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  • 1.
    Aid, Graham
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Industrial Ecology Methods within Engagement Processes for Industrial Resource Management2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global use of resources such as materials, energy, and water has surpassed sustainable levels by many accounts.  The research presented here was explicitly normative in its aim to improve the understanding of, and make sustainable change toward highly systemic issues of resource management.  The core methods chosen to work toward this aim were bottom up action research procedures (including stakeholder engagement processes) and industrial ecology analysis tools.  These methods were employed and tested in pragmatic combination through two of the author’s case study projects. The first case study, performed between 2009 and 2012, employed a multi-stakeholder process aimed at improving the cycling of construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region.  The second case study produced a strategic tool (Looplocal) built for facilitating more efficient regional industrial resource networks. While the highly participative aim of the cases required a larger contribution of resources than that of more closed studies, it is arguable that the efficacy of approaching the project aims is improved through their employment. 

  • 2.
    Andersson, Johan Vium
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Geodesy.
    A Complete Model for Displacement Monitoring Based on Undifferenced GPS Observations2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years there has been a great focus on the climate changes within the media. More or less every day more newspaper articles are presented about the global warming issue and the effect on us human race. Climate models predict higher temperatures and more rain in the northern part of Europe. It is also predicted that the weather will become more extreme e.g. it will rain a lot during longer periods than has been the norm. If these predictions are correct, the amount of water that is going to be transported away in streams and rivers will increase and so also will the subsoil water level. The latter increases the risk for landslides in areas with fine grained soils. An early warning system that is able to alert people before a landslide take place would be of great interest.

    The purpose of this work is to develop a complete real-time displacement monitoring system based on observations from several GPS-receivers that could be used as an early warning system. Due to the complex correlation structure of the traditionally used double differences, an alternative method based on undifferenced observations is used. Theoretically this approach shows some advantages and simplifies the correlative structure of observables compared to the double differenced method. A complete model for the undifferenced approach is presented in this thesis including its software implementation.

    A displacement detection system includes not only the positioning algorithms, but also methods to detect if any displacement occurs. There are many methods available to discriminate displacements, which are used in the traditional control of manufacturing processes. Several of these methods are compared in this thesis, such as the Shewhart chart, different Weighted Moving Average (WMA) charts and the CUmulative SUMmation (CUSUM). Practical tests show that it is possible to detect an abrupt shift on sub centimetre level at the same epoch as the shift occurs. Smaller shifts are also detectable with the applied approach but with a slightly longer detection time.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Hållbarhetsstyrning i renoveringsprocessens senare skede: Uppföljning & förvaltning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bostadssektorn svarar för en betydande del av landets totala miljöpåverkan, men det finns stor potential till förbättringar. Sektorn står inför ett omfattande renoveringsbehov, vilket skapar goda förutsättningar för sociala och miljöförbättrande åtgärder. För att lyckas krävs det bland annat strukturerade arbetsmetoder med väl uppsatta miljö- och hållbarhetsmål som följs genom hela renoveringsprocessen. Ett kritiskt läge är processens slutskede när renoveringsåtgärderna är färdigställda och byggnaden lämnas över till förvaltaren. Syftet med denna studie är därför att dels utvärdera hur dagens hållbarhetsstyrning fungerar i renoveringsprocessens sista skeden, samt att ge förslag på metoder som säkerställer att hållbarhetsfrågor och hållbarhetsmål följs upp och fortskrider in i förvaltningen samt håller över tid.

    Intervjuer med elva företagsrepresentanter från nio fastighetsbolag och två representanter från en bransch- och intresseorganisation tillsammans med litteraturstudier är de metoder som använts i studien.

    Resultatet visar att det finns brister i dagens hållbarhetsstyrning vid överlämning, uppföljning, erfarenhetsåterföring och förvaltning. Det handlar främst om att projektspecifika miljömål inte fortskrider in i förvaltningen samt att rutiner för erfarenhetsåterföring och uppföljning är bristfälliga. Det finns omständigheter och svårigheter som står i vägen för en ambitiösare hållbarhetsstyrning i renoveringsprocessens slutskede. Dessa är identifierade som tekniska, sociala, ekonomiska, administrativa, organisatoriska och psykologiska barriärer. Dock finns det förbättringsmöjligheter för att minimera eller få kontroll över dessa hinder, vilka främst handlar om nya metoder och bättre strukturer.

    Utifrån studiens resultat och slutsatser har en hållbarhetsmanual skapats för att underlätta för berörda aktörer att prioritera och styra hållbarhetsarbetet i renoveringsprocessens slutskede på ett bra sätt där hållbarhetsmål följs upp och fortskrider in i förvaltningen samt håller över tid. 

  • 4.
    Armyr, Linda Augusta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Certifiering och marknadsföring av hållbar stadsutveckling: så hanteras vattenkontakt och delaktighet när Stockholm och Minneapolis bygger hållbart2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about sustainable neighborhoods and communities. To define and strengthen the sustainability of neighborhoods, checklists, certification and marketing are used. Certifications and checklists are used as tools in the planning process and specify the grounds upon which a community is called “sustainable”. A certification is also a public signal to convey a credible environmental and sustainability labeling. Today there are few certified neighborhoods, but several urban developments that market themselves as sustainable or with elements of sustainability. Marketing captures, develops and communicates positive values. The marketing and communication of “sustainable” urban development projects indicate a desirable image of the city of tomorrow, and can therefore be regarded as a normative scenario of the future. But what does this scenario look like, and what is its resemblance to the urban development as defined by the criteria for certifying a city as sustainable?

    To answer the main question, the thesis uses theories about the concept of sustainability, future studies, marketing, public participation and the use of knowledge in the planning process. Subsequently, the thesis presents a comparison between the content of the certification system BREEAM Communities, a checklist for sustainable urban development from the consultancy firm WSP and marketing material from case studies in Stockholm. Since the certification checklist and marketing have many aspects of sustainability, delimitation is done to sustainability aspects concerning water contact and participation. Water contact includes both ecological values and accessibility issues related to waterfront development. Participation refers to public participation and the knowledge and connected norms that are heard in the urban development process. To provide additional perspectives to the discussion, a comparison was also done with how Minneapolis works with water contact and participation. Interviews were conducted in both Stockholm and Minneapolis on the difficulties of measuring the sustainability and benefits of certification.

    The comparison gives that most of the aspects that are marketed in the case studies, within the delimitation participation and water contact, can be found in BREEAM Communities and the WSP checklist. The exceptions being marketed but not listed in the tools are education and new development of external partnerships and transport infrastructure. The certification system and checklist also contain some additional points regarding land use and ecological aspects which have not been found in the marketing material. The feasibility of the main question is discussed, as are the difficulties in certifying linked to measurables and how a certification can contribute to sustainable urban development.

  • 5.
    Aronson, Eran
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    Research Project: Lighting Häggvik Tunnel, Sollentuna2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A reserch paper investigating the posibility of lowering light levels in tunnel while using LED's. Done with and for Trafikverket as part of an ongoing research regarding tunnel lighting.

  • 6.
    Aronson, Eran
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Visual adaptation for tunnel entrance2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A research report done by the lighting laboratory at KTH STH for Trafikverket. The report is presenting a second stage of tunnel lighting research, focusing on the tunnel entrance zone, where improvements to existing recommendations are suggested.

  • 7.
    Balian, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Garis, Sargon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Granskning av länsstyrelsens arbete för en minskad naturgrusutvinning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturgrus används i stora delar av byggindustrin i allt från betong till vägkonstruktioner. Det fungerar även som ett skyddande filter i miljön för att bland annat förhindra föroreningar från att nå grundvattnet. Därför är det viktigt att försöka vara sparsam med dessa täkter, vilket Sveriges riksdag klarlagt genom införandet av miljökvalitetsmålen. Det är sedan länens uppgift att stimulera kommuner och andra samhällsaktörer för att gemensamt arbeta mot dessa mål.

    Denna rapport granskar länsstyrelsernas arbete för en minskad utvinning av naturgrus med hänsyn till de uppsatta miljökvalitetsmålen. Arbetet grundas framförallt på intervjuer med representanter från fyra olika län av skild karaktär för att få ett bredare perspektiv. Svaren från intervjuerna jämförs för att tydliggöra skillnader och likheter i de olika länsstyrelsernas miljöarbete. En djupare analys görs för respektive län med hjälp av data från bland annat kartor hämtade från Sveriges geologiska undersökning.

    Resultatet visar bland annat att minskningen av naturgrusutvinningen har stagnerat under senare år, vilket med stor säkerhet beror på att miljökvalitetsmålet kopplat till naturgrus inte har reviderats. Vidare visar studien att det finns skillnader i länens arbetssätt för att nå målen. Detta påvisar behov av ett större utbyte av erfarenheter och idéer mellan länen.

    Detta är fördjupningsdelen i ett arbete som också innefattar projektering och dimensionering av ett småhus.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Life cycle assessment comparison of CIPP lining and traditional pipe replacement2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the so-called “Miljonprogrammet”, over a million homes were built in Stockholm. As the buildings mature, parts of the buildings reach their technical life times and it is time to renovate them. At a time when the environmental impact of humans is a hot topic, it is appropriate to take the environment into account when deciding upon which restoration method to use. The sewage pipes are one of the important building parts in need of repair. This can be achieved by for example traditional pipe replacement or Cure-In-Place-Pipes (CIPP-lining).The goal of this study is to investigate and compare the environmental impact of traditional pipe replacement versus the use of the relining method CIPP lining by conducting a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA). The methods differ in the way that traditional pipe replacement demolishes the outer layers of the bathrooms and remove the old pipes to replace with new and restore the surface layers while CIPP-lining renovates the pipes from the inside with the use of a flexible liner.The purpose of the study has been to clarify the differences in environmental impacts of the different methods in a clear and easily understood way and thereby also simplify the decision-making process of property owners in need of renovation.With aid of the guidelines in ISO standards 14040 and 14044 a correct methodology has been used to ensure that the level of this work will be as high as possible. In combination with the software SimaPro specifically developed to handle the creation of various forms of life cycle assessments and the ISO standards a complex system been analyzed in detail.The results of the study show that CIPP-lining generally cause less environmental impacts than the traditional pipe replacement method. The analysis of 14 selected impact categories show that CIPP lining is preferable in 13 categories and that the traditional pipe replacement is preferable in 1 category. The sensitivity analysis show that the results change drastically depending on how much of the materials and energy used to demolish and reconstruct the outer layers of the bathroom one chooses to allocate to the new sewer pipes.The results show that the CIPP-lining results are dependent on the consumables and the liner assembly processes while the energy usage of the production process does not have a large impact on the results. For the traditional pipe replacement the results show that the consumable process is clearly the biggest impact while the piping production inflicts the least impact on the result.

  • 9.
    Bisander, Iza
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. Environmental strategies.
    Låga parkeringstal i utbyte mot grön mobilitet: erfarenheter från och jämförelse mellan kommuner i Sverige2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt hur flexibla parkeringstal ser ut och motiveras i olika kommuner men har även undersökt ett specifikt fall där flexibla parkeringstal har tillämpats. Studien hade tre syften varav det första var att undersöka hur kommuner motiverar övergången till mer flexibla parkeringstal och det andra syftet var att undersöka hur kommunerna utformar principerna för flexibla parkeringstal för att tillmötesgå deras motiv. Det sista syftet var att analysera om mobilitetsåtgärder som införs i samband med flexibla parkeringstal påverkar de boendes resmönster och vardagsliv.

    För att besvara studiens syften användes kvalitativa forskningsmetoder. För att undersöka olika kommuners utformning och motivering av flexibla parkeringstal har en kvalitativ dokumentanalys genomförts. Alla kommuner använder inte flexibla parkeringstal utan det är ett relativt nytt fenomen. Denna studie identifierade 24 kommuner som tillåter flexibla parkeringstal i deras policydokument. När kommunernas parkeringspolicys jämfördes märkes en stor variation av utformningen av flexibla parkeringstal. Vissa kommuner har tydliga riktlinjer på vilka åtgärder som ger ett visst procentuellt avdrag medan andra kommuner lämnar det öppet för byggherren att utforma vilka åtgärder denne önskar göra utan förutbestämt avdrag.

    Området Fullriggaren i Malmö var ett av de första områdena som tillämpade flexibla parkeringstal. Området har varit bebott i cirka fem år och har inte utvärderats grundligt. Kvalitativa semi-strukturerade intervjuer utfördes med personer som bor i området Fullriggaren och det visade sig att de boende har influerats av mobilitetstjänsterna till en viss del men att deras resmönster också kan spåras till andra faktorer. Cykelinfrastrukturen, normer, attityder och närhet till service tros påverka respondenternas val av färdmedel.

  • 10.
    Brandt, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Leal, WWennersten, RonaldKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.Krahn, D
    Conflict Resolution in Coastal Zone Management2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In view of the importance of coastal areas to Baltic countries, integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is a matter of prime concern. ICZM is also an important feature of the project Coastal Zone Management in the Baltic Sea Region (COASTMAN), undertaken in the context of the Interreg IIIB (Baltic Sea) Programme. These experiences are presented in this book, which begins with an overview of the issue of conflict resolution in coastal zone management followed by a description of a set of administrative and legal processes and of case studies in the following regions: Hamburg (Germany), Haapsalu (Estonia), Klaipeda (Lithuania), Primorsk (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden) and Ventspils (Latvia). The third part presents information relating to the educational and training aspects of conflict resolution in ICZM. Thanks to its scope and trans-national dimension, this Handbook will be instrumental for organisations responsible for ICZM and will provide some inspiration towards initiatives that can be undertaken at the local level in order to better understand, and hopefully address, conflicts arising in coastal areas.

  • 11.
    Brandt, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Shahrokni, Hossein
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Developing a Framework for Transparent Green Building Rating Systems2011In: ISIE 2011 Conference: Science, Systems, and Sustainability, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Brokking, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Schmidtbauer Crona, Jan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Eriksson, Inga-Maj
    Swedish National Road Administration.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    SEA in Swedish Transportation Policy-making and Planning: Political Ambitions and Practice2004In: European Environment, ISSN 0961-0405, E-ISSN 1099-0976, Vol. 14, no 2, 94-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the mid-1990s, the aim to incorporate SEA into Swedish strategic transportation planning has been repeatedly expressed in government documents and directives. To support a successful implementation, efforts have been made to develop tools and methods for the integration of SEA into strategic transportation planning. These efforts concern, for example, the application of SEA in corridor development and long-term transportation planning. The practical experiences of SEA in strategic transportation planning have been influenced by the ambiguity of the scope and structure of SEA. In this paper the process of implementing the SEA in Swedish transportation planning will be reviewed. The review relates to political ambitions and practice, and highlights the methodological development of SEA applications in the Swedish transport sector.

  • 13.
    Cano-Viktorsson, Carlos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Traffic Radio as a Precursor to Smart Travel Planning Systems: The Challenge of Organizing “Collective Intelligence”2013In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 20, no 4, 43-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper depicts how a Swedish radio station organized a means of real-time information management to report on local traffic conditions long before the common use of the Internet. Drawing on a history of the Stockholm traffic radio staff the study examines particular conditions for organizing a service that may inform next generations of smart travel planning systems. The author notes how a vision of involving the public together with the use of increasingly mobile and interconnected communication devices provided the service with an opportunity for harnessing collective intelligence. The study highlights critical success factors and barriers for organizing collective  intelligence and the importance they may have had for providing a real-time information service to the public.

  • 14.
    Dargahi, Bijan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hydrodynamic and Transport Characterization of theBaltic Sea 2000-20092014Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Du, Guangli
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Safi, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges. ÅF Infrastructure AB, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges. Skanska Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Karoumi, Raid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Life cycle assessment as a decision support tool for bridge procurement: environmental impact comparison among five bridge designs2014In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, no 12, 1948-1964 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conventional decision-making for bridges is mostly focusing on technical, economical, and safety perspectives. Nowadays, the society devotes an ever-increased effort to the construction sector regarding their environmental performance. However, considering the complexity of the environmental problems and the diverse character of bridges, the related research for bridge as a whole system is very rare. Most existing studies were only conducted for a single indicator, part of the structure components, or a specific life stage. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an internationally standardized method for quantifying the environmental impact of a product, asset, or service throughout its whole life cycle. However, in the construction sector, LCA is usually applied in the procurement of buildings, but not bridges as yet. This paper presents a comprehensive LCA framework for road bridges, complied with LCA ReCiPe (H) methodology. The framework enables identification of the key structural components and life cycle stages of bridges, followed by aggregation of the environmental impacts into monetary values. The utility of the framework is illustrated by a practical case study comparing five designs for the Karlsnas Bridge in Sweden, which is currently under construction. This paper comprehensively analyzed 20 types of environmental indicators among five proposed bridge designs, which remedies the absence of full spectrum of environmental indicators in the current state of the art. The results show that the monetary weighting system and uncertainties in key variables such as the steel recycling rate and cement content may highly affect the LCA outcome. The materials, structural elements, and overall designs also have varying influences in different impact categories. The result can be largely affected by the system boundaries, surrounding environment, input uncertainties, considered impact indicators, and the weighting systems applied; thus, no general conclusions can be drawn without specifying such issues. Robustly evaluating and ranking the environmental impact of various bridge designs is far from straightforward. This paper is an important attempt to evaluate various designs from full dimensions. The results show that the indicators and weighting systems must be clearly specified to be applicable in a transparent procurement. This paper provides vital knowledge guiding the decision maker to select the most LCA-feasible proposal and mitigate the environmental burden in the early stage.

  • 16. Döse, M.
    et al.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Jelinek, C.
    Trägårdh, J.
    Isaksson, M.
    Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents: Assessment by using I-index and dose-model2016In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 155-156, 105-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of 4 0K, 226Ra and 232Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ~16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported.

  • 17.
    Ekholm, Anders
    et al.
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Tarandi, Väino
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Project Communication.
    Häggström, Lars
    Johansson, Bo
    Tyrefors, Bo
    RoadMap för digital information om byggd miljö2010Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Ekholm, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Miljöpåverkan från olika behandlingsmetoder av trä: En översiktlig och helhetsbildande jämförelse mellan olika produkter2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport har utförts åt Lokalförvaltningen Göteborg i samarbete med Miljöbron. Lokalförvaltningen förvaltar, anpassar och bygger lokaler och boenden åt Göteborgs Stads verksamheter. De är en av Sveriges största förvaltare av offentliga lokaler.  Miljöbron är en ideell organisation som bland annat koordinerar examensarbeten.

    Material utomhus utsätts för stora påfrestningar, såsom fukt och extrema temperaturer. Att trä som utsätts för dessa förhållanden bryts ner och angrips av organismer är inget nytt. Ett materials förmåga att motstå dessa nedbrytningar kallas för beständighet, det har således länge sökts efter ett beständigt virke. För att öka träets beständighet finns det diverse behandlingsmetoder, men även träslag med naturligt hög beständighet existerar.

    En mycket vanlig behandlingsmetod är tryckimpregnerat virke. Det är en metod som använts till stor det på 1900-talet men som på senare tid har upptäckts vara mycket miljö- och hälsofarlig. Med bakgrund av detta har medlen till tryckimpregnering bytts ut mot mer miljövänliga alternativ, men även de har en relativt stor inverkan på miljön. I och med det är det av stort intresse att hitta nya alternativ till tryckimpregnerat.

    Denna rapport söker således undersöka de alternativ till tryckimpregnerat virke som finns på marknaden. Målet med detta är att jämföra de metoder och produkter som är aktuella, och försöka bedöma vilken produkt som ska användas till framtida projekt

  • 19.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL.
    Åkeson, Lynn
    Lunds Universitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Ljunggren Söderman, M
    IVL.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL.
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bridging the gap between the sustainability pillars2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thorough assessment of the sustainability performance of a product, a system, or a decision requires expertise on environmental, economic, and social aspects. In an assessment that involves researchers from different disciplines, communication is challenging because of different background knowledge, terminology, research traditions, etc.In the research program Towards Sustainable Waste Management, a new approach to interdisciplinary interaction was tested. The program included a group of researchers on life cycle assessment (LCA) and systems analysis of waste management. To this group, specialists in national economy, environmental psychology, and ethnology were linked in various projects. In each specific research project at least 20% of the budget was allocated to a waste LCA expert, who, through participating actively in the project, would be an interpreter, a two-way bridge between the disciplines. The first purpose of this LCA expert was to interpret the sustainability questions and to help make the research relevant for the overall purpose of the research program. The second purpose was to interpret the results of the specialists’ research and to help making the results useful for the overall program.Our experience demonstrates that this set-up forces the specialists and their interpreters/bridges to face the challenge of understanding each other. Establishing such an interdisciplinary interaction requires that the researchers share a mutual interest in trying to reach understanding. However, despite this interest and despite the significant resources made available for the participation, our collaboration was restricted by the fact that it can be difficult for the specialists to find suitable tasks in their projects for the LCA expert. The chance of the interaction being successful increases if the background knowledge of the researchers in the project overlaps, if they have similar research cultures, if they share a common interest in the research questions, and/or if the disciplinary scientists are accustomed to interdisciplinary collaboration.

  • 20.
    Elgstrand, Kaj
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    De Internationella Arbets-Miljökurserna2009Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Svensson, R.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Reported occupational injuries at Swedish recycling centres - based on official statistics2011In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 54, no 4, 357-366 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection. There is no special category in the official injury statistics for employees at recycling centres, which precludes a straightforward analysis of reported occupational injuries. This study aimed at identifying the frequency of reported accidents and diseases and the type of events that contribute to such injuries at recycling centres, based on official injury statistics. The employees were identified as being affected by more than three to five times as many accidents compared with the total workforce in Sweden. The reported accidents had occurred during a wide range of situations, but most frequently during manual handling of waste. Reported work-related diseases were mostly associated with musculoskeletal disorders, mainly due to heavy lifting. A more detailed classification of sanitation professions and workplaces in the official injury statistics would facilitate future studies of injuries in a specific professional category, e.g. employees at recycling centres. Suggestions for prevention are given. Statement of Relevance: The present article describes all reported work accidents and diseases among employees at recycling centres from 1992 to February 2005. It also highlights the problem of identifying new working groups in the official statistics and gives advice for a detailed classification to facilitate such future studies of injuries.

  • 22.
    Engstrand, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Railway surveying - A case study of the GRP 50002011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The GRP 5000 is a track measuring trolley capable of collecting track geometry data and performing clearance analyses based on laser scanning technology. The obtained laser data can also be used for as-built documentation, and the track recording functionality makes applications such as surveying, tamping assistance and slab track construction possible. The accuracy, huge data amount and time efficiency by which the system operates sets a new standard in railway surveying, and outdates traditional methods of manual and visual inspection. This thesis is a case study of the GRP 5000 with several objectives: a functional and technical description of the system is given; the accuracy of the system is evaluated, showing overall good values except for one of the sensors used; comparisons are made to other railway surveying techniques, such as track recording vehicles, manual devices and other track recording trolleys; possible improvements are pointed out, both based on comparison results as well as testing results. Finally, new and innovative ways of using the trolley, such as offtrack usage, as well as for the obtained laser data, such as GIS, maintenance aspects and CFD aspects, are examined.

  • 23.
    Engström, Emma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Hållbart resande på företag: En studie om hur ÅF i Solna kan skapa förutsättningar för hållbara arbets- och tjänsteresor2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most people travel to work, school or run errands on a daily basis, but the way that we travel constitute an environmental impact that is not consistent with a long term sustainable development. In Sweden the transport sector accounts for about a quarter of the country’s energy use and about 30 percent of its total carbon emissions. A large share of the emissions is generated by passenger transport and researchers argue that reduced energy usage by smarter and more sustainable travel is important to reduce the transport sector’s environmental impact. Since work related travel accounts for half of all Swedish passenger transport, companies play a significant role, as they can affect both journeys to work and business travel.

    The purpose of the degree project is to investigate how a company and a workplace, ÅF in Solna, can create conditions for sustainable commuting and business travel. The aim is further to develop action proposals based on ÅF’s goal to reduce its carbon footprint.

    On the basis of conducted literature studies, which explain the background of companies’ efforts towards sustainable travel, describe Swedish work methods and discuss good examples of undertaken measures by Swedish organisations, a study of site conditions and a travel survey is carried out at ÅF in Solna. The results show that business travel accounts for 73 percent of the carbon emissions from travel and commuting for 27 percent. Nearly all international business travel is made by flight. Approximately 50 percent of national business travel is made by car, 25 percent by flight and 25 percent by train. Cars account for about 65 percent of local business travel and public transport for about 30 percent. At ÅF in Solna approximately 40 percent of commuting is made by car, 40 percent by public transport and 20 percent by walk, bike and other modes of travel, for a full year.

    The study shows that employees are interested in issues related to sustainable travel and ask for commitments in the field. The study concludes that ÅF in Solna can facilitate sustainable commuting and business travel by providing information on sustainable travel and the opportunities that already exists at the office. Further, ÅF can develop and improve existing conditions, for example by carrying out minor physical measures to revise shortcomings that may prevent changing travel habits. Additionally, ÅF in Solna can investigate the possibility of introducing incentives that facilitate sustainable travel habits and working with a travel plan.

  • 24.
    Erdeniz, Robert
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy. Department of War Studies, SEDU Swedish Defence University.
    Operations planning revisited: theoretical and practical implications of methodology2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 3, 248-269 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parts of NATO’s contemporary planning framework called the comprehensive operations planning directive (COPD), and parts of the operation-level planning process should be revised since they suffer from methodological inconsistency. This claim is defended by discussing contradicting methodological properties and heuristics applied when framing and managing a military problem in accordance with the COPD. The methodological inconsistency within the COPD; in other words, simultaneously applying contradictory methodological properties, implies one theoretical and three practical implications. The theoretical implication is summarised in a meta-theoretical framework and explained by discussing five methodological properties: non-linearity, emergence, independently changeable generalisations, invariance and boundaries. The three practical implications of methodology imply that methodology is guiding: the problem-frame, conceptual development and action. To improve military planners’ understanding and management of these four identified implications, NATO is recommended to develop a “handbook of methodology.” The purpose of such a handbook should be to emphasise the utility of methodology when planning military operations.

  • 25.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Exergy as a measure ofresource use in LCA and other sustainability assessment methods2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased waste valorization should lead to savings of natural resources. But different types of valorization  can  lead  to  different  types  of  savings and  there  may  therefore  be  a  need  for comparing different types of resources uses. Exergy use has been suggested as a measure for resource use in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and other sustainability assessment methods. It is an interesting approach since it can describe both energetic resources as well as metal ores and other materials that have a chemical exergy in the same units. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion on different approaches to measure the use of resources in  LCA and other environmental systems analysis tools by  illustrating the use of the thermodynamic approach  in case  studies  and  comparing  the  results  with  other  approaches.  We  will  also discuss  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  different  approaches.  The  results  show  that  the different methods  produce  strikingly  different  results  when  applied  to  case  studies.  This indicates  the  need  to further  discuss methods  for describing  resource  use.  The  study  also demonstrates the feasibility of the thermodynamic approach. It is suggested that the results are reasonable  and  that  the  thermodynamic  approach  is  developed  from  a  solid  scientific  basis. When  compared  to  other  methods  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  exergy  approach  captures most resources that are considered important by other methods. When analysing the results it becomes apparent that the composition of the ores can have  an influence  of the results.  It is thus  of  interest  to develop  more  ore-specific  data. It  would  also  be  of  interest  to  further develop exergy use as a method for assessing a broader range of resources including land and water.

  • 26.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    KTH-professor: Minska inte miljökraven, Miljödepartementet!2012In: Miljöaktuellt, ISSN 0345-763X, no 2012-07-01Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Palm, Viveka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Debatt: Pröva ekonomiska styrmedel i kemipolitiken.2012In: Miljöaktuellt, ISSN 0345-763X, no 2012-11-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Francart, Nicolas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Climate Implications of a Collaborative Economy Scenario for Transportation and the Built Environment2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a context of increasingly ambitious climate objectives after the Paris Agreement in 2015, this thesis investigates a scenario for sustainable development in Sweden in 2050 in terms of greenhouse gases emissions. The scenario is built around the idea of a development of collaborative economy in a context of low growth or degrowth. The concept of “collaborative economy” encompasses the sharing of services and underused and unwanted goods between individuals, a focus on the access to services rather than the ownership of products, and new ways of sharing space and time (cohousing, time banks, etc). The present study focuses on the implications of the Collaborative Economy scenario for transports and the built environment at a municipal scale, and aims at modeling the corresponding greenhouse gases emissions. A literature review was carried out to identify the main aspects of the scenario and exemplify the changes it entails. Two spreadsheet models were then developed for transports and the built environment, estimating greenhouse gases emission levels based on a range of assumptions elaborated from the literature review. The municipality of Malmö was used as a case study. Overall, the results of the models and the sensitivity analysis indicate a rather weak influence of collaborative economy strategies on greenhouse gases emissions. Strategies related to changes in the energy mix for heating, materials used in construction, fuels, etc seem to be much more impactful. However, such strategies only impact greenhouse gases emissions, whereas collaborative economy strategies can have other benefits. In particular, cohousing can increase social capital and foster sharing, which in turn could decrease energy and material use for the production of goods. Ridesharing, remote working among others, can decrease congestion and the daily distance traveled. Most of these strategies also provide energy savings, improving the resilience of the system and freeing the energy supply for other purposes.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Kenttä, William
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    En väg mot ett smart hållbart Stockholm: Informations- och kommunikationsteknik i den översiktliga planeringen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipal comprehensive plan of Stockholm is about to be updated. The updated version will include information and communication technology, ICT. The purpose of this report is to contribute to the development of the plan by identifying aspects concerning the connection between ICT and sustainable development. To fulfill the purpose, a study of literature was conducted. The city of Stockholm’s comprehensive planning documents and its tools for influencing the development was examined together with the city of Vienna’s vision for a smart city and literature about the effects of ICT on sustainability. Two future scenarios were analyzed in two workshops in order to identify possible developments of ICT in Stockholm. The result indicates that ICT can affect social and environmental sustainability in positive, as well as negative ways. Therefore, it is important to use ICT as a tool to achieve sustainability objectives. Four planning directions and focus areas were identified as the point of departure for an urban development strategy concerning the uses of ICT in Stockholm. 

  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Energy efficient and economic renovation of residential buildings with low-temperature heating and air heat recovery2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the building sector accounting for around 40% of the total energy consumption in the EU, energy efficiency in buildings is and continues to be an important issue. Great progress has been made in reducing the energy consumption in new buildings, but the large stock of existing buildings with poor energy performance is probably an even more crucial area of focus. This thesis deals with energy efficiency measures that can be suitable for renovation of existing houses, particularly low-temperature heating systems and ventilation systems with heat recovery. The energy performance, environmental impact and costs are evaluated for a range of system combinations, for small and large houses with various heating demands and for different climates in Europe. The results were derived through simulation with energy calculation tools.

    Low-temperature heating and air heat recovery were both found to be promising with regard to increasing energy efficiency in European houses. These solutions proved particularly effective in Northern Europe as low-temperature heating and air heat recovery have a greater impact in cold climates and on houses with high heating demands. The performance of heat pumps, both with outdoor air and exhaust air, was seen to improve with low-temperature heating. The choice between an exhaust air heat pump and a ventilation system with heat recovery is likely to depend on case specific conditions, but both choices are more cost-effective and have a lower environmental impact than systems without heat recovery. The advantage of the heat pump is that it can be used all year round, given that it produces DHW.

    Economic and environmental aspects of energy efficiency measures do not always harmonize. On the one hand, lower costs can sometimes mean larger environmental impact; on the other hand there can be divergence between different environmental aspects. This makes it difficult to define financial subsidies to promote energy efficiency measures.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Energy Efficient Renovation Strategies for Swedish and Other European Residential and Office Buildings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The high energy use in the European building stock is attributable to the large share of old buildings with poor energy performance. Energy renovation of buildings is therefore vital in the work towards energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact in the EU. Yet, the strategies and energy system implications of this work have not been made clear, and the rate of building renovation is currently very low.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the economic and environmental aspects of energy renovation strategies, with two main objectives:

    • Renovation of Swedish district heated multi-family houses, including life-cycle cost and environmental analysis and impact on the local energy system;

    • Renovation of European residential and office buildings, including life-cycle cost and environmental analysis and influence of climatic conditions.

    Buildings typical for the respective regions and the period of construction 1945-1970 were simulated, in order to determine the feasibility and energy saving potential of energy renovation measures in European climates. A variety of systems for heating, cooling and ventilation were studied, as well as solar energy systems, with focus on heat pumps, district heating, low-temperature heating systems and air heat recovery.

    Compared to normal building renovation, energy renovation can often reduce the life-cycle costs and environmental impact. In renovation of typical European office buildings, as well as Southern European multi-family houses, more ambitious renovation levels can also be more profitable.

    Exhaust air heat pumps can be cost-effective complements in district heated multi-family houses, while ventilation with heat recovery is more expensive but also more likely to reduce the primary energy use. From a system perspective, simple exhaust ventilation can reduce the primary energy use in the district-heating plant as much as an exhaust air heat pump, due to the lower electricity use.

  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energiteknik; Mälardalens Högskola.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Byggteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energiteknik.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Techno-economic analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family house2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 177, 108-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renovation of existing buildings is important in the work towards increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. The present paper treats energy renovation measures for a Swedish district heated multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Insulation of roof and façade, better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, in combination with different HVAC systems for recovery of heat from exhaust air, were assessed in terms of life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO₂ emissions and non-renewable energy consumption. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump.

    Compared to a renovation without energy saving measures, the combination of new windows, insulation, flow-reducing taps and an exhaust air a heat pump gave up to 24% lower life cycle cost. Adding insulation on roof and façade, the primary energy consumption was reduced by up to 58%, CO₂ emissions up to 65% and non-renewable energy consumption up to 56%. Ventilation with heat recovery also reduced the environmental impact but was not economically profitable in the studied cases. With a margin perspective on electricity consumption, the environmental impact of installing heat pumps or air heat recovery in district heated houses is increased. Low-temperature heating improved the seasonal performance factor of the heat pump by up to 11% and reduced the environmental impact.

  • 33.
    Hajek, Isabelle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Bergström, Lina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Hållbara energilösningar för Ulleråker: En studie om integrering av hållbara energilösningar för värmeenergibehovet av stadsdelens planerade nybyggnation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Uppsala are planning a new district in Ulleråker located south of the city center. The new district will be designed with sustainability in focus and should promote good housing, beautiful outdoor experiences and environmentally friendly transport while protecting the underlying Uppsalaåsen, which is the municipality's main drinking water source. This report looks at the heat demand that the new housing requires and how it could be met with local and renewable energy solutions. The energy solutions investigated are roof-mounted wind turbines, solar collectors, borehole and aquifer thermal energy storage. They are evaluated separately based on potential output, its environmental impact and suitability specifically for Ulleråker. The report is based on literature studies and simpler calculations are performed with existing data and maps from authorities, institutions and Uppsala municipality.

    The number of roof-mounted wind turbines required to cover the entire heat demand is highly dependent on the turbine effect and with a maximum power then up to 7190 wind turbines would be needed. The total area of solar collectors that would correspond to this is approximately 5000 m2. A borehole storage would need to require between 479 to 4793 boreholes, much depending on the heat conductivity of the rock and how far down it is possible to drill. The aquifer could generate a power of about 1000 kW, equivalent to slightly more than a third of the total demand. Finally, the possibility of a combined system with the appropriate energy solutions was obtained and a proposal for how it could be dimensioned. When assessing the environmental impact and suitability of the various solutions, we find that geothermal energy can pose a risk to the underlying groundwater source. Above all, the aquifer storage can be considered as quite unsuitable as the storage is based directly on the drinking water source.

  • 34.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Research School, Centre for Built Environment, University of Gävle.
    Tarandi, Väino
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Project Communication.
    On the use of open bim and 4d visualisation in a predictive life cycle management system for construction works2011In: Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), ISSN 1874-4753, E-ISSN 1874-4753, Vol. 16, 445-466 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    :Construction works are in periodical need of performance upgrade such as maintenance, repair and rehabilitation (MR&R). Facility managers are responsible to fulfil this need during the whole life cycle of the construction works in a manner that maximises the economical profit, minimises the environmental impact and keeps the risk of failure at a low level. A prerequisite for efficient facility management (FM) is long-term planning of MR&R actions. This requires management of a large amount of information, a process that includes gathering, storing, processing and presentation of data. With the development of open Building Information Models (open BIM) and standardisation of Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) new possibilities of efficient management of FM information have emerged. Due to its parametric and object-oriented approach, the open BIM-concept rationalises the information management and makes it more cost effective. This paper discusses how open BIM, with the aid of IFC, and Product Life Cycle Support (PLCS) may facilitate the implementation of a predictive Life cycle Management System (LMS) and by that improve the feasibility for adopting long-term and dynamic maintenance strategy in the FM process. A case study on the use of a commercial BIM-based design tool as information repository and media to present life cycle information within the context of the LMS concept on a hospital building is also presented. The case study shows that the build-up of the information becomes simpler, more clear and efficient compared to a traditional database solution, as it is done with parametric objects. However, the basic BIM can not serve for all LMS functions. There is still need for development of a BIM integrated LMS solution that may support prediction of life cycle performance and maintenance needs. Such a solution needs to be communicative to any open BIM software and thus has to be built upon open standards for exchange of building information, e.g. the IFC standard, and life cycle oriented standards like PLCS. Additional focus is put on 4D simulation and visualisation. Simulation and visualisation of long-term performance of buildings is of crucial importance when improving the feasibility for adopting a long-term and dynamic maintenance strategy in the FM process.

  • 35.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Hotel Module in Glassfiber Sandwich: Environmental Study2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report the structural material for a hotel module is qualitatively studied with focus onenvironment. The module is designed in composite sandwich material with cellular polymericfoam, Pet or PVC, covered by two glass fiber laminates on each side. This type of materialconstruction is traditionally used in transportation industry i.e. aerospace, aircraft, military shipsand yacht, demanding high stiffness in combination with low weight. But an increase in the usewithin the construction area can be seen especially within offshore industry were theenvironment is extremely corrosive.The investigated structure of a room and a bathroom includes floor, roof and three walls for eachmodule. A life cycle perspective, from cradle to grave (cradle) is used for the study starting withraw material production, product manufacturing, use of product and finally waste treatment indifferent forms. Parallel to the sandwich module building in conventional technique is includedfor comparison. This technique includes walls of wood joints with insulating material as mineralwool in between and then covered with gypsum wallboard. Joists are produced in concrete.As result environmental arguments are formed for the new sandwich alternatives and for theconventional technique. By just adding the arguments, for and against, turns out on favor for thePET sandwich module. For the material production the constituent materials for the sandwichgenerally presents higher CO2 emissions than the conventional building materials. But when itcomes to production and mounting of the module a number of arguments for the module can bestated. Better control of internal environment (working environment), efficient use of rawmaterial, effective transports. Compared to the conventional design the risk for problems withmoisture is non-existing for the sandwich structure.The best alternative for waste treatment of the sandwich module is reuse. Other alternative ismaterial recycling of glass fiber in combination with energy recovery for polyester and corematerial.For fire safety a recent full-scale test of a ship cabin point out the potential to design a fire safesandwich structure with appropriate insulating materials.

  • 36.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Hotellmodul i glasfibersandwich: Miljöstudie2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna kvalitativa studie, analyseras en hotellmodul med fokus på miljöeffekter. Modulen byggs i sandwichteknik med täckskikt av glasfiberpolyesterkomposit och däremellan en kärna avcellplast av PET eller PVC. Denna typ av struktur används traditionellt inom transportindustrin tex. rymd, flyg och fartyg där hög styvhet i kombination med låg vikt krävs. Men en ökning avanvändandet av sandwich kan ses inom andra konstruktionsområden speciellt offshoreindustrindär miljön är extremt korrosiv. Den undersökta modulen omfattar, ett rum och badrum, golv, tak och tre väggar. Studien ärgenomförd utifrån ett livscykelperspektiv, från vaggan till graven (vaggan), med indelningen råmaterialtillverkning, produkttillverkning, användning av produkt och slutligen hantering av avfall i olika former. Parallellt med analysen av sandwichmodulen ingår även analys av konventionellt byggande, för jämförelse. Konventionellt byggande omfattar uppförande av väggar med träreglar och isoleringsmaterial som täcks med gipsskiva. Golv- och takbjälklaggjuts i betong.Som resultat formas miljöargument för de nya sandwichalternativen och den konventionella byggtekniken. Genom att studera argumenten, för och mot, genereras flest positiva argument försandwichmodulen med kärna av PET-cellplast. För tillverkning av material erhålls generellthögre CO2 utsläpp för de ingående materialen i sandwichmodulen än för konventionelltbyggande. Men för tillverkning av modulen och montering finns ett antal positive argument, bättre kontroll av inre miljö (arbetsmiljö), effektivt utnyttjande av råmaterial, och effektivatransporter. Jämfört med konventionellt byggande så är risken för uppkomst av fuktproblem små för modulstrukturen.Det bästa alternativet för avfallshantering av sandwichmodulen är återanvändning. Andra alternativ är materialåtervinning av glasfiber i kombination med energiutvinning av polyesteroch kärnmaterial. För studie av brandsäkerhet presenteras resultat från ett nyligen genomfört fullskaleförsök avbrand i en passagerarhytt på ett sandwichfartyg. Resultatet visar på möjligheten att med rätt brandisolering designa en sandwichstruktur med hög säkerhet mot brand.

  • 37.
    Heiskala, Linnea
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Det bästa av två världar?: En utredning av praktisk tillämpning och användbarhet av hybrid-LCA för att inventera klimatpåverkan från konsumtion i kommuner och landsting2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more local governments (municipalities and county councils) include the indirect climate impacts of consumption in their environmental work. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an established tool for inventorying both direct and indirect impacts of a product or service, but when the climate impact of an entire organization's consumption of products and services is of interest, the inventory of data can easily become excessive. Through the years, various methods for enabling life cycle inventory on the organizational level have been developed. Hybrid-LCA is one of them where the term "hybrid" comes from that the method combines a so-called bottom up with a top down approach of the data inventory. The practical application of hybrid-LCA and the usefulness of the assessment results for local governments are not self-evident. This study aims to investigate the practical application of hybrid-LCA as a tool for inventorying climate impact for municipalities’ and county councils’ consumption. The purpose includes identifying the challenges associated with the practical procedure when conducting a hybrid-LCA and evaluating the inventory results’ usefulness in municipalities and county councils’ climate work. The results of the study are based on semi-structured interviews, a case study in which hybrid LCA is applied and a workshop where the case study is evaluated. The results show that the hybrid-LCA enables both a holistic approach to the climate impact and a level of detail for selected areas, making it possible to prioritize areas and identify measures to reduce the climate impact from consumption. The main challenges that arise in the practical procedure of the hybrid-LCA are associated with inventory and verification of foreground data and matching purchases of product groups to standardized classifications. To simplify the execution, increase transparency and facilitate monitoring, local governments are recommended to investigate the possibility of coordinating purchasing system and labeling product groups, in accordance with standardized classifications. It is also recommended to request information about a products weight and material content from suppliers. The uncertainties associated with the outcome of a hybrid-LCA are and remain large, therefore it is important that the results are communicated in terms of potential environmental impacts.

  • 38.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology (closed 20090101).
    The influence of room air flow and turbulence on heat transfer from human body – a new comfort model consideration2008In: Indoor Air 2008, 11th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Hong, Beichuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Quantification of Emissions for non-road Machinery in Earthwork: Modeling and Simulation Approaches2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earthwork, as an essential part of almost all heavy construction projects, is an energy consuming procedure and pollution source for both transport and construction sectors. Due to the increasing need and interest to achieve sustainable development in construction, the evaluation of emission and energy impact in earthwork is of high importance for improving the environmental sustainability. This paper proposes an approach to estimate emissions and fuel usage of construction equipment by using experimental data collected from a project mainly carried out in China. In the experiment, emissions and operational parameters of two loaders and two hauler trucks were measured and analyzed. Based on the power efficiency and other factors, different operation cycles are defined for wheel loader and trucks in the real measurement. Then, through establishing an estimation approach, the emission and fuel rates for different operational cycles are finally calculated. The results show that there are remarkable differences for emissions under different working conditions. In order to evaluate and reduce the emissions and fuel values of the whole earthwork project, a discrete-event simulation (DES) is developed and employed to simulate the earthwork scenarios in a detailed case study. The model provides a basis for the integration of the emission calculation with earthwork simulation. During the evaluation, an alternative plan has been proposed and analyzed for lowering the environmental impacts of the earthmoving operations.

  • 40. Isaksson, Karolina
    et al.
    Richardson, Tim
    Olsson, Krister
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    From consultation to deliberation? Tracing deliberative norms in EIA frameworks in Swedish roads planning2009In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 29, no 5, 295-304 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of deliberative norms in the framework for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in roads planning in Sweden. The more specific question is how this framework has responded to the shift towards more deliberative approaches to planning and decision making, advocated in planning theory and policy literature over the last decade. The analysis, which compares the current framework and guidance with an earlier iteration, identifies a shift towards deliberation; deliberative norms are present, and even dominate recent guidance. However, an instrumental norm permeates both the former and the current guidance, suggesting that even as a language of consultation is replaced by one of deliberation, the intention remains to secure and legitimise a smooth development pathway. Evidence from interviews with professionals working in the Swedish EIA system highlights the difficulties of navigating these uncertainties in practice. By opening up critical analysis of deliberative norms as they shape the conditions for practice, this study contributes to the continuous development of planning practice, by supporting a more normatively reflexive approach to framework-design.

  • 41.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Tarandi, Väino
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Project Communication.
    REQUIREMENTS TRANSFORMATION IN CONSTRUCTION DESIGN2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation of performance requirements to technical solutions and production parameters is central for architects and engineers in the design process. Construction industry suffers from low efficiency in design, and the information flow creating bottlenecks for the production process. Tracing and managing information through design process needs standards both for requirements and Building Information Models in a life cycle perspective. Structuring functional requirements is of great interest for the construction industry and especially for companies developing industrialised housing system that often have control over the whole manufacturing process. The delivery of a new low-carbon economy in Europe puts pressure on the construction industry to reduce the energy consumption for buildings. Therefore is one national standard for energy requirements tested on a building system and evaluated in an Information and Communication Technology-environment (ICT) that supports the design process for industrialised construction. The result of the research shows that the transformation of requirements to technical solutions needs functionality that supports the design process by using standards for requirements. A rigid building system based on well defined design tasks together with a technical platform, both for spaces and physical elements, work as a backbone for development of ICT support systems. Product Life Cycle Support (PLCS), as a standard that enables flexibility in categorisation of information through the construction design.

  • 42.
    Jernelius, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Kan grönt bli till guld?: En studie av miljöcertifieringars värde och utveckling i den svenska bygg- och fastighetssektorn 2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Certification systems, that assess companies’ work with social and environmental issues, have emerged in an increasing number of industries. Today, there are environmental certifications for the food industry, the forestry, the fisheries sector and several more. In apparel industry, certification for sustainable working conditions has been of major impact. The property sector is no exception from other industries. Today, there are a variety of different environmental assessment methods in the world, in order to support sustainable construction. In recent years, a rapid development has also been taken place in the Swedish real estate market, where many property owners show great interest in certifying their portfolios. On the Swedish market for commercial real estate there are three different environmental certification systems being used: BREEAM, LEED and the national label Miljöbyggnad. The GreenBuilding Programme, which focuses solely on energy efficiency, has also had a significant impact in the country.

    Environmental certifications are market-driven regulations, based on customer demand driving companies to conduct their operations in a sustainable way. According to Auld, Bernstein and Cashore (2008), the certification systems differs from other forms of CSR because the companies voluntary agree to let external organizations regulate their activities. In return, the companies get a credible recognition on the market, showing they work seriously and concretely with sustainability issues.

    According to previous studies, the demand for environmentally certified properties and offices is still limited (Broström & Weinz, 2010; Reuterskiöld & Fröberg, 2010; Bonde, Lind, & Lundström, 2009; van der Schaaf & Sandgärde, 2008). Yet, the interest of stakeholders in the real estate sector is widely spread. This examination aims to determine the value of environmental certification for property owners, and from that basis try to find out how the development might proceed.

    The study is based on qualitative interviews with stakeholders in the Swedish construction and property sectors, as well as a literature review of the development of certification systems in other industries and in international property markets. In order to get a holistic perspective of this complex industry, the commercial real estate is seen as a system through four phases: Construction, Management, Renovation and Transaction. Interviews were conducted with stakeholders who were considered representative for each phase, resulting in Property development companies, Property owners and Real Estate appraisals.

    Based on empirical findings, the interest of environmental certifications peaks in the phase of construction, while companies mainly active in management and renovations are more hesitant in the choice of certifying their buildings or not. The fact that the share of newly constructed buildings is very small relative to the total property stock implies that the market for certified buildings is virtually nonexistent, and will so remain unless the environmental certification systems spread to existing buildings. The minimal market has consequences in the transaction phase, since the yield is determined from previous transactions of comparable properties. In the present situation, certified buildings are compared to conventional ones, which imply that the certification doesn’t result in a higher market value. In addition, the limited supply leads to badly informed tenants and, thus, a low demand for certified offices.

    Despite the lack of purely economic value, that is, price or rent premiums, the environmental certifications still seems to be valuable, though in a more qualitative way. Interviewed companies think that a certification provides a communication value in the relationship with external stakeholders, credibility through third party review, insurance against future customer requirements, sustainable internal processes and an internal sense of pride among employees.

    To be able to transform qualitative values to monetary ones, the environmental certifications must develop through the value chain of commercial real estate, to the phases of management and renovations. This development can be supported and accelerated by adapting certification systems for the management of the existing building stock. In addition, the author argues for the importance of not restricting the number of certification schemes in the market, as well as not neglecting the importance of political leadership for a continued development in the sector.

  • 43.
    Johansson, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Persson, Stefan
    Malmgren, Linus
    Tarandi, Väino
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Project Communication.
    Bremme, Jesper
    IT-stöd för industrielltbyggande i trä2006Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Consuming the City: How does non-consumers experience the city?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We often speak of our society as a consumption society, a label that emerged after World War II. But the consumption society dates back longer than that, and can be deduced as far back as the colonialist era and the rise of luxury goods. One could say that the consumption society is the cultural answer to the transfer of the economy into capitalism as well as a consequence of industrial mass production.

    Swedes’ consumption habits negatively affect the environment, being part of the wealthiest 20% of the world’s population that stands for more than three-quarters of total private consumption. More and more people consciously change their lifestyle into consuming less. This aversion from the capitalistic consumer society has been around for quite some time but continues to grow stronger. But how does these voluntary non-consumers experience the city that they live in? With major cities today being so focused around an ever-increasing consumption, this study aims to find out how Swedish non-consumers experience the city of Stockholm by the use of qualitative interviews.

    The empirical result shows that the interviewed non-consumers primarily choose their lifestyle due to environmental concerns, and that they feel that Stockholm is too centered on consumption, not having enough mixed areas, and that they are missing greenery and cultural activities in the city. Non-consumers seem to influence friends and family to adopt a more sustainable consumption habit, something that could be useful for the further development of a more environmentally friendly and sustainable consumption behavior in Sweden.

  • 45.
    Jöhnemark, Anna-Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Exploring the possibilities for implementing Collaborative Consumption within Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm: Going beyond the visions of the citizen initiative HS20202015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a futures study based on the citizen initiative HS2020 in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm. The initiative has the vision to “Renew a new city”, and further develop Hammarby Sjöstad’s environmental profile towards a sustainable development until 2020.

    The aim of this study is to explore the possibilities for HS2020 to also work with Collaborative Consumption, which involves the sharing of goods, services, and space, as a contributing factor to the sustainable development of Hammarby Sjöstad. This study uses an explorative scenario approach together with backcasting, a normative scenario approach to create future images of Hammarby Sjöstad in 2020. These images explore the possibilities for HS2020 to also work with Collaborative Consumption in six of their sub-projects. The futures images were generated based on three workshops with participants connected to HS2020’s work, and also on the literature study and the collected background information.

    The future images of Hammarby Sjöstad mediate how HS2020 could further develop the existing sub-projects, by focusing more on Collaborative Consumption. The solutions presented in the theory could be implemented in Hammarby Sjöstad. They could be for anyone, restricted to members, within an apartment building or a small group of people that could also own and maintain the sharing solution. Other important actors are private companies, the municipality and non-profit organization that could initiate, own and maintain these sharing solutions. The future images show that they could contribute to increased sustainability in different ways. 

  • 46.
    Karlson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Design and evaluation of railway corridors based on spatial ecological and geological criteria2016In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 46, 207-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport infrastructure is closely linked to several sustainability issues of main policy relevance, and significant impacts on biodiversity as well as resource use and construction costs relate to the corridor design and location in the landscape. The aim of this study was to develop methods for railway corridor planning, in which corridor design and location would be based on important ecological and geological sustainability criteria. The method, an MCA framework including both spatial and non-spatial MCA, was demonstrated on a railway planning proposition in an urbanising area north of Stockholm, Sweden. Alternative spatial alignments for 6 railway corridors were derived based on criteria representing biodiversity, resource efficiency and costs, developed from ecological and geological knowledge, data and models. The method identified a study area specific positive synergy between ecological and geological sustainability criteria. The evaluation part of the methodology could furthermore identify uncertainties in the input data and assumptions and conflicts between ecological criteria. In order to arrive at a well-informed decision support system, the criteria as well as the decision rules employed could be further elaborated. Other relevant sustainability issues would also need to be integrated, such as cultural landscapes, recreation, and other ecosystem services. Still, arriving at a corridor design informed by the ecological and geological conditions in the planned area, as demonstrated by this study, could improve the sustainability performance of transport infrastructure planning.

  • 47.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve W
    Natural hazard susceptibility assessment for road planning using spatial multi-criteria analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to a society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are more difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgements for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) approach using hydrological, geological and land use factors. To utilize SMCA for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was adopted where expert judgements were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods Weighted linear combination (WLC) using equal weights and Factor interaction method (FIM). Results showed that inundation received the highest percentage of susceptibility. Using expert judgement showed to perform almost same as Equal weighting where the difference (i.e. average) in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. Results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through SMCA is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to selection and use of decision rule and criteria. A natural hazard SMCA could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  • 48.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Life cycle assessment in road infrastructure planning using spatial geological dataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Kaya, Dilan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Larsson, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Solenergi på Lappkärrsbergets studentbostäder: En studie om ekologisk och ekonomisk lönsamhet hos en solpanelsanläggning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to examine whether it would be economically and ecologically sound to install a system of solar panels on the roofs of the student accommodations at Lappkärrsberget. The report also examines the differences between a system where all energy produced is sold to an energy company, and one where the energy is used on-site in combination with an energy storage system. The economic analysis is performed by contacting solar power and energy storage businesses to get estimates on the size of the initial investment and income generated over time. The final value of the solar panel installation is calculated using the net present value. The ecological analysis is performed as a literature survey of life cycle analyses of solar panel installations and ecological impact is measured entirely in greenhouse gas emissions, with carbon dioxide equivalent as the unit. A cost-effectiveness analysis is performed as to illustrate the correlation between the economic and ecological effects of the solar panel installation.

    In conclusion, it is shown that a solar panel installation on the roofs at Lappkärrsberget will not be a sound economic investment, reporting a loss of 8 292 155 SEK if the energy is sold, and 72 600 395 SEK if it is used on-site. It is also shown that a solar panel installation would be a sound investment ecologically with savings in greenhouse gas emissions of about 38 %.

  • 50.
    Kiviniemi, Arto
    et al.
    Salford University.
    Tarandi, Väino
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Project Communication.
    Karlshöj, Jan
    Danmarks Tekniska Universitet.
    Bell, Håvard
    Karud, Ole Jörgen
    Review of the Development andImplementation of IFC compatible BIM2008Report (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 117
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