispersion parameters and retention due to molecular diffusion. It is shown that geomorphological control on dispersion is present even for relatively heterogeneous systems and that neither the mean residence time nor a statistical distribution may provide accurate representations of hydrological systems. To combat internal loading of P from sediments in-situ, large-scale aeration of deep waters, halocline ventilation, has been suggested. This study further investigates the feasibility of wave-powered devices to meet the energy demands for such an operation. It is shown that the required amount of oxygen needed to keep the sediments at oxic conditions could be provided, cheaply and efficiently, through the use of wave power.

  • 43.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenvårdsteknik.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenvårdsteknik.
    Hydrological dispersion in a coastal catchmentArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenvårdsteknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenvårdsteknik.
    Wave-power potentialfor reducing hypoxia in the Baltic SeaArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45.
    Cema, Grzegorz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Pietrala, Aleksandra
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Activity assessment and kinetic parameter estimation in single stage partial nitritation/Anammox2009Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Cema, Grzegorz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Surmacz-Gorska, J.
    Activated sludge and biofilm in the Anammox reactor: Cooperation or competition?2007Ingår i: Integration and optimisation of urban sanitation systems: Proceedings of Polish-Swedish seminars / [ed] E. Plaza, E. Levlin, 2007, s. 129-138Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Cema, Grzegorz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Surmacz-Górska, J
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Miksch, K
    Study on evaluation of kinetic parameters for Anammox process2005Ingår i: Proceedings of the IWA Specialized Conference Nutrient Management in Wastewater Treatment Processes and Recycle Streams, 2005, s. 379-388Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Cema, Grzegorz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Surmacz-Górska, J.
    Dissolved oxygen as a factor influencing nitrogen removal rates in a one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox process2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the IWA Biofilm Technologies Conference, 8 – 10 January 2008, Singapore, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49.
    Cema, Grzegorz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Szatkowska, Beata
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Płaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Surmacz-Górska, Joanna
    Nitrogen removal rates at a technical-scale pilot plant with the one-stage partial nitritation/Anammox process.2006Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 54, nr 8, s. 209-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional nitrification/denitrification is not suitable for nitrogen removal when wastewater contains high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and low concentrations of biodegradable carbon. Recently, a deammonification process was developed and proposed as a new technology for treatment of such streams. This process relies on a stable interaction between aerobic bacteria Nitrosomonas, that accomplish partial nitritation and anaerobic bacteria Planctomycetales, which conduct the Anammox reaction. Simultaneous performance of these two processes can lead to a complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in one single reactor. The experiments where nitrogen was removed in one reactor were performed at a technical-scale moving-bed pilot plant, filled with Kaldnes rings and supplied with supernatant after dewatering of digested sludge. It was found that a nitrogen removal rate obtained at the pilot plant was 1.9 g m(-2) d(-1). Parallel to the pilot plant run, a series of batch tests were carried out under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Within the batch tests, where the pilot plant's conditions were simulated, removal rates reached up to 3g N m(-2) d(-1). Moreover, the batch tests with inhibition of Nitrosomonas showed that only the Anammox bacteria (not anoxic removal by Nitrosomonas) are responsible for nitrogen removal.

  • 50. Cema, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Surmacz-Gorska, J.
    Partial nitritation/Anammox process: from two-step towards one step process2010Ingår i: Proceedings IWA Word Water Congress, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
1234567 1 - 50 av 470
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