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  • 1.
    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Initial study on seismic analyses of concrete and embankment dams in Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Abdelmajid, Yezeed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Investigation and Comparison of 3D Laser Scanning Software Packages2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Laser scanning technologies has become an important tool in many engineering projects and applications. The output of laser measuring is the point cloud, which is processed in a way that makes it suitable for different applications. Processing of point cloud data is achieved through laser scanning software packages. Depending on the field of application, these packages have many different kinds of functions and methods that can be used. The main processing tasks used on a laser scanning software package include registration, modelling and texture mapping. Investigation and comparison of two laser scanning processing packages (Leica Cyclone and InnovMetric PolyWorks) are performed in this study. The theoretical and mathematical backgrounds of the above functions are presented and discussed. The available methods and functions used by each of the packages for these tasks are addressed and discussed. By using sample data, these functions are trailed and their results are compared and analyzed.

    The results from registration tests show the same results on both packages for the registration using target methods. Although, the results of cloud-to-cloud registration show some deviation from target registration results, they are more close to each other in both packages than to the target registration results. This indicates the efficiency of cloud-to-cloud methods in averaging the total registration error on all used points, unlike target registration methods.

    The modelling tests show more differences in the accuracy of generated models between the two packages. For both fitting and surface construction methods, PolyWorks showed better results and capabilities for three-dimensional modelling. As a result, the advantages and disadvantages of each package are presented in relation with the used task and methods, and a review of data exchange abilities is presented.

  • 3.
    Abdelwahab, Kemal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Farah Mohamed, Abdirizag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Spricktillväxt i stålkonstruktioner på grund av utmattning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Steel bridges estimated service life is determined by the fatigue strength of the steel, since fatigue is one of the main reasons for limiting the service life. In Sweden there is a number of bridges that approach the end of their service life, while the need of increasing the capacity and demands on bridges grows. The majority of these bridges is in need of reparation. On the other hand, it is not possible either from a financial- or environmental perspective to replace all bridges, and therefore the bridges that are most critical needs priority. In the case of fatigue design calculation of steel bridges, the entire stress range is taken into account, regardless of whether the stresses are in tension or pressure. A crack propagates only at tensile stresses, which means that pressure should not really be considered in the design calculations. This means that some steel bridges could have a longer life span than the traditional design calculation gives. The stress intensity factor K is used within the fracture mechanism to predict the stress intensity near crack tip, and is applied to linear elastic materials. The finite element program Abaqus was used when the bridge detail was modeled and analyzed. The bridge detail represents a beam with a welded connection plate, which is exposed to traffic load at the bridge and a temperature load to simulate residual stresses. The detail represents the problem of fatigue in steel structural parts. The motive for this study is that no cracks have been found during inspections of similar details, despite the fact that some steel bridges theoretically have consumed their longevity. The study is conducted with a more advanced model than usually created for assessment of fatigue, with the purpose of modeling the reality more correctly. The results show how the residual stresses cause tensile stresses, which leads to crack propagation in the model. At a crack length of 9,5 mm, the stresses change from tension to compression, and then the crack growth ceases. The results also indicate that fatigue cracking can grow in steel structural parts that are mainly exposed to compressive nominal stresses, if tensile residual stresses appear at the connection plate.

  • 4.
    Abdi, Adel Hirmand
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Contract forms and agreements for operation and maintenance of highways and railways during winter2011Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Abdi, Adel Hirmand
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Key aspects in winter highway operation and maintenance2010Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Abdi, Adel Hirmand
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Technical and contractual aspects in winter highway and railway operation and maintenance: a survey of current technical systems and contract forms in Sweden2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Abdul Al, Fatima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Alla barns lekplats: En studie om tillgängligheten på lekplatser2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the leading countries when it comes to availability in the physical environment. Approximately 7 000 children in Sweden are disabled. Half of these children use a wheelchair. It is every child’s right to play, and it’s thereby interesting to know whether every child is given the opportunity to use a playground. In the county of Helsingborg there are playgrounds appealing to many children, although the question is whether every child is given the chance to play at these playgrounds.

    The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of availability at playgrounds and outline ways to improve the availability. The method used in this thesis is a literature study, focusing on legal framework and literature about availability, usability and playgrounds. The case study provides information about eight playgrounds in Helsingborg. There is also an interview with landscape architect Johanna Elgström.

    Playgrounds where availability has been prioritized are often more available and useable for wheelchair-bound children. Still, the legal framework is in need of a more precise definition of availability and usability to ensure that playgrounds are suitable for children using a wheelchair. The playgrounds that are more available and useable can favor children using a wheelchair and give them the opportunity to socially interact with other children.

  • 8.
    Acuña, José
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Distributed thermal response tests: New insights on U-pipe and Coaxial heat exchangers in groundwater-filled boreholes2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    U-pipe Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHE) are widely used today in ground source heating and cooling systems in spite of their less than optimal performance. This thesis provides a better understanding on the function of U-pipe BHEs and Investigates alternative methods to reduce the temperature difference between the circulating fluid and the borehole wall, including one thermosyphon and three different types of coaxial BHEs.

    Field tests are performed using distributed temperature measurements along U-pipe and coaxial heat exchangers installed in groundwater filled boreholes. The measurements are carried out during heat injection thermal response tests and during short heat extraction periods using heat pumps. Temperatures are measured inside the secondary fluid path, in the groundwater, and at the borehole wall. These type of temperature measurements were until now missing.

    A new method for testing borehole heat exchangers, Distributed Thermal Response Test (DTRT), has been proposed and demonstrated in U-pipe, pipe-in-pipe, and multi-pipe BHE designs. The method allows the quantification of the BHE performance at a local level.

    The operation of a U-pipe thermosyphon BHE consisting of an insulated down-comer and a larger riser pipe using CO2 as a secondary fluid has been demonstrated in a groundwater filled borehole, 70 m deep. It was found that the CO2 may be sub-cooled at the bottom and that it flows upwards through the riser in liquid state until about 30 m depth, where it starts to evaporate.

    Various power levels and different volumetric flow rates have been imposed to the tested BHEs and used to calculate local ground thermal conductivities and thermal resistances. The local ground thermal conductivities, preferably evaluated at thermal recovery conditions during DTRTs, were found to vary with depth. Local and effective borehole thermal resistances in most heat exchangers have been calculated, and their differences have been discussed in an effort to suggest better methods for interpretation of data from field tests.

    Large thermal shunt flow between down- and up-going flow channels was identified in all heat exchanger types, particularly at low volumetric flow rates, except in a multi-pipe BHE having an insulated central pipe where the thermal contact between down- and up-coming fluid was almost eliminated.

    At relatively high volumetric flow rates, U-pipe BHEs show a nearly even distribution of the heat transfer between the ground and the secondary fluid along the depth. The same applies to all coaxial BHEs as long as the flow travels downwards through the central pipe. In the opposite flow direction, an uneven power distribution was measured in multi-chamber and multi-pipe BHEs.

    Pipe-in-pipe and multi-pipe coaxial heat exchangers show significantly lower local borehole resistances than U-pipes, ranging in average between 0.015 and 0.040 Km/W. These heat exchangers can significantly decrease the temperature difference between the secondary fluid and the ground and may allow the use of plain water as secondary fluid, an alternative to typical antifreeze aqueous solutions. The latter was demonstrated in a pipe-in-pipe BHE having an effective resistance of about 0.030 Km/W.

    Forced convection in the groundwater achieved by injecting nitrogen bubbles was found to reduce the local thermal resistance in U-pipe BHEs by about 30% during heat injection conditions. The temperatures inside the groundwater are homogenized while injecting the N2, and no radial temperature gradients are then identified. The fluid to groundwater thermal resistance during forced convection was measured to be 0.036 Km/W. This resistance varied between this value and 0.072 Km/W during natural convection conditions in the groundwater, being highest during heat pump operation at temperatures close to the water density maximum.

  • 9.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Estimating a Polycentric Urban Structure. Case Study: Urban Changes in the Stockholm Region 1991-2004 (vol 135, pg 19, 2009)2010In: Journal of urban planning and development, ISSN 0733-9488, E-ISSN 1943-5444, Vol. 136, no 4, p. 381-381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ahlberg, Fanny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ökad avbördningskapacitet hos befintliga dammar i Sverige: En fallstudie över damm i mellersta Norrland2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för klimatförändringar, och problem som kommer med dessa, har ökat de senaste årtiondena. En effekt som dessa drar med sig är att de beräknade extremflödena förväntas öka vilket påverkar säkerheten hos befintliga dammar. Flödesdimensioneringsriktlinjerna, vilket kortfattat är riktlinjer för att bestämma dimensionerande flödet i Sverige, reviderades 2015 till att också ta hänsyn till ett föränderligt klimat. Detta leder till krav på befintliga dammar att öka sin avbördningskapacitet samtidigt som intresset för mindre traditionella utskovsanordningar ökar för att säkerställa tillförlitligheten hos utskoven. Denna studie är en fallstudie över en dammanläggning i mellersta Norrland som på grund av en förhöjd klassificering måste öka sin avbördningskapacitet. Syftet med studien är att föreslå åtgärder på dammen som leder till att avbördningskapaciteten blir i linje med flödesdimensioneringsriktlinjerna och att denna rapport ska kunna användas som stöd och underlag när andra dammar i Sverige har motsvarande utmaning. Åtgärderna togs fram genom att först identifiera möjliga utskovsanordningar med avseende på dammens konstruktions- och geologiska förutsättningar samt driftaspekter i ett svenskt klimat. De fördelaktiga utskovsanordningarna anpassades för den aktuella dammanläggningen och avbördningsberäkningar för möjlig design av utskoven utfördes. De åtgärder som kunde avbörda flöden enligt flödesdimensioneringsriktlinjerna utvärderades med avseende på stabilitet i de fall som ansetts möjliga. Efter en diskussion kring olika för-och nackdelar med de olika åtgärderna, med avseende på bland annat ekonomi, föreslogs möjliga lösningar. De utskovsanordningar som enligt resultatet var fördelaktiga att implementera för dammanläggningen var överfallsutskov, både kontrollerat och okontrollerat, och labyrintutskov. Avbördnings-och stabilitetsberäkningarna samt diskussionen kring för och nackdelar kring åtgärderna ledde fram till att tre åtgärder kunde föreslås. Alla tre alternativen innefattade ytvattenutskov, även kallade överfallsutskov med lucka, och var antingen att bygga om befintliga utskov, bygga till ett ytterligare utskov eller en kombination av de två. Labyrintutskovet visade sig ha ganska hög kapacitet, men uppfyllde inte kravet om klass II-flöde vid dämningsgräns. En generell slutsats som kunde dras av studien var att det finns ganska många olika alternativ på utskovsanordningar, men problem och osäkerheter med igenfrysning, drivgods och kavitation måste kunna hanteras i Svenskt klimat. Okontrollerade utskov kan vara ett alternativ, och då främst labyrintutskov, men det förutsätter att dammen med befintlig avbördningskapacitet kan avbörda klass II-flöde.

  • 11.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Convergent validity test of structural benefit transfer: the case of water qualityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategic Analysis.
    Costs and benefits of climate change : a bottom-up analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategic Analysis.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategic Analysis.
    Ecovalue08-a new valuation method for environmental systems analysis toolsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategic Analysis.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Sustainable energy prices and growth: Comparing macroeconomic and backcasting scenarios2007In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 722-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do results from the sustainability research world of backcasting relate to the macroeconomic scenarios used for policy evaluation and planning? The answer is that they don't, mostly - they come from different scientific traditions and are not used in the same contexts. Yet they often deal with the same issues. We believe that much can be gained by bringing the two systems of thinking together. This paper is a first attempt to do so, by making qualitative comparisons between different scenarios and highlighting benefits and limitations to each of them. Why are the pictures we get of the energy future so different if we use a macroeconomic model from when using a backcasting approach based on sustainable energy use? It is evident that the methods for producing those two kinds of scenarios differ a lot, but the main reason behind the different results are found in the starting points rather than in the methods. Baseline assumptions are quite different, as well as the interpretations and importance attached to signals about the future. in this paper, it is discussed how those two types of scenarios differ and how they approach issues such as energy prices and growth. The discussion is based on a comparison between Swedish economic and sustainability scenarios. The economic scenarios aim at being forecasts of the future and are used as decision support for long-term policies. But are the assumptions in the economic scenarios reasonable? The sustainability scenarios are explicitly normative backcasting scenarios. They do not take the issue of growth and consumption fully into account. Could they be developed in this respect? The comparison between the scenarios is also used to look closer at the issue of energy prices in a society with sustainable energy use. One of the questions raised is if a low energy society calls for high energy prices. Moreover, the effects of tradable permits versus energy taxes is analysed in the context of how energy use could be kept low in a growing economy.

  • 15.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, Måns
    SEI.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Weightning and valuation in environmental systems analysis toolsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Evaluation of permanent deformation models for unbound granular materials using accelerated pavement tests2013In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 178-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanistic-empirical (M-E) pavement design methods have become the focus of modern pavement design procedure. One of the main distresses that M-E design methods attempt to control is permanent deformation (rutting). The objective of this paper is to evaluate three M-E permanent deformation models for unbound granular materials, one from the US M-E pavement design guide and two other relatively new models. Two series of heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) tests with three different types of base material were used for this purpose. The permanent deformation, wheel loading, pavement temperature, and other material properties were continuously controlled during the HVS tests. Asphalt concrete layers were considered as linear elastic where stress-dependent behaviour of unbound materials was considered when computing responses for the M-E permanent deformation models with a nonlinear elastic response model. Traffic wandering was also accounted for in modelling the traffic by assuming it was normally distributed and a time-hardening approach was applied to add together the permanent deformation contributions from different stress levels. The measured and predicted permanent deformations are in general in good agreement with only small discrepancies between the models. Model parameters were also estimated for three different types of material.

  • 17.
    Ahmed, Samih
    et al.
    Tyréns AB.
    Minchot, Guayente
    Tyréns AB.
    Eriksson, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics.
    King, Fritz
    Tyréns AB.
    Hallgren, Mikael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Post-Tensioned Stress Ribbon Systems in Long Span Roofs2019In: 20th Congress of IABSE, New York City 2019: The Evolving Metropolis - Report2019, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering , 2019, p. 534-540Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cable systems have numerous advantages, such as: large column-free areas, and reduced materials consumption, which reduces the load and the cost. Nevertheless, they are rarely used in long span roofs due to large deflections, and the insufficient space for end supports, or/and back-stayed cables. This work suggests the use of post-tension stress ribbon system in long span roofs in order to reduce the pull-out forces, deflections and concrete stresses compared to a conventional cable system. A comparison is carried out through meticulous and accurate finite element simulations, using SAP2000, implemented for the new +200m roof of Västerås Travel Center (Sweden), which will become one of the longest cable suspended roofs in the world, if not the longest. Results confirm the suitability and superiority of stress ribbon systems as it reduces concrete stresses, deflections, pull-out forces and vertical reactions. These reductions are found highly correlated to the applied prestressing forces.

  • 18.
    Ahnlén, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    MAP DESIGN: A development of background map visualisation in Digpro dpPower application2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What is good map design and how should information best be visualised for a human reader? This is a general question relevant for all types of design and especially for digital maps and various Geographic Information Systems (GIS), due to the rapid development of our digital world. This general question is answered in this thesis by presenting a number of principles and tips for design of maps and specifically interactive digital visualisation systems, such as a GIS.

    Furthermore, this knowledge is applied to the application dpPower, by Digpro, which present the tools to help customers manage, visualise, design and perform calculations on their electrical networks. The visualisation and design of the network was analysed together with the usage of two common background maps, GSD-Fastighetskartan by Lantmäteriet and Primärkartan by the municipalities, whose default appearances are defined by Digpro. The aim was to answer whether there is a more suitable design of the background maps and network to better complement the usage of dpPower and if so, what is the better design?

    When designing interactive systems that will later have various end-users, a user-centred design is important. Therefore, the initial step was to collect user inputs and feedback on the current design via customer interviews. This gave a set of user criteria for good map design of dpPower specifically.

    A study of existing relevant literature and previous work was also performed where several general key principles for good design could be identified.

    Finally, a comparison between the dpPower design and other existing map products, such as e.g. Google Maps and Eniro, was made where key similarities and dissimilarities were identified and discussed.

    These user criteria and design principles could be combined, both to present an answer to the general question “What is good design?” and to present a suggestion of new map appearance in dpPower. Key considerations in the new design suggestions were e.g. to have a toned down background map with all features in the same hue family. However, for GSD-Fastighetskartan the important convention of land classes, blue = water, green = vegetation \& yellow = open land, should be kept. Colour combinations and contrast is the most important design element and since a design cannot be optimally adapted for all types of colour vision deficiencies, the suggestion is to separate the designs to specifically target user groups of different colour vision abilities. Important map information such as e.g. detailed road data should be kept while unnecessary features such as contour lines and polygon borderlines should be hidden. Text positions should also be considered.

    The results were evaluated both via a survey, distributed to users of dpPower, GIT-students and users with no previous experience of GIT or dpPower, and a seminar with employees at Digpro.

    The conclusions drawn from the evaluation was that the presented design suggestions and principles are good, but adjustments should be made. E.g. a use of yellow for low voltage cables, as suggested for Red-Green impaired, is perhaps not the best solution. The results present a good foundation for design of dpPower but more adjustments should be made based on the evaluation and then another evaluation can be performed. It would give an even better result.

  • 19.
    Ahsan, Tahmina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Energy Efficient Design Features for Residential Buildings in Tropical Climates: The Context of Dhaka, Bangladesh2010In: SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SAUD 2010), VOL IV / [ed] Lehmann, S ; AlWaer, H ; AlQawasmi, J, CSAAR PRESS-CENTER STUDY ARCHITECTURE ARAB REGION , 2010, p. 183-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at identifying passive design features through literature study that can be incorporated in residential buildings of Dhaka to make them energy efficient. The study also aimed at identifying changes in the design process that can affect energy efficiency in residential buildings. It has analyzed the present electric energy use for cooling and lighting typical residential buildings of upper middle income households in Dhaka through a case study conducted in Dhaka. It has also calculated the possible energy savings by adopting certain energy efficient features in the case study building. The findings from this study indicate that doubling the thickness of external walls on east and west of the building, use of hollow clay tiles instead of weathering course for roofs and use of appropriate horizontal overhang ratios for all four orientations can reduce the cooling load of the case study building by 64% and thus reduce the total energy use of the building by 26%. Finally, it can be concluded that the process of designing energy efficient residential buildings is not a 'one-man's show'. Architects, developers, interior designers and clients are the other actors who can bring a change in the design practice.

  • 20.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Environmental Impact of Concrete Structures - with Focus on Durability and Resource Efficiency2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is essential for the construction industry with characteristic properties that make it irreplaceable in some aspects. However, due to the large volumes consumed and the energy intense cement clinker production it also has a notable climate impact. In order to reach the international and national sustainability goals it is therefore important to reduce the climate impact of concrete structures.

    There are many ways to influence the environmental impact of concrete and a detailed analysis is one of the actions that could push the industry and the society towards a sustainable development. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the environmental impact of concrete structures and the built environment and to highlight the possibilities to reduce that impact with choice of concrete mix and innovative design solutions.

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to analyze the environmental impact of two thin façade solutions with innovative materials and to evaluate influences of different greenhouse gas reducing measures on concrete bridges. The influence of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) in terms of climate impact and durability was also analyzed.

    The results indicate that SCMs have a twofold effect on the climate impact of reinforced concrete structures. Not only do they reduce the greenhouse gases through cement clinker replacement but also by an improvement of durability regarding chloride ingress. Currently, this is not considered in the regulations, which makes it difficult to foresee in LCA at early design stages. The results also show great possibilities to reduce the climate impact through different measures and design alternatives and the need for further development of products and solutions.

  • 21.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    During, Otto
    Malaga, Katarina
    Silva, Nelson
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    The influence of supplementary cementitious materials on climate impact of concrete bridges exposed to chloridesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Mueller, Urs
    Malaga, Katarina
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Life cycle assessment of facade solutions made of durable reactive powder concrete2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Al-Djaber, Jafar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Prestressed glue laminated beams reinforced with steel plates: Comparison between prestressed, reinforced and non-reinforced glue laminated beams according to the Eurocode and the Swedish annex2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents details of a numerical analysis and simplified construction of strengthened glue laminated beams. Glue laminated beams are strengthened through the use of steel reinforcements embedded between the lamellas of the beams. The study compares the numerical results from reinforced and prestressed beams, simply reinforced beams and non-modified beams. Parametric studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects on reinforcement thickness, beam span, prestressing force and prestressing loss. Modified and prestressed beams with wide spans and large dimensions had a significantly higher design load compared to non-modified beams with similar geometry and span. In the most beneficial cases, a load increase of 438% was observed for point load at midspan and 346% for uniformly distributed load.

  • 24.
    Algers, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301).
    Sundbergh, P.
    Byström, C.
    Valuation of road traffic noise profiles2009In: 38th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2009, INTER-NOISE 2009, 2009, p. 2161-2168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish noise values are today based on a study concerning hedonic price values. The valuation of the average noise levels assumes that there is no difference between different noise profiles, i.e. how the noise level varies throughout the day. In order to be able to take appropriate measures towards noise problems, it is important to know to what extent the noise profile matters. The project aims at researching how the noise value depends on the road traffic noise profile. It further aims at studying how values are affected by the type of activity in which the noise disturbance occurs (being out in the garden/try to sleep in the bedroom). Our method is to use stated preference techniques (pair wise choices) to elicit noise profile values. Respondents listen to and evaluate noise profile where we vary the level of background noise, frequency of noise events and the noise level of the events. This paper also discusses possibilities to estimate willingness to pay for changes in different components of noise profiles.

  • 25.
    Alhakim, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Hakim, Roz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Inneklimat i kontorsmiljö: Utvärdering av inneklimat i en kontorsmiljö med fokus på ventilationen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, humans spend about 90 percent of their time indoors, in an artificial indoor climate. As people tend to be indoors more and more, it is important that the ventilation work as well and efficiently as possible, and that the indoor climate is pleasing for our well-being at the workplace. Previous studies show that almost half of Swedes are dissatisfied with the ventilation in their work environment (offices).

    A good indoor climate in offices increases employee satisfaction, increases productivity, and reduces absenteeism. This causes the organization / company to save money in the end, as staff work more efficiently and have less sick leave.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the climate in office environment, focusing on thermal comfort and to see how ventilation systems affect the indoor climate. Furthermore, the relationships between these will be analyzed. The aim is to investigate how the comfort in the office affects human health, productivity and well-being. The goal is also to identify if there is insufficient ventilation to the offices that will be investigated and to eventually present possible improvements.

    In this report a study of six offices on Brinellvägen 23 was carried out. In the study, a number of flow measurements are carried out for each office's supply and exhaust air, carbon dioxide measurements, temperature and the relative humidity for four hours in four of the offices, with open and closed doors. While in two of the offices, the measurements continued for a whole working day, 6-8h.

    In addition to these measurements, surveys were distributed to the staff in the offices in order to share subjective opinions about the environment in the offices.

    The results from the measurements and the survey showed that the overall climate was not satisfactory, and discomfort was experienced by the people working there. Only one office met the projected supply airflow, while the remaining offices neither met the projected flows nor BBR requirements for the amount of flow in office environments. The carbon dioxide levels in the offices with one person was acceptable, they did not pass the limit of 1000 ppm. However, the offices were projected for two persons and when two persons worked in the offices, the carbon dioxide levels exceeded about 1200 ppm. When the carbon dioxide level exceeds 1000 ppm, it is recommended that the ventilation be checked, as needed in this case.

  • 26.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    On Optimisation and Design of Geodetic Networks2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimisation of a geodetic network is performed to provide its pre-set quality requirements. Today, this procedure is almost run with the aid of developed analytical approaches, where the human intervention in the process cycle is limited to defining the criteria. The existing complication of optimisation problem was terminated by classifying it into several stages. By performing these steps, we aim to design a network with the best datum, configuration and the observation weights, which meets the precision, reliability and cost criteria.

    In this thesis, which is a compilation of four papers in scientific journals, we investigate the optimisation problem by developing some new methods in simulated and real applications.

    On the first attempt, the impact of different constraints in using a bi-objective optimisation model is investigated in a simulated network. It is particularly prevalent among surveyors to encounter inconsistencies between the controlling constraints, such as precision, reliability and cost. To overcome this issue in optimisation, one can develop bi-objective or multi-objective models, where more criteria are considered in the object function. We found out that despite restricting the bi-objective model with precision and reliability constraints in this study, there is no significant difference in results compared to the unconstrained model. Nevertheless, the constrained models have strict controls on the precision of net points and observation reliabilities.

    The importance of optimisation techniques in optimal design of displacement monitoring networks leads to the development of a new idea, where all the observations of two epochs are considered in the optimisation procedure. Traditionally, an observation plan is designed for a displacement network and repeated for the second epoch. In the alternative method, by using the Gauss-Helmert method, the variances of all observations are estimated instead of their weights to perform the optimisation. This method delivers two observation plans for the two epochs and provides the same displacement precision as the former approach, while it totally removes more observations from the plan.

    To optimise a displacement monitoring network by considering a sensitivity criterion as a main factor in defining the capacity of a network in detecting displacements, a real case study is chosen. A GPS displacement monitoring network is established in the Lilla Edet municipality in the southwest of Sweden to investigate possible landslides. We optimised the existing monitoring network by considering all quality criteria, i.e. precision, reliability and cost to enable the network for detecting 5 mm displacement at the net points. The different optimisation models are performed on the network by assuming single baseline observations in each measurement session. A decrease of 17% in the number of observed baselines is yielded by the multi-objective model. The observation plan with fewer baselines saves cost, time and effort on the project, while it provides the demanded quality requirements.

    The Lilla Edet monitoring network is also used to investigate the idea, where we assume more precise instruments in the second of two sequential epochs. In this study, we use a single-objective model of precision, and constrained it to reliability. The precision criterion is defined such that it provides the sensitivity of the network in detecting displacements and has a better variance-covariance matrix than at the first epoch. As the observations are GPS baselines, we assumed longer observation time in the second epoch to obtain higher precision. The results show that improving the observation precision in the second epoch yields an observation plan with less number of baselines in that epoch. In other words, separate observation plans with different configurations are designed for the monitoring network, considering better observation precision for the latter epoch.

  • 27.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning. University West, Division of Surveying Engineering.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Optimisation of Lilla Edet Landslide GPS Monitoring Network2015In: Journal of Geodetic Science, ISSN 2081-9919, E-ISSN 2081-9943, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the year 2000, some periodic investigations have been performed in the Lilla Edet region to monitor and possibly determine the landslide of the area with the GPS measurements. The responsible consultant has conducted this project by setting up some stable stations for GPS receivers in the risky areas of Lilla Edet and measured the independent baselines amongst the stations according to their observation plan. Here, we optimise the existing surveying network and determine the optimal configuration of the observation plan based on different criteria. We aim to optimise the current network to become sensitive to detect 5 mm possible displacements in each net point. The network quality criteria of precision, reliability and cost are used as object functions to perform single-, bi- and multi-objective optimisation models. It has been shown in the results that the single-objective model of reliability, which is constrained to the precision, provides much higher precision than the defined criterion by preserving almost all of the observations. However, in this study, the multi-objective model can fulfil all the mentioned quality criteria of the network by 17% less measurements than the original observation plan, meaning 17% of saving time, cost and effort in the project.

  • 28.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning. Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    The Effect of Instrumental Precision on Optimisation of Displacement Monitoring Networks2016In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica, ISSN 2213-5820, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 761-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to detect the geo-hazards, different deformation monitoring networks are usually established. It is of importance to design an optimal monitoring network to fulfil the requested precision and reliability of the network. Generally, the same observation plan is considered during different time intervals (epochs of observation). Here, we investigate the case that instrumental improvements in sense of precision are used in two successive epochs. As a case study, we perform the optimisation procedure on a GPS monitoring network around the Lilla Edet village in the southwest of Sweden. The network was designed for studying possible displacements caused by landslides. The numerical results show that the optimisation procedure yields an observation plan with significantly fewer baselines in the latter epoch, which leads to saving time and cost in the project. The precision improvement in the second epoch is tested in several steps for the Lilla Edet network. For instance, assuming two times better observation precision in the second epoch decreases the number of baselines from 215 in the first epoch to 143 in the second one.

  • 29.
    Allmér, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Joakim, Svantesson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    How internal factors influence the work towards increased energy performance: A case study in a Swedish construction company2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För  att  minska Europas klimatpåverkan ställer Sveriges regering och Europeiska Unionen allt högre krav på byggindustrin gällande energiprestandan i nybyggda flerbostadshus, då bostadssektorn idag står för en betydande del av Sveriges totala energiförbrukning. Byggföretagen jobbar numera för förbättrad energiprestanda i nybyggda bostäder, men skillnaden från projekt till projekt kan vara mycket stor. Man har i tidigare forskning studerat de externa faktorer som påverkar hur långt man är villig att gå energimässigt i bostadsprojekt, men lite forskning har bedrivits kring de interna faktorerna.

    Detta examensarbete har därför till syfte att identifiera dessa interna faktorer och även förklara varför de påverkar processen. För att studera detta har en fallstudie utförts på ett svenskt byggföretag där aktörer inom stora delar av den interna byggprocessen finns representerade. Semi strukturerade intervjuer genomfördes för att ge en så utförlig bild som  möjligt av processen och de faktorer som påverkar den. Intervjudatan sorterades, reducerades och analyserades genom stöd av ett teoretiskt ramverk. I detta ingår teorier från tidigare studier och olika Knowledge Managementteorier, vilka används för att tolka och förstå de faktorer som iakttagits. 

    Studiens resultat innefattar en redogörelse för viktiga observerade interna faktorer som påverkar processen i fallstudieföretaget mot mer energieffektiva flerbostadshus. Exempel på dessa är: individers kunskap och åsikt om ökad energiprestanda, tidpunkten i projektet då energifrågan lyfts upp, hur kunskap återvinns inom företaget, hur man följer upp energiberäkningar och val av medium för att dela kunskap. Många av de faktorer som identifierats är kopplade till vilken attityd och strategi  ledningen  väljer för energifrågan.  Den attityd som uppifrån förmedlas kommer också att antas av aktörerna i processen, och man har här möjligheten  att göra ett val i hur mycket man som företag vill satsa på fortsatt förbättrad energiprestanda.

  • 30.
    Almén, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Projekteringens möjligheter att minska risken för arbetsskador i byggproduktionen.: En fallstudie av säkerhetsstyrning i två byggprojekt.2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Arbetsolycksfrekvensen bland bygg ‐ och anläggningsarbetare är högre, och pensionsåldern lägre, än genomsnittet i det svenska arbetslivet.

    Tidigare studier visar att projektörer har möjligheter att påverka arbetsmiljön i produktionen, ju tidigare i byggprocessen desto större är påverkansmöjligheterna.

    Enligt svensk lag har projektörer och byggherrar ansvar för arbetsmiljön i produktion. Den 1 januari 2009 skärptes Arbetsmiljölagen så att deras ansvar blev tydligare.

    Två byggprojekt, båda projekterade för januari 2009, studerades. I båda projekten var det en totalentreprenör som ansvarade för att projektera och producera flerbostadshus.

    Syftet med studien var att finna samband mellan arbetsmiljörisker i produktionen och beslut tagna under projekteringsskedet.

    Hantverkare och tjänstemän i produktionen identifierade riskfyllda arbetsmoment, vilka eventuellt hade varit möjliga att förebygga under projekteringsfasen. Fallen dokumenterades och presenterades för dem som hade deltagit i projekteringen av byggnaden. För vart och ett av fallen, ombads projektörerna att beskriva bakgrunden, vilka beslut som hade tagits och varför. I föreliggande rapport presenteras de riskfyllda arbetsmomenten och varför dessa uppstod. Analyser av fallen gjorde det möjligt att förstå vad projektörer kan göra för att förhindra arbetsskador i produktionen, och varför det ibland inte är möjligt.

    Studien visar att projektörer i många fall, inte var medvetna om arbetsmiljökonsekvenserna, och saknade rutiner för att identifiera, eliminera och hantera arbetsmiljörisker under projekteringsskedet. Krav från byggherre, lagar, stadsbyggnadskontor och bransch har begränsat projektörernas handlingsutrymme. Det har även funnits begränsningar vid inköp av produkter, på grund av svårigheter att få tag i produkter och material som är bra ur arbetsmiljösynpunkt samt restriktioner kopplade till avtal. Det har också varit problem med samordning och styrning av konsulter och underentreprenörer.

    Byggherren har ett viktigt ansvar för arbetsmiljön i byggprojekt. Det är av stor vikt att byggherren prioriterar säker arbetsmiljö genom hela byggprojektet, från det tidiga projekteringsskedet tills byggnaden är färdigställd.

    I varje skede av ett byggprojekt behövs rutiner för att samtliga aktörer ska beakta arbetsmiljökonsekvenser av sina beslut, parallellt med konsekvenser för produktivitet och produkt.

    För att åstadkomma förbättrad säkerhetsstyrning i byggprocessen, måste byggföretagen prioritera arbetsmiljöfrågan. Totalentreprenörer har, genom sitt ansvar för både projektering och produktion, goda möjligheter till arbetsmiljöstyrning. Det behövs rutiner för riskanalys i projekteringen, liksom på företagets olika avdelningar, och tillräcklig kompetens inom företaget. Centrala riktlinjer bör tas fram för att stimulera att erfarenheter och säkerhetsinsikter hos individer i hela produktionskedjan tas till vara inför framtida projekt.

    Projekteringens möjligheter att minska risken för arbetsskador i byggproduktionen 2009 6

    För att kunna identifiera, eliminera och hantera arbetsmiljörisker krävs både arbetsmiljökompetens och kompetens om produktionsmetoder. Kunniga hantverkare och tjänstemän från produktionen bör delta under projekteringen och i förberedelserna inför produktionsstart.

    Tillverkare av byggprodukter och byggelement behöver ta arbetsmiljöfrågan i beaktande i högre grad, för att utveckla produkter som är lätta att hantera och möjliga att montera utan risk för arbetsskada.

    Lagstiftningen har initierat förbättringar av säkerhetsstyrningen i byggprocessen. Genom användande av säkerhetsledningssystem kan det ske en ytterligare utveckling mot en säkrare arbetsmiljö i byggproduktionen. Riskfaktorerna som har identifierats i studien kan utgöra en grund för relevanta bedömningskriterier för intern och extern arbetsmiljörevision.

  • 31.
    Alquist, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Klimatanpassning av det svenska vägtransportsystemet: En diskussion om vilka åtgärder som kan vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsamma för att förhindra naturolyckor och deras konsekvenser2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringarna är idag ett faktum och klimatanpassning har identifierats som en av transportsektorns stora framtida utmaningar. Antalet naturolyckor, som översvämningar och bortspolade vägar, som påverkar transportinfrastrukturen väntas öka i ett förändrat klimat. Sådana olyckor förekommer också redan idag. T ex i samband med snösmältningen i Norrland 2010 översvämmades älvar, åar och mindre vattendrag och vägar underminerades eller spolades bort. 150 vägpartier skadades och 64 vägar stängdes av. Återställningskostnaderna uppskattades till 100 miljoner kronor.

    Trafikverket behöver anpassa väginfrastrukturen för att klara det ökande antalet naturolyckor. Samtidigt finns begränsade resurser, varför anpassningen behöver vara så kostnadseffektiv som möjligt. Verket saknar idag kunskap om vilka typer av åtgärder respektive vilka platser som är lönsammast att implementera/åtgärda för att förhindra eller minska konsekvenserna av naturolyckor. Eftersom denna typ av kunskap saknas syftar examensarbetet till att öka kunskapen om vilka åtgärder som är mest lönsamma genom att studera ett antal fall med översvämningar och bortspolad väg. Fallen är dels två hypotetiska fall med bortspolad väg, dels tre verkliga fall med översvämningar. Konsekvensen av en naturolycka beskrivs av skador på tillgångar (person, egendom, finans, miljö och immateriell) som definieras av Trafikverkets metod Riskanalys Vald Vägsträcka. Det finns två typer av åtgärder för att minska risken för naturolyckor; sannolikhetsreducerande åtgärder som minskar sannolikheten för en olycka och konsekvensminskande åtgärder som minskar konsekvensen av en olycka. Nettomervärdeskvoten används för att beräkna lönsamheten med olika åtgärder för de olika fallen. Utifrån fallen förs sedan en diskussion om vilka typer av åtgärder som är mest samhällsekonomiskt lönsamma. I denna är klimatförändringarnas konsekvenser i Sverige hela tiden en central faktor.

    Examensarbetet visar att en åtgärds lönsamhet bestäms av åtgärdskostnaden och vilka tillgångar den minskar eller förhindrar skada på. De vanligaste och därför viktigaste skadekostnaderna är avstängningskostnad (finans) och återställningskostnad (egendom) för vägen. I de studerade översvämningsfallen bestäms lönsamheten för alla åtgärdstyper av avstängningskostnaden för vägen. I räkneexemplen för bortspolad väg finns tre skadade tillgångstyper; person, egendom och finans (avstängningskostnad). Sannolikhetsreducerande åtgärder beror på alla dessa medan konsekvensminskande åtgärder beror på avstängningskostnad. Konsekvensminskande åtgärder framstår alltid som lite mindre lönsamma än vad de är, eftersom indirekta vägavstängningskostnader inte finns med i någon av Trafikverkets modeller.

    I ett förändrat klimat blir översvämningar och bortspolningar vanligare och därmed blir alla typer av åtgärder lönsammare. Åtgärder som idag är olönsamma kan bli nödvändiga för att lyckas reducera framtida risker. Existerande klimatmodeller är inte tillräckligt exakta för att kunna säga precis hur sannolikheten för naturolycka ändras från en plats till en annan. För att kunna prioritera optimalt behöver också riskerna i dagens klimat vara kända. Köpenhamnsdiagnosens slutsatser samt att utsläppen av växthusgaser är värre än i A2-scenariot gör att naturolyckor är sannolikare än vad som beskrivs i rapporterna som citeras i examensarbetet. Framtida skadekostnader är alltså större än Trafikverket räknat med och åtgärder blir därför både angelägnare och lönsammare. En viktig riskaspekt vad gäller klimatförändringarna är att ingen vet exakt vad som kommer hända. Om extremväder får nya förlopp, är det inte rimligt att räkna med att saker kommer fungera på samma som tidigare. T ex skulle det kunna innebära att frekvensen personskador ändras, om inga nya åtgärder för att förhindra dem vidtas.

  • 32.
    Althén Bergman, Felix
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Improving the location of existing recycling stations using GIS2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Alverbro, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Environmental and ethical aspects of destruction of ammunition2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many decision-making situations today affect the safety of individuals and the environment,for instance hazardous waste management. In practice, many of these decisions are madewithout an overall view and with the focus on either the environment or safety. Now and then the areas of regulation are in conflict, i.e. the best alternative according to environmental considerations is not always the safest way and vice versa.A tool for taking an overall view within the areas of safety and environment would simplify matters and provide authorities and industry with a better basis for their work. This thesis forms part of a project which aims to develop a framework tool giving this overall view and supporting decision-making in which the issues (areas) of environment, safety, ethics and costs are all integrated. By developing a framework tool, different areas of interest could be taken into consideration more easily when a decision is to be made and could also help develop legislation and policy locally (at an industry or company), nationally and internationally. The project also aims to provide knowledge about different destruction/decommission methods, their good and bad points and their consequences, in order to provide different actors with a better basis for decision-making. This thesis focuses on development of the framework. The scope of the studies was restricted to environment, ethics and personnel safety due to the extent of the work and time limitations. In the next part of the project, the areas of costs and evaluation will be studied and a first draft of the framework tool will be presented. In order to develop the framework tool, two case studies were carried out here: an environmental analysis involving a life cycle assessment and an ethical analysis. With the help of these analyses, three different methods of destruction of ammunition were compared: Open detonation, modelled both with and without recovery and recycling of metals; incineration in a static kiln with air pollution control combined with recycling of metals, modelled with two different levels of air emissions; and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and recycling of metals, giving a total of five options. Every method of destruction of energetic material, i.e. explosive waste or ammunition, results in environmental impacts in both the short and long term. These environmental impacts have direct or indirect impacts on safety, quality of life, the economy, etc., now and in the future, locally and globally. Life cycle assessment revealed two factors of importance for reducing the environmental impacts: Recycling the metals and air pollution control. As a consequence of controlling these potential negative environmental impacts, safety problems might also be controlled. Ethical analysis revealed that future generations and people in foreign countries will be affected by the destruction of ammunition. When choosing a method for destruction of ammunition, this group (the general public) should thus be given special attention.

     

  • 34.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hagvall, J.
    A life cycle assessment of destruction of ammunition2009In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 170, no 2-3, p. 1101-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have large stocks of ammunition that were produced at a time when decommissioning was not considered. This ammunition will eventually become obsolete and must be destroyed, preferably with minimal impact on the environment and in a safe way for personnel. The aim of this paper is to make a comparison of the environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of three different methods of decommissioning/destruction of ammunition, and to identify the environmental advantages and disadvantages of each of these destruction methods: open detonation; static kiln incineration with air pollution control combined with metal recycling, and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and metal recycling. Data used are for the specific processes and from established LCA databases. Recycling the materials in the ammunition and minimising the spread of airborne pollutants during incineration were found to be the most important factors affecting the life cycle environmental performance of the compared destruction methods. Open detonation with or without metal recycling proved to be the overall worst alternative from a life cycle perspective. The results for the static kiln and combination treatment indicate that the kind of ammunition and location of the destruction plant might determine the choice of method, since the environmental impacts from these methods are of little difference in the case of this specific grenade. Different methods for destruction of ammunition have previously been discussed from a risk and safety perspective. This is however to our knowledge the first study looking specifically on environmentally aspect in a life cycle perspective.

  • 35.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Sandin, P.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Physiology and Forest Genetics, Uppsala.
    Ethical analysis of three methods for destruction of ammunition2011In: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, Vol. 13, no 1-2, p. 63-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative ethical analysis of three different methods for destroying ammunition was performed using a three-party model for ethical risk analysis presented by Hermansson and Hansson. The model was also evaluated by applying it for the case of destruction of a 40-mm grenade in Sweden. A general observation is that future generations and people in foreign countries will be negatively affected by the destruction of ammunition, although they quite often receive no benefit or compensation. A number of groups exposed to risks or environmental impacts will have some benefits from the destruction. However, it is difficult to determine the extent of this benefit or the fairness of the distribution of risks and benefits. This highlights some important limitations of the Hermansson and Hansson model.

  • 36.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nevhage, Björn
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Erdeniz, Robert
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Methods for risk analysis2010Report (Other academic)
  • 37. Ames, Alicia
    et al.
    Mateo-Babiano, Iderlina B.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Transport Workers' Perspective on Indigenous Transport and Climate Change Adaptation2014In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2451, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential role of indigenous transport for increasing the adaptive capacity of selected cities in developing Asia. Indigenous transport drivers were surveyed face-to-face in Bandung, Indonesia, and in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, to gain an understanding of how transport workers, specifically drivers-operators, characterize transport modes considered as indigenous and perceive their potential role in increasing the adaptive capacity of these cities. The main finding was that indigenous transport modes in the two cities in the case study had evolved to fit a niche market influenced by differing urban scales and divergent demographic and geographic characteristics. Thus, the experiences and the perceptions of transport workers on indigenous transport were highly contextualized in relation to service and route characteristics. Operating conditions for drivers were indicative of the regulatory status of indigenous transport modes in the informal landscape. This analysis contributes to an increased understanding of the role and the operation of indigenous transport modes within the transport system. The analysis also contributes policy-relevant insights to improve an understanding of the potential role of indigenous transport in climate change adaptation, as well as to increase awareness and to anticipate a shift to a more environmentally sustainable transport mode.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Gamla Årstabron, FEM-beräkning av förstärkningsåtgärders inverkan på betongbågarna2006Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Andersson, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges (name changed 20110630).
    Gamla Årstabron, FEM-beräkningar av 3-ledsbågarnas verkningssätt och inverkan på förstärkningsåtgärder2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar brottgränsberäkningar av gamla Årstabrons 3-ledsbågar. Beräkningarna är till stor del utförda med FEM och är gjorda på liknande sätt som tidigare rapport avseende nolledsbågarna.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Gamla Årstabron, Sammanställning av beräkningar avseende förstärkningar av betongbågarna2007Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Gamla Årstabron, Utvärdering av verkningssätt hos betongvalv genom mätning och FEM-modellering – Etapp 12005Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Utvärdering av krafter i Älvsborgsbron genom dynamisk mätning och analys2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport behandlar mätning och analys av krafter i Älvsborgsbron i Göteborgsom underlag för klassningsberäkning. Den metod som används för bestämning av krafternaär den s.k. vibrationsmetoden där konstruktionselement sätts i svängning och dessas egenfrekvenserbestäms med hjälp av accelerometrar. Med kända egenfrekvenser för t.ex. kablaroch hängare kan krafterna i dessa analyseras fram. Eftersom flera av de aktuella elementenhar egenskaper som inte är enkla att beskriva med hjälp av faktorer som geometriska mått,massa, styvhet och inspänningsförhållanden, har möda lagts ner på att använda så noggrannametoder som möjligt för att kunna bestämma krafter och kraftfördelning. Metoderna beskrivsi rapporten och resultat och noggrannhet diskuteras och bedöms.De resultat som presenteras beträffande krafter bedöms ha en så god noggrannhet som det f.n.går att analysera fram med idag kända någorlunda enkla metoder.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Karoumi, Raid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Evaluating cable forces in cable supported bridges using ambient vibration method2006In: The International Conference on Bridge Engineering – Challenges in the 21st Century , November 1-3, 2006, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the assessment of cable forces in existing cable supported bridges using the ambient vibration method. A case study of the Älvsborg suspension bridge in Sweden is presented. Dynamic measurements of the backstays and hangers as well as on each strand in one of the splay chambers have been carried out. The measured frequencies are evaluated and calculations of corresponding axial force in the cable structures are performed taking into account the cable sag, boundary conditions and flexural rigidity. Modal analyses have been used to study the shape of vibration and for comparison with finite element models.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Esmeralda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Flytande städer: Att bygga städer och stadsdelar på vatten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population growth and climate change are two main factors in today’s urban planning. Approximately 71 % of the Earth’s surface is consisting of water and a large part of that is not being utilized to the fullest extent. Today’s buildings that entirely floats on water is something that we have already begun to see, however there is a low quantity of them. The following question is whether important issues connected to urban planning could be solved by expanding the amount of floating constructions, and thereby begin to use water as a place for cities and city districts to take form.

     

    The purpose of this study is to present the concept of floating cities and to discuss whether it could be an alternative for future planning and urbanization in Sweden. 

     

    By doing a literature study and a case study that are both supplemented by interviews, information will be obtained to use as a foundation for an analysis and discussion where conclusions will be made. The history of floating construction is described together with existing techniques and prerequisites that enable floating structures. Laws relevant to the subject is also described, for example the law of shoreline protection, which plays a major role when it comes to exploiting water areas. The cases in the study consist of both Swedish and international examples of projects that involve floating constructions. Main focus will be on Marinstaden in Nacka and Ijburg in Amsterdam. To complete the study and get a better overview, interviews are held with Alexander Erixson, planning architect at Nacka Municipality, and with Richard Bergström, CEO of AquaVilla AB.

     

    The conclusion is that it is possible to expand the number of floating districts in Sweden. Urban development would be positively influenced when opportunities are created, and issues as housing shortage could be solved. It could as well work as a prevention for environmental issues. The main problem that could occur is that floating districts might create segregation, although advocates states that well planned urbanization and support from laws and legalizations could make it possible to exploit water areas with floating buildings without the problem of segregation emerging. The challenge is to convince the society that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. By that we achieve acceptance from more people which is a presumption when it comes to trying to accomplish a development and expansion of floating constructions in Sweden. 

  • 45.
    Andersson, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Analys av Skiftingehus skolgårds fysiska miljö ur ett trygghetsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46.
    Andersson, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Planera för barn i förtätad stad: En studie av hur barnvänliga utemiljöer för skolor och förskolor kan skapas i samband med stadsförtätning i Eskilstuna kommun2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of a growing population and negative climate impact, today’s planning trend in Sweden is going towards densification which means that cities are being developed by concentrating new buildings on already exploited land. Even though densification is linked to sustainability this strategy has resulted in the exclusion of significant places for children’s outdoor play, such as school and preschool playgrounds. At the same time, children are a quite powerless social group that constitute the future of society and thus knowledge of their perspectives is necessary in urban planning. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to contribute to an increased understanding of how the child perspective, the perception of a child’s best, can be applied in relation to densification of the city in the municipal community planning. In the study the child perspective is defined by examining how a municipality can create child-friendly school and preschool outdoor environments.

    This study applies a qualitative approach through a case study of the municipality of Eskilstuna. By conducting interviews and a documentary study, data regarding the municipality’s work with school and preschool outdoor environments was generated. In order to gain an understanding of the conditions for municipal community planning, legislation as well as government and municipal documents were studied. A literate review was also conducted with the aim of studying previous work on the child perspective, the child impact assessment, the child-friendly outdoor environment and collaborative planning. Together with data collected from expert interviews this constitutes the study’s theoretical framework that in turn formed the basis for the following discussion.

    The results prove that child-friendly outdoor environments for schools and preschools comprise several factors that promote children’s development: room for outdoor play, reduced traffic, green and natural environments, variation and challenges. Among these, room for outdoor play, the size of the school or preschool playground, is the fundamental factor.

    The study also shows that school and preschool outdoor environments are a matter that often conflicts with other challenges that the municipal community planning has to deal with. In the municipality of Eskilstuna there is an ambition to create child-friendly outdoor environments for schools and preschools. However, the lack of available places as well as strategies and guidelines makes this difficult in practice. In order to create child-friendly outdoor environments for schools and preschools the results indicate the importance of using a collaborative approach through cooperation and mutual understanding between different actors. Also, it is stated that children’s needs should be highlighted in an early stage of the process to ensure room for school and preschool playgrounds in the dense city.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Seppälä, Max
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Verification of the response of a concrete arch dam subjected to seasonal temperature variations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many dams existing today were constructed around fifty years ago. Condition monitoring is essential for maintaining high safety and determining the current level of safety and stability for these dams. There is a need for new monitoring techniques and finite element coupled monitoring could be one of these techniques. A concrete arch dam located in Sweden is modelled and calibrated with respect to concrete temperature measurements. The temperature distribution is then defined as a prescribed strain in a structural mechanical model in which a parametric study is performed. The results from the parametric study are compared to measurements of the crest deformation and a combination of parameters is found giving the lowest difference between measurements and model results for the mid-section. The results show that the finite element model can be used to predict the behavior of the dam with acceptable deviation. The parametric study indicates that the reference temperature of the concrete has little effect on the amplitude of the deformation and that the governing factor is the coefficient of thermal expansion.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Sophia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Jonsén, Oscar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Schaktfri ledningsbyggnad: En kostnadsanalys mellan styrd borrning och konventionell schaktning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Horizontal directional drilling is a trenchless method used to install pipelines underground. This thesis is conducted in collaboration with Styrud Ingenjörsfirma AB, who perceived lacking knowledge within the industry regarding the financial aspects of directional drilling. The purpose of this thesis is to carry out a cost analysis that defines how directional drilling stands financially against traditional excavation. The study also intends to describe which factors that influence a possible economic breakpoint, in this study referring to when a certain method becomes the economically strongest alternative. This thesis has been carried out to as objectively as possible describe the topic focusing on making the methods analytically comparable. To carry out the analysis, an economic model has been created. The model and its design have been created in a manner that makes it easy to develop it in the future and aims to act as a guide for project planners to indicate which method to proceed with. From the economic model, 70 cases have been studied. The result shows that directional drilling is cheaper in 73% of the cases. In the rest of the cases, the result suggests that directional drilling as a method generally is not so expensive that consideration of using the method disappears. Through results and analysis, it is concluded that directional drilling in most cases is a strong alternative to traditional excavation from an economic standpoint.

  • 49. Andrée, Martin
    et al.
    Larsson, Karolina
    Nordqvist Darell, Fanny
    Malm, Linus
    Tullberg, Odd
    Wallberg, Ann
    Norrsell, Johan
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Seipel, Stefan
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Slutrapport för projektet Smart planering för byggande: Delprojekt 3: BIM som informationsstöd för 3D fastighetsbildning2018Report (Other academic)
  • 50. Andrée, Martin
    et al.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Seipel, Stefan
    BIM and 3D property visualisation2018Conference paper (Other academic)
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