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  • 1.
    Abbas, Naeem
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Runtime Parallelisation Switching for MPEG4 Encoder on MPSoC2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The recent development for multimedia applications on mobile terminals raised the need for flexible and scalable computing platforms that are capable of providing considerable (application specific) computational performance within a low cost and a low energy budget. The MPSoC with multi-disciplinary approach, resolving application mapping, platform architecture and runtime management issues, provides such multiple heterogeneous, flexible processing elements. In MPSoC, the run-time manager takes the design time exploration information as an input and selects an active Pareto point based on quality requirement and available platform resources, where a Pareto point corresponds to a particular parallelization possibility of target application. To use system’s scalability at best and enhance application’s flexibility a step further, the resource management and Pareto point selection decisions need to be adjustable at run-time. This thesis work experiments run-time Pareto point switching for MPEG-4 encoder. The work involves design time exploration and then embedding of two parallelization possibilities of MPEG-4 encoder into one single component and enabling run-time switching between parallelizations, to give run-time control over adjusting performance-cost criteria and allocation de-allocation of hardware resources at run-time. The newer system has the capability to encode each video frame with different parallelization. The obtained results offer a number of operating points on Pareto curve in between the previous ones at sequence encoding level. The run-time manager can improve application performance up to 50% or can save memory bandwidth up to 15%, according to quality request.

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    fulltext
  • 2.
    Abdalla, Osman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Design and implementation of a signaling system for a novel light-baseed bioprinter: Design och implementering av ett signalsystem för en ny ljusbaserad bioprinter2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A 3D bioprinter employing light-based technology has been designed and constructed in an EU-funded research initiative known as BRIGHTER (Bioprinting by Light-Sheet Lithography). This initiative is a collaborative effort between institutions and companies and aims to develop a technique for efficient and accurate production of engineered tissue.

    Presently, the bioprinter’s function is limited to 2D printing, with the lack of 3D printing capabilities. 

    The problem addressed is the integration of two separate electronic systems within the bioprinter to control the laser beam’s trajectory for 3D printing. The goal of the project is to create functional software and simulation tools to control the hardware modules in a precise and synchronized manner, thereby enabling 3D printing.

    The outcome manifests as a software prototype, which successfully facilitates intercommunication between the two electronic subsystems within the bioprinter, thereby enabling further progress on the bioprinter with 3D printing available. Nevertheless, the prototype requires thorough testing to determine its optimal operational efficiency in terms of timing the movements for the various hardware modules.

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    Bioprinter
  • 3.
    Abdirahman, Khalid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Förnberg, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Styrsystem för solcellsladdade batterier2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of solar cells is continuously increasing in Sweden and the powergenerated by the solar cells is usually stored in lead acid batteries. These batterieshave a bad impact on the environment as much energy and environmentallyhazardous materials like lead and sulfuric acid are required to manufacture thesebatteries. Östersjökompaniet AB and many of its customers realize the importanceof sustainable thinking and were interested in knowing if it was possible tomaximize the lifetime of these batteries. During the course of the work, differentmethods of battery charging and discharging were analyzed that could affect thebatteries lifetime and how to take care of them to optimize them. A chargecontroller was used to optimize the charge of the battery. To calculate theremaining state of charge in the battery, the Extended voltmeter method was used.A prototype that was able to charge the batteries optimally, warn when the batterycapacity became too low, and a user-friendly application for battery monitoring wasdesigned. The calculated lifetime of a battery is not an exact science. According tostudies the lifetime of a battery can be doubled if it is c

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    Styrsystem för solcellsladdade batterier
  • 4.
    Adhi, Boma
    et al.
    Center for Computational Science (R-CCS), RIKEN, Japan.
    Cortes, Carlos
    Center for Computational Science (R-CCS), RIKEN, Japan.
    Sozzo, Emanuele Del
    Center for Computational Science (R-CCS), RIKEN, Japan.
    Ueno, Tomohiro
    Center for Computational Science (R-CCS), RIKEN, Japan.
    Tan, Yiyu
    Iwate University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Japan.
    Kojima, Takuya
    Center for Computational Science (R-CCS), RIKEN, Japan; The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Japan.
    Podobas, Artur
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Sano, Kentaro
    Center for Computational Science (R-CCS), RIKEN, Japan.
    Less for more: reducing intra-cgra connectivity for higher performance and efficiency in hpc2023In: 2023 IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium Workshops, IPDPSW 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023, p. 452-459Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Arrays (CGRAs) are a class of reconfigurable architectures that inherit the performance of Domain-specific accelerators and the reconfigurability aspects of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Historically, CGRAs have been successfully used to accelerate embedded applications and are now considered to accelerate High-Performance Computing (HPC) applications in future supercomputers. However, embedded systems and supercomputers are two vastly different domains with different applications and constraints, and it is today not fully understood what CGRA design decisions adequately cater to the HPC market. One such unknown design decision is regarding the interconnect that facilitates intra-CGRA communication. Our findings show that even the typical king-style mesh-like topology is often under-utilized with a typical HPC workload, leading to inefficiency. This research aims to explore the provisioning of intra-CGRA interconnect for HPC-oriented workloads and, ultimately, recoup the potential performance and efficiency lost by reducing the interconnect complexity. We proposed several reduced interconnect topologies based on the usage statistic. Then we evaluate the tradeoffs regarding hardware cost, routability of DFGs, and computational throughput.

  • 5.
    Adhi, Boma
    et al.
    RIKEN, Ctr Computat Sci R CCS, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan..
    Cortes, Carlos
    RIKEN, Ctr Computat Sci R CCS, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan..
    Tan, Yiyu
    Iwate Univ, Dept Syst Innovat Engn, Sci & Engn, Morioka, Iwate, Japan..
    Kojima, Takuya
    RIKEN, Ctr Computat Sci R CCS, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.;Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Informat Sci & Technol, Tokyo, Japan..
    Podobas, Artur
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Sano, Kentaro
    RIKEN, Ctr Computat Sci R CCS, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan..
    The Cost of Flexibility: Embedded versus Discrete Routers in CGRAs for HPC2022In: 2022 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CLUSTER COMPUTING (CLUSTER 2022), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2022, p. 347-356Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Arrays (CGRAs) are a class of reconfigurable architectures that inherit the performance and usability properties of Central Processing Units (CPUs) and the reconfigurability aspects of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Historically, CGRAs have been successfully used to accelerate embedded applications and are today also being considered to accelerate High-Performance Computing (HPC) applications in future supercomputers. However, embedded systems and supercomputers are two vastly different domains with different applications and constraints, and it is today not fully understood what CGRA design decisions adequately cater to the HPC market. One such unknown design decision is regarding the interconnect that facilitates intra-CGRA communication. Today, intra-CGRA communication comes in two flavors: using routers closely embedded into the compute units or using discrete routers outside the compute units. The former trades flexibility for a reduction in hardware cost, while the latter has greater flexibility but is more resource hungry. In this paper, we aspire to understand which of both designs best suits the CGRA HPC segment. We extend our previous methodology, which consists of both a parameterized CGRA design and an OpenMP-capable compiler, to accommodate both types of routing designs, including verification tests using RTL simulation. Our results show that the discrete router design can facilitate better use of processing elements (PEs) compared to embedded routers and can achieve up to 79.27% reduction in unnecessary PE occupancy for an aggressively unrolled stencil kernel on a 18 x 16 CGRA at a (estimated) hardware resource overhead cost of 6.3x. This reduction in PE occupancy can be used, for example, to exploit instruction-level parallelism (ILP) through even more aggressive unrolling.

  • 6.
    Adhi, Boma
    et al.
    Center for Computational Science (R-CCS), RIKEN, Japan.
    Cortes, Carlos
    Center for Computational Science (R-CCS), RIKEN, Japan.
    Ueno, Tomohiro
    Center for Computational Science (R-CCS), RIKEN, Japan.
    Tan, Yiyu
    Iwate University, Department of Systems Innovation Engineering, Japan.
    Kojima, Takuya
    Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Podobas, Artur
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Sano, Kentaro
    Center for Computational Science (R-CCS), RIKEN, Japan.
    Exploring Inter-tile Connectivity for HPC-oriented CGRA with Lower Resource Usage2022In: FPT 2022: 21st International Conference on Field-Programmable Technology, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to explore the tradeoffs between routing flexibility and hardware resource usage, ultimately reducing the resource usage of our CGRA architecture while maintaining compute efficiency. we investigate statistics of connection usages among switch blocks for benchmark DFGs, propose several CGRA architecture with a reduced connection, and evaluate their hardware cost, routability of DFGs, and computational throughput for benchmarks. We found that the topology with horizontal plus diagonal connection saves about 30% of the resource usage while maintaining virtually the same routing flexibility as the full connectivity topology.

  • 7.
    Alam, Assad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Björk, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Garcia Alonso, Liliana
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Khaksari, Farzad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Khan, Altamash
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Kjellberg, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Liang, Kuo-Yun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Lyberger, Rickard
    Scania CV AB.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Nilsson, John-Olof
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Scania CV AB.
    Pettersson, Simon
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Stålklinga, Elin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Sundman, Dennis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Zachariah, Dave
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Cooperative driving according to Scoop2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Scania are entering the GCDC 2011 under the name Scoop –Stockholm Cooperative Driving. This paper is an introduction to their team and to the technical approach theyare using in their prototype system for GCDC 2011.

  • 8.
    Almlöf, Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Beyond the hype: A critical look at the motivations driving automated driving systems research2024In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, E-ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 24, article id 101075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated driving systems (ADS) have gained sizable attention over the last decade, promising safer, cheaper, and more accessible transportation. However, the discourse driving this research has not been thoroughly explored, with scant qualitative work detailing specific cases. To address this gap, this paper explores the motivations for the societal need for ADS research for the 500 most cited publications in the field, investigating explicit motivations (e.g., accident reduction), writing style, assumed likelihood of outcomes, and the text's tone. Qualitative and quantitative techniques are used, as well as the tool ChatGPT to investigate the large number of texts. The results show that the most common motivation is the emergence itself (‘ADS are coming, so they need to be studied’), followed by potential benefits such as accident reduction, congestion mitigation, increased comfort and productivity onboard, and environmental concerns. The tone of the publications is primarily neutral or slightly positive but with some deterministic descriptions like ‘ADS will lead to’ rather than more cautious language like ‘can’ or ‘may’. The results offer a glimpse rather than a comprehensive overview of the discourse on ADS within the research community. While the analysis might not capture the nuanced perspectives that readers encounter in publications focused on 'impacts', the reviewed publications remain the most cited works in the field, likely affecting the discourse to some extent.

  • 9.
    Almosawi, Talib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Karanta, George
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    ZigBee-based climate measurement system for thermal comfort in traffic busses2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the work process two (WP2) of a project led by the traffic administration in Stockholm to achieve the passengers' thermal comfort in traffic buses. 

    The purpose of this thesis is to design and implement a measurement system comprised in eight measurement position in a bus. Each position is able to transmit data using a wireless communication protocol, with a central unit collecting all the transmitted data taking into consideration the accuracy of the measurements and filtering out the incorrect data.

    In order to accomplish this, a literature study is conducted investigating different measurement methods for different parameters, different communication protocols were analysed as well to determine an appropriate communication protocol suitable for climate measurement in a bus environment with passengers present on board. 

    The output of the HVAC system is also required to help the traffic administration demonstrate the results of adjusting the temperature in the bus to reach the thermal comfort and how it led to saving energy.

    The system incorporates ZigBee , ESP32 microcontroller in the sender positions and a Raspberry pi operating as a central unit to collect data and store it in a file system providing an accurate data that will help the traffic administration achieve their goals.

    Unfortunately, there were some diffculties accessing CAN system data to provide the output of the HVAC system.

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    ZigBee-based climate measurement system for thermal comfort in traffic busses
  • 10.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Pelc, Mariusz
    University of Greenwich.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Context-Aware Adaptation in DySCAS2009In: Electronic Communications of the EASST, E-ISSN 1863-2122, Vol. 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DySCAS is a dynamically self-configuring middleware for automotivecontrol systems. The addition of autonomic, context-aware dynamic configurationto automotive control systems brings a potential for a wide range of benefits in termsof robustness, flexibility, upgrading etc. However, the automotive systems representa particularly challenging domain for the deployment of autonomics concepts, havinga combination of real-time performance constraints, severe resource limitations,safety-critical aspects and cost pressures. For these reasons current systems are staticallyconfigured. This paper describes the dynamic run-time configuration aspectsof DySCAS and focuses on the extent to which context-aware adaptation has beenachieved in DySCAS, and the ways in which the various design and implementationchallenges are met.

  • 11.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea Data AB.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Autonomic Middleware for Automotive Embedded Systems2009In: Autonomic Communication / [ed] Vasilakos, Athanasios V.; Parashar, Manish; Karnouskos, Stamatis; Pedrycz, Witold, Springer US , 2009, p. 169-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes DySCAS: an advanced autonomic platform-independent middleware framework for automotive embedded systems. The concepts and architecture are motivated and described in detail, focusing on the need for, and achievement of, high flexibility and automatic run-time reconfiguration. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, and performance challenges of the automotive domain. Self-management is achieved in terms of automatic configuration for context-aware behavior, resource-use efficiency, and self-healing to handle run-time detected faults. The self-management is governed by the use of policies distributed throughout the middleware components. The simulation techniques that have been used for extensive validation are described and some key results presented. A reference implementation is presented, illustrating the way in which the various concepts and mechanisms can be realized and orchestrated.

  • 12.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Leonhardi, Alexander
    Daimler AG.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Jahnich, Isabell
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Burton, Simon
    Redell, Ola
    Enea Data AB.
    Weber, Alexander
    Vollmer, Vasco
    A Future Dynamically Reconfigurable Automotive Software System2008In: Proceedings of the Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software systems in vehicles are of rapidly increasing commercial importance for the automotive industry. Current systems employ a static run-time environment; due to the difficulty and cost involved in the development of dynamic systems in a high-integrity embedded control context. A dynamic system, referring to the system configuration, would greatly increase the flexibility of the offered functionality and enable customised software configuration for individual vehicles, adding customer value through plug-and-play capability, and increased quality due to its inherent ability to adjust to changes in hardware and software. We envisage an automotive system containing a variety of components, from a multitude of organizations, not necessarily known at development time. The system dynamically adapts its configuration to suit the run-time system constraints.This paper presents our vision for future automotive control systems that will be regarded in an EU research project, referred to as DySCAS (Dynamically Self-Configuring Automotive Systems). We propose a self-configuring vehicular control system architecture, with capabilities that include automatic discovery and inclusion of new devices, self-optimisation to best-use the processing, storage and communication resources available, self-diagnostics and ultimately self-healing. Such an architecture has benefits extending to reduced development and maintenance costs, improved passenger safety and comfort, and flexible owner customisation.Specifically, this paper addresses the following issues: The state of the art of embedded software systems in vehicles, emphasising the current limitations arising from fixed run-time configurations; and the benefits and challenges of dynamic configuration, giving rise to opportunities for self-healing, self-optimisation, and the automatic inclusion of users’ Consumer Electronic (CE) devices. Our proposal for a dynamically reconfigurable automotive software system platform is outlined and a typical use-case is presented as an example to exemplify the benefits of the envisioned dynamic capabilities.

  • 13.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Jahnich, Isabell
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Towards a Dynamically Reconfigurable Automotive Control System Architecture2007In: Embedded System Design: Topics, Techniques and Trends, 2007, p. 71-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a vehicular control system architecture that supports self-configuration. The architecture is based on dynamic mapping of processes and services to resources to meet the challenges of future demanding use-scenarios in which systems must be flexible to exhibit context-aware behaviour and to permit customization. The architecture comprises a number of low-level services that will provide the required system functionalities, which include automatic discovery and incorporation of new devices, self-optimisation to best-use the processing, storage and communication resources available, and self-diagnostics. The benefits and challenges of dynamic configuration and the automatic inclusion of users' Consumer Electronic (CE) devices are briefly discussed and the self-management and control-theoretic technologies that will be used are described in outline. A number of generic use-cases have been identified, each with several specific use-case scenarios. To demonstrate the extent of the flexible reconfiguration facilitated by the architecture, some of these use-cases are described, each exemplifying a different aspect of dynamic reconfiguration.

  • 14.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Ward, Paul
    The University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Hawthorne, James
    The University of Greenwich.
    Mariusz, Pelc
    The University of Greenwich.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A Middleware Approach to Dynamically Configurable Automotive Embedded Systems2008In: ISVCS 2008: The First Annual International ICST Symposium on Vehicular Computing Systems, EUDL - European Union Digital Library , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an advanced dynamically configurable middleware for automotive embedded systems. The layered architecture of the middleware, and the way in which core and optional services provide transparency and flexible platform independent support for portability, is described. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, performance and safety challenges of the automotive domain. The use of policies to achieve flexible run-time configuration is explained with reference to the core policy technology which has been extended and adapted specifically for this project. The component model is described, focussing on how the configuration logic is distributed throughout the middleware and application components, by inserting ‘decision points’ wherever deferred logic or run-time context-sensitive configuration is required. Included in this discussion are the way in which context information is automatically provided to policies to inform context-aware behaviour; the dynamic wrapper mechanism which isolates policies, provides transparency to software developers and silently handles run-time errors arising during dynamic configuration operations.

  • 15. Anwar, Hassan
    et al.
    Jafri, Syed Mohammad Asad Hassan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Sergei, Dytckov
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Hemani, Ahmed
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Plosila, Juha
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Exploring Spiking Neural Network on Coarse-Grain Reconfigurable Architectures2014In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2014, p. 64-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, reconfigurable architectures are becoming increas- ingly popular as the candidate platforms for neural net- works. Existing works, that map neural networks on re- configurable architectures, only address either FPGAs or Networks-on-chip, without any reference to the Coarse-Grain Reconfigurable Architectures (CGRAs). In this paper we investigate the overheads imposed by implementing spiking neural networks on a Coarse Grained Reconfigurable Ar- chitecture (CGRAs). Experimental results (using point to point connectivity) reveal that up to 1000 neurons can be connected, with an average response time of 4.4 msec.

  • 16.
    Arenander, Johannes
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Measuring Sprint Speed with Ultra-wideband Technology2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sprinting can be an important ability in sports, and there are many methods for measuring sprint performance. Two common methods are hand-held timing and fully automatic timing systems. However, hand-held timing is inaccurate due to reaction time, and fully automatic timing can be impractical since it involves complex equipment. Another way of measuring sprint performance is to obtain an athlete's velocity curve with a laser speed gun, although this requires that the laser is aimed towards the sprinter at all times.

    In this project, ultra-—widebandwhich is a radio technology capable of accurate —rangingis evaluated in a practical experiment by observing an athlete sprinting over a short distance. First, a pair of communicating ranging devices are developed. Measurements are then collected from the athlete and compared to video analysis to estimate the ranging error. The results suggest that ultra-wideband may be an alternative to laser speed guns for measuring sprint velocity. In the future, research should be focused on calibrating devices and testing ultra-wideband technology for longer sprint distances.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Armengaud, Eric
    et al.
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Zoier, Markus
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Baumgart, Andreas
    OFFIS E. V., Germany.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, De Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Griessnig, Gerhard
    AVL List GmbH, Austria; Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Hein, Christian
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Ritter, Tom
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Tavakoli-Kolagari, Ramin
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Sweden.
    Model-based Toolchain for the Efficient Development of Safety-Relevant Automotive Embedded Systems2011In: SAE Technical Paper: Paper Number: 2011-01-0056, Society of Automotive Engineers, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced functionalities unthinkable a few decades ago are now being introduced into automotive vehicles through embedded systems for reasons like emission control, vehicle connectivity, safety and cooperative behaviors. As the development often involves stakeholders from different engineering disciplines and organizations, the complexity due to shared requirements, interdependencies of data, functions, and resources, as well as tight constraints in regards to timing, safety, and resource efficiency makes the system integration, quality control and assurance, reuse and change management increasingly more difficult. This calls for a more rigorous approach to the development of automotive embedded systems and components. This paper describes the CESAR reference technology platform (RTP) that supports the formalization of various engineering concerns in the development of safety-relevant embedded systems and thereby a model-based integration of various tools and methods to form seamless environments or toolchains for the development of such systems.

  • 18.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Exploratory Testing: Do Contextual Factors Influence Software Fault Identification?2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Exploratory Testing (ET) is a manual approach to software testing in which learning, test design and test execution occurs simultaneously. Still a developing topic of interest to academia, although as yet insufficiently investigated, most studies focus on the skills and experience of the individual tester. However, contextual factors such as project processes, test scope and organisational boundaries are also likely to affect the approach.

    Objective: This study explores contextual differences between teams of testers at a MedTec firm developing safety-critical products to ascertain whether contextual factors can influence the outcomes of ET, and what associated implications can be drawn for test management.

    Method: A development project was studied in two iterations, each consisting of a quantitative phase testing hypotheses concerning when ET would identify faults in comparison to other testing approaches and a qualitative phase involving interviews.

    Results: Influence on ET is traced to how the scope of tests focus learning on different types of knowledge and imply an asymmetry in the strength and number of information flows to test teams.

    Conclusions: While test specialisation can be attractive to software development organisations, results suggest changes to processes and organisational structures might be required to maintain test efficiency throughout projects: the responsibility for test cases might need to be rotated late in projects, and asymmetries in information flows might require management to actively strengthen the presence and connections of test teams throughout the firm. However, further research is needed to investigate whether these results also hold for non safety-critical faults.

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  • 19.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Safety and Tool Integration, A System-Theoretic Process Analysis2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report I detail a System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) hazard analysis of the tool integration of development environments for embedded systems. Building on results from previous studies I generalize and expand on earlier findings regarding the relationship between safety and tool integration.

    To prepare for the analysis I customized STPA for the context of tool integration. This customization allowed me to subsequently design and analyze three versions of a tool chain originally provided by an industrial partner. A net result of 85, 98 and 73 risks was identified, in comparison to 25 integration weaknesses identified through expert knowledge. The design of the different versions of the tool chain and a comparison of the identified risks with the integration weaknesses allowed me to validate the usefulness of STPA for both identifying and correctly categorizing risks and causes in the context of tool integration. An analysis of my results also points out the fact that STPA is not a silver bullet, without enough expertise it is easy to omit important parts of process models and thus arrive at incomplete conclusions.

    In regard to the relationship between safety and tool integration nine properties were identified, properties that need to be supported correctly to avoid hazards in the context of tool integration. These properties require support throughout a noticeable part of a development environment to have an impact and derive much of that impact from the possibility to centralize them. They also interrelate, so that often several of them need to be handled to mitigate one type of risk. However, introducing support for them across a whole development environment is likely to be costly, or even impossible. Furthermore, introducing support for these properties will mitigate some risks, but also create other risks at higher levels of organization.

    These properties therefore point to the size a development environment, the number of contexts towards which the development environment can be verified and the effort required to ensure the added requirements at higher levels of organization as deciding factors on whether the effort to support them should be made (other efforts, more efficient in those particular cases, could otherwise be considered). The existence of these properties also point to the possibility of developing and pre-qualifying tools and tool chains based on the assumption that some or all of these properties will be supported by the final development environment. This could potentially lower, or at least distribute, the cost of the final qualification.

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  • 20.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration and Safety: A Foundation for Analysing the Impact of Tool Integrationon Non-functional Properties2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of embedded systems development is becoming difficult to handle with development environments based on disjoint engineering tools. Support for interactions between various engineering tools, especially through automated means, has therefore received an increased amount of attention during the last few years. The subsequent increase in the amount of tool integration is leading to an increased impact of tool integration on non-functional properties of development efforts, development environments and end products. At the same time there is a lack of methods and tools for analysing the relationship between these properties and tool integration. To establish a foundation for analysing this generic relationship, the specific relationship between tool integration and the safety of end products is analysed in this thesis.

    A survey was conducted to analyze the State of the Art of tool integration as related to safety. This survey specifically identified the lack of an efficient handling of tool integration by modern safety standards as an important concern. In relation to this survey, three theories were identified as of specific importance. These are the school of thought known as Systems Thinking, the Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) causality model and the System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) hazard analysis technique.

    Building on these theories, this thesis provides original contributions intended to (1) describe concepts and models related to tool integration and safety (the first and second contribution), (2) link tool integration to safety in a way that reduces complexity during analysis (the third contribution) and (3) propose how to interpret and make use of the implications of the presented theories and the first three contributions (the fourth and fifth contribution).

    • The first contribution is a new conceptual model of a development effort that emphasizes tool integration.

    • The second contribution is a new reference model for tool integration in highly heterogeneous environments.

    • The third contribution consists of nine safety-related tool chain properties, i.e. properties of tool chains that could mitigate at least part of the risks introduced by tool integration.

    • The fourth contribution is a proposition on how to identify safety implications due to a high level of automation of tool integration.

    • The fifth contribution is a proposition for a new software tool qualification process.

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  • 21.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards the Automated Qualification of Tool Chain Design2012In: SAFECOMP 2012 Workshops: Sassur, ASCoMS, DESEC4LCCI, ERCIM/EWICS, IWDE, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012, Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 392-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of safety-critical embedded systems is supported by a number of development tools, which are increasingly integrated into automated tool chains. Safety standards require these tool chains to be qualified, which is costly and requires a large effort. To reduce cost and effort tool chains can be composed of pre-qualified tools and then themselves pre-qualified by identifying the parts of tool chain software that have an impact on safety more exactly. In this paper we propose the use of a modeling language to describe this tool chain composition. This allows us to reduce effort even further by automatically analyzing the tool chain model for safety issues. It also promises to reduce the effort and cost of later steps in the deployment of the tool chain by formalizing the communication of safety issues and automating the generation of code for tool chain software.

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  • 22.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Björk, Jennie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Knowing too much?: On bias due to domain-specific knowledge in internal crowdsourcing for explorative ideas2021In: R&D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal crowdsourcing utilizes a firm’s employees, of which many have a strong understanding of the domains in which the firm operates, for contributing with, developing and evaluating ideas. On the one hand, these employees can use their domain-specific knowledge to identify the value of what may seem a far-fetched solution to the average employee. On the other hand, previous research has shown that employees typically evaluate ideas in their domains less favorably if they do not align with ongoing exploitation activities. Hence, this study focuses on whether a higher degree of relevant domain-specific knowledge makes employees participating in internal crowdsourcing prefer exploitative solutions when evaluating ideas. An empirical study of an online platform for firm-internal innovation in a multinational engineering company showed that employees who only infrequently participated in internal crowdsourcing mostly contributed to and evaluated ideas within their own domain. Employees who frequently participated also contributed to and evaluated ideas outside their own domains. By statistically analyzing group differences during idea evaluation, we show that employees participating infrequently favor exploitable solutions, whereas employees participating frequently are more uncertain. The former difference is only seen concerning ideas that require domain-specific knowledge to understand, but the latter is observed for all types of ideas. This study makes three substantial contributions. First, employees with domain-specific knowledge, through their preference for exploitative solutions, bias the outcome of internal crowdsourcing when idea evaluation requires domain-specific knowledge. Second, this bias is aggravated by the overall higher level of uncertainty displayed by employees participating frequently in internal crowdsourcing and thereby tend to reach out to other domains. Third, in order to mitigate this, bias management can build engagement in internal crowdsourcing through idea challenges that do not require domain-specific knowledge and consider avoiding employees with a strongly associated domain knowledge for idea evaluation.

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  • 23.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Qualifying Software Tools, a Systems Approach2012In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 31st International Conference, SAFECOMP 2012, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 340-351Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern safety standards designed to ensure safety in embedded system products often take a descriptive approach, focusing on describing appropriate requirements on management, processes, methods and environments during development. While the qualification of software tools has been included in several such standards, how to handle the safety implications of tools integrated into tool chains has been largely ignored. This problem is aggravated by an increase both in automation of tool integration and the size of development environments.

    In this paper we define nine safety goals for tool chains and suggest a qualification method that takes a systems approach on certifying software tools as parts of tool chains. With this method, software tools are developed and pre-qualified under the assumption that certain properties will be supported by the development environment they are to be deployed in. The proposed method is intended to (1) achieve a stronger focus on the relevant parts of tool chains in regard to safety and (2) separate the extra effort these parts imply from the effort already stipulated by safety standards.

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  • 24.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Safety-Guided Design through System-Theoretic Process Analysis, Benefits and Difficulties2012In: 30th International System Safety Conference Proceedings, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development environments for embedded systems are moving towards increased automation between Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) engineering tools. While automation provides new opportunities for e.g. verification, it also to some extent decreases the possibility of identifying and acting on safety issues that arise during development. To investigate the relationship between tool integration and safety we performed a System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) of a tool chain from an industrial case study. This tool chain was then reanalyzed and redesigned twice, in part motivated by identified hazards.

    This paper presents our experiences from applying STPA to safety-guided design in the context of integrating COTS engineering tools into tool chains. We discuss the benefits of and difficulties with applying STPA. We also suggest improvements that complement STPA with support methods and tools.

    The primary benefit was the support in categorizing risks and causes. The three difficulties we encountered were identifying context-specific causal factors, defining control structures across several domains (management, user, technical, etc.) and limiting the domains taken into account. The use of STPA during safety-guided design would be facilitated by the use of expert systems and simulation, especially in regard to relating different domains.

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  • 25.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Flening, Elias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Boundary spanning at work placements: Challenges to overcome, and ways to learn in preparation for early career engineering2021In: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, E-ISSN 1469-5898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition from engineering student to early career engineer is often difficult as not all skills that constitute effective engineering practice are formally taught. Work placements are suggested as a solution by providing opportunities to learn skills that academia is unable to teach. However, academic requirements for skills such as research proficiency can be overlooked in a work placement environment, since they are often seen as of little value to engineers. Nevertheless, through interviews with master’s students that have conducted their thesis projects at a firm, their experience of boundary spanning to align academic and industrial requirements has been shown to prepare them for an (early) career in engineering by providing opportunities to learn informal professional skills. As the effect is moderated by the motivation of the individual firm for offering work placements, teachers need to consider this motivation when planning and preparing a student for such a work placement.

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  • 26.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Grimheden, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Reinforcing Learning in an Engineering Master’s Degree Program: The Relevance of Research Training2019In: International journal of engineering education, ISSN 0949-149X, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 598-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Master students at our institute were graduating without acceptable research proficiency. We intervened by shifting our research training from teaching-centred to student-centred, and from research-related subject content to research-related processes. We performed a mixed methods study aimed to confirm there was improved research proficiency without a negative trade-off for our students’ engineering skills. Results indicated improvements to research proficiency, which our students were able to transfer to engineering-related learning activities to increase their ability to achieve engineering synthesis. This outcome was potentially supported by our courses including several perspectives on scientific knowledge production. This implies that research training, rather than having a negative effect on engineering skills, can be helpful in learning diametrically opposing aspects of thinking required by current engineering. As engineering education evolves towards more cross-disciplinary cooperation, this implies the need to pursue the increased opportunities for students to learn about different perspectives on knowledge production.

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  • 27.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Holland, Greg
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Odeh, Saleh
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Conflict as software levels diversify: Tactical elimination or strategic transformation of practice?2020In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 126, article id 104682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communities of Practice create a shared consensus on practice. Standards defining software levels enable firms to diversify practice based on a software component’s contribution to potential failure conditions. When industrial trends increase the importance of lower software levels, there is a risk that the consensus on practice for software engineers used to primarily working at higher levels of assurance is eroded. This study investigates whether this might lead to conflict and – if so – where this conflict will materialize, what the nature of it is and what it implies for safety management.

    A critical case study was conducted: 33 engineers were interviewed in two rounds. The study identified a disagreement between designers with different roles. Those involved in the day-to-day activities of software development advocated elimination of practice (dropping or doing parts less stringently), while those involved in expert advice and process planning suggested transforming practice (adopting realistic alternatives).

    This study contributes to practice by showing that this conflict has different implications for firms that do not lead vs those that lead the early adoption of technology. At the majority of firms, safety management might need to support the organisation of informal opinion leaders to avoid vulnerability. At early adopters, crowdsourcing could provide much-needed help to refine the understanding of new practice. Across entire industries, crowdsourcing could also benefit entire engineering standardization processes. The study contributes to theory by showing how less prescriptive standardization in the context of engineering does not automatically shift rulemaking towards allowing engineers to act more autonomously.

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  • 28.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Macedo, Hugo Daniel
    Aarhus University.
    Sassanelli, Claudio
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Problematizing the Service Portfolio of Digital Innovation Hubs2021In: Smart and Sustainable Collaborative Networks 4.0: Proceedings of the Smart and Sustainable Collaborative Networks 4.0 - 22nd IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2021 / [ed] Luis M. Camarinha-Matos, Xavier Boucher, Hamideh Afsarmanesh, Springer Nature, 2021, p. 419-426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital innovation hubs (DIHs) are a strategic means to drive European Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) digital transition. The European Commission has envisioned four main functions characterizing DIHs' service portfolios (“Test before invest”; “Support to find investments”; “Innovation eco-system and networking”; and “Skills and training”). However, DIHs target different functions, e.g. focusing on helping launch novel digital technologies to market, or directing investment opportunities. DIHs are also at different maturity levels, interact with different actors and exist in regions with different conditions for innovation. There might not be an equal need for all four functions, and they might not be equally well served. This study aims to explore and derive implications for the deployment of the four main functions by DIHs. It builds on the activities of DIHs involved in the DIH initiative through several innovation actions, including FED4SAE and HUBCAP.

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  • 29.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    McDermid, John
    University of York.
    Oates, Robert
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Roberts, Jonathan
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Rapid Integration of CPS Security and Safety2018In: IEEE Embedded Systems Letters, ISSN 1943-0663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The security and safety of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) often influence each other. Ensuring that this does not have negative implications might require a large and rigorous effort during the development of CPS. However, early in the lifecycle, quick feedback can be valuable helping security and safety engineers to understand how seemingly trivial design choices in their domain may have unacceptable implications in the other.

    We propose the Cyber Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) for this purpose. The CRAF is based on openly available and widely used taxonomies from the safety and security domains, and a unique mapping of where loss of data security may impact aspects of data with safety implications. This paper represents the first time these different elements have been brought together into a single framework with an associated process. Through examples from within our organisations we show how this framework can be put to good use.

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  • 30.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The Discourse on Tool Integration Beyond Technology, A Literature Survey2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 106, p. 117-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tool integration research area emerged in the 1980s. This survey focuses on those strands of tool integration research that discuss issues beyond technology.

     

    We reveal a discourse centered around six frequently mentioned non-functional properties. These properties have been discussed in relation to technology and high level issues. However, while technical details have been covered, high level issues and, by extension, the contexts in which tool integration can be found, are treated indifferently. We conclude that this indifference needs to be challenged, and research on a larger set of stakeholders and contexts initiated.

     

    An inventory of the use of classification schemes underlines the difficulty of evolving the classical classification scheme published by Wasserman. Two frequently mentioned redefinitions are highlighted to facilitate their wider use.

     

    A closer look at the limited number of research methods and the poor attention to research design indicates a need for a changed set of research methods. We propose more critical case studies and method diversification through theory triangulation.

     

    Additionally, among disparate discourses we highlight several focusing on standardization which are likely to contain relevant findings. This suggests that open communities employed in the context of (pre-)standardization could be especially important in furthering the targeted discourse.

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  • 31.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    Biehl, Matthias
    El-khoury, Jad
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration, from Tool to Tool Chain with ISO 262622012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of innovative power sources in future cars has long-ranging implications on vehicle safety.  We studied these implications in the context of the guidance on software tool qualification in the then current ISO 26262 draft, when building an urban concept vehicle to participate in the 2011 Shell Eco-Marathon. While the guidance on tool qualification is detailed, the guidance in regard to tools integrated into tool chains is limited. It only points out that the environment that tools execute in needs to be taken into consideration.

    In this paper we clarify the implications of tool chains on tool qualification in the context of ISO 26262 by focusing on answering two questions; first, are there parts of the development environment related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside of tool qualification efforts as currently defined by ISO 26262; secondly, can we define if, and -if so- how, tool integration is affected by ensuring functional safety.

    We conclude by identifying two areas related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside the tool qualification efforts (data integrity and process logic) and describing how different constraints imposed by ISO 26262 in relation to tool qualification conflict when tool integration is improved (improvements aimed at supporting completeness, consistency and the safety lifecycle vs. tool qualification cost).

    We are able to make additional conclusions in relation to the State of the Art discussion on software tool qualification according to ISO 26262. First, reference tool chains and guidelines on which characteristics tool qualification should ensure for tool chains are needed to complement ISO 26262. Secondly, guidance on tool integration can be found in the completeness characteristic, the consistency characteristic and the ISO 26262 safety lifecycle process. Finally, qualification efforts should ideally target tool chains rather than individual tools.

  • 32.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Hawkins, Richard
    University of York.
    McDermid, John A.
    University of York.
    The Need for a Confidence View of CPS Support Environments (Fast Abstract)2015In: Proceedings of HASE 2015, The 16th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 273-274Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-View Modelling Integration Frameworks (MVMIFs) may help mitigate complexity associated with the development of CPS, but may also have implications on safety. Safety-related standards do not provide guidance to mitigate this problem. We therefore suggest that MVMIFs are extended with a confidence view to support the creation of an assurance case that covers issues related to risks in the support environment.

  • 33.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Ulfvengren, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Management & Technology.
    Engineer-Centred Design Factors and Methodological Approach for Maritime Autonomy Emergency Response Systems2022In: Safety, E-ISSN 2313-576X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 54-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial deployment of maritime autonomous surface ships (MASSs) is close to becoming a reality. Although MASSs are fully autonomous, the industry will still allow remote operations centre (ROC) operators to intervene if a MASS is facing an emergency the MASS cannot handle by itself. A human-centred design for the associated emergency response systems will require attention to the ROC operator workplace, but also, arguably, to the behaviour-shaping constraints on the engineers building these systems. There is thus a need for an engineer-centred design of engineering organisations, influenced by the current discourse on human factors. To contribute to the discourse, think-aloud protocol interviewing was conducted with well-informed maritime operators to elicit fundamental demands on cognition and collaboration by maritime autonomy emergency response systems. Based on the results, inferences were made regarding both design factors and methodological choices for future, early phase engineering of emergency response systems. Firstly, engineering firms have to improve their informal gathering and sharing of information through gatekeepers and/or organisational liaisons. To avoid a too cautious approach to accountability, this will have to include a closer integration of development and operations. Secondly, associated studies taking the typical approach of exposing relevant operators to new design concepts in scripted scenarios should include significant flexibility and less focus on realism.

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  • 34.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Ulfvengren, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Management & Technology.
    Work functions shaping the ability to innovate: insights from the case of the safety engineer2019In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To perform as intended, firms are divided into work functions that contribute to the behaviour-shaping constraints under which individuals build their skills, knowledge and networks. These in turn provide a specialized perspective on organisational structure and culture. In a mixed methods study involving interviews and statistical analyses, we investigate whether a work function can thereby affect individuals’ innovation foci and efficacy. Safety engineers, central to firms developing Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), are shown to play a significant role in identifying and supporting viable innovation related to organisational aspects. Results indicate that safety engineers could use the firm’s collaborative innovation process to facilitate organisational learning, helping different work functions come together to construct working practices aligned with the organisational values of the firm. This is explained by their understanding of safety culture—a specialized understanding of organisational culture and complexity provided by their work function. We conclude that work functions that provide their members with a perspective well aligned with their firm’s organisational values can instil the ability to identify and support organisational innovation. This suggests that safety engineers in CPS domains could be effective in a mediatory role, facilitating innovative changes to organisational structures and processes when introducing and operating safety management systems. Stronger aspects of organisational liaising and systems thinking could reinforce this ability—the former by a wider scope and motivation leading to an increased skill in communicating with dissimilar individuals, and the latter by providing the skills and tools needed to analyse the politics of complex organisations.

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  • 35.
    Assenai, Sumeia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Prototype algorithm development for innovative sensor technology2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Preterm infants are sensitive to incorrect levels of oxygen in the blood. Thus, the oxygen levels need to be monitored continuously. The most commonly used method today has several limitations and therefore constant blood tests has to be taken.

    Neosense Technologies AB has developed an electrochemical sensor that measures blood oxygen tension continuously and in real time.

    This thesis aims to develop a prototype algorithm to derive cardiac output based on dynamic changes in inhaled fraction of oxygen and the corresponding change in arterial oxygen tension using the electrochemical sensor.

    Two measurements were done using the sensor to measure the step response of partial pressure of oxygen to obtain data to develop the algorithm. Using the obtained data, two algorithms were developed and from the validation analysis one of the algorithms were chosen due to significant better results.

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  • 36.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Design Space Exploration Of Field Programmable Counter Arrays And Their Integration With FPGAs2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Field Programmable Counter Arrays (FPCAs) have been recently introduced to close the gap between FPGA and ASICs for arithmetic dominated applications. FPCAs are reconfigurable lattices that can be embedded into FPGAs to efficiently compute the result of multi-operand additions.

    The first contribution of this work is a Design Space Exploration (DSE) of the FPCAs and the identification of trade-offs between different parameters which describe them. Methods for analyzing and pruning the design space are proposed to enable a smart exploration. Finally, a set of best performing architectures in terms of area and delay is determined.

    Secondly, a study of possible integration schemes to build a hybrid FPGA/FPCA chip is performed. The goal is to find a solution with optimal usage of on-chip silicon area. The advantages and disadvantages of each solution are studied and a new integration solution based on properties of FPCAs is suggested. A VLSI implementation proves the applicability of the proposed solutions.

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  • 37.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Managing the Complexity in Embedded and Cyber-Physical System Design: System Modeling and Design-Space Exploration2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To cope with the increasing complexity of embedded and cyber-physical system design, different system-level design approaches are proposed which start from abstract models and implement them using design flows with high degrees of automation. However, creating models of such systems and also formulating the mathematical problems arising in these design flows are themselves challenging tasks. A promising approach is the composable construction of these models and problems from more basic entities. Unfortunately, it is non-trivial to propose such compositional formulations today because the current practice in the electronic design automation domain tends to be on using imperative languages and frameworks due to legacy and performance-oriented reasons.

    This thesis addresses the system design complexity by first promoting proper formalisms and frameworks for capturing models and formulating design-space exploration problems for electronic system-level design in a declarative style; and second, propose realizations based on the industrially accepted languages and frameworks which hold the interesting properties such as composability and parallelism.

    For modeling, ForSyDe, a denotational system-level modeling formalism for heterogeneous embedded systems is chosen, extended with timed domains to make it more appropriate for capturing cyber-physical systems, and mapped on top of the IEEE standard system design language SystemC. The realized modeling framework, called ForSyDe-SystemC, can be used for modeling systems of heterogeneous nature and their composition to form more sophisticated systems and also conducting parallel and distributed simulation for boosting the simulation speed. Another extension to ForSyDe, named wrapper processes, introduces the ability to compose formal ForSyDe models with legacy IP blocks running in external execution environments to perform a heterogeneous co-simulation.

    In platform-based design flows, the correct and optimal mapping of an application model onto a flexible platform involves solving a hard problem, named design space exploration. This work proposes Tahmuras, a constraint- based framework to construct generic design space exploration problems as the composition of three individual sub-problems: the application, the platform, and the mapping and scheduling problems. In this way, the model of the design space exploration problem in Tahmuras is automatically generated for each combination of application semantics, target platform, and mapping and scheduling policy simply by composing their respective problems. Using constraint programming, problems can be modeled in a declarative style, while they can be solved in a variety of different styles, including imperative solving heuristics commonly used to solve difficult problems. Efficient parallel solvers exists for constraint programming. 

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    Thesis
  • 38.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Beserra, G. S.
    University of Brasilia.
    Andersen, N.
    Novelda AS.
    Verdon, M.
    DA-Design Oy.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Heterogeneous system-level modeling for small and medium enterprises2012In: Integrated Circuits and Systems Design (SBCCI), 2012 25th Symposium on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of today's electronic embedded systems is an increasingly complicated task. This is especially problematic for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) which have limited resources. In this work, we identify a set of common design practices used in industry, with a special focus on problems faced by smaller companies, and formulate them as design scenarios. We show how SMEs can benefit from a system-level design approach by customizing a formal heterogeneous system modeling framework for each scenario. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated by two industrial use cases, an impulse-radio radar and a UART-based protocol.

  • 39.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Cevrero, Alessandro
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Brisk, Philip
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Nicopoulos, Chrysostomos
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Gurkaynak, Frank K.
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Leblebici, Yusuf
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Ienne, Paolo
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Design space exploration for field programmable compressor trees2008In: Proceedings of the 2008 international conference on Compilers, architectures and synthesis for embedded systems, New York: ACM Press, 2008, p. 207-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Field Programmable Compressor Tree (FPCT) is a programmable compressor tree (e.g., a Wallace or Dadda Tree) intended for integration in an FPGA or other reconfigurable device. This paper presents a design space exploration (DSE) method that can be used to identify the best FPCT architecture for a given set of arithmetic benchmark circuits; in practice, an FPGA vendor can use the design space exploration to tailor the FPCT to meet the needs of the most important benchmark circuits of the vendor’s largest-volume clients. One novel feature of the DSE is the introduction of a metric called I/O utilization; we found that I/O utilization has a strong correlation with both the critical path delay and area of the benchmark circuits under study. Pruning the search space using I/O utilization allowed us to reduce significantly the number of FPCTs that must be synthesized and evaluated during the DSE, while giving high confidence that the best architectures are still explored. The DSE was applied to seven small-to-medium range benchmark circuits; one FPCT architecture was found that was 30% faster than the second best in terms of critical path delay, and only 3.34% larger than the smallest.

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    fulltext
  • 40.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Jakobsen, M. K.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Sulonen, T.
    DA-Design Oy.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Formal heterogeneous system modeling with SystemC2012In: Proceedings of Forum on Specification and Design Languages (FDL) 2012, 2012, p. 160-167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic System Level (ESL) design of embedded systems proposes raising the abstraction level of the design entry to cope with the increasing complexity of such systems. To exploit the benefits of ESL, design languages should allow specification of models which are a) heterogeneous, to describe different aspects of systems; b) formally defined, for application of analysis and synthesis methods; c) executable, to enable early detection of specification; and d) parallel, to exploit the multi- and many-core platforms for simulation and implementation. We present a modeling library on top of SystemC, targeting heterogeneous embedded system design, based on four models of computation. The library has a formal basis where all elements are well defined and lead in construction of analyzable models. The semantics of communication and computation are implemented by the library, which allows the designer to focus on specifying the pure functional aspects. A key advantage is that the formalism is used to export the structure and behavior of the models via introspection as an abstract representation for further analysis and synthesis.

  • 41.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mikulcak, Marcus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Robino, Francesco
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A Framework for Characterizing Predictable Platform Templates2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of real-time multiprocessor systems is a very costly and time-consuming process due to the need for extensive verification efforts. Genericcorrect-by-construction system-level design flows, targeting predictable plat-forms, would help to tackle this problem. Unfortunately, because system-level design problems are formulated monolithically, existing methods areeither not powerful enough to perform efficient design space exploration,over-customized to a specific class of platforms, or do not allow to be ex-tended with new heuristics and solving methods, which makes their reusedifficult. We present a formal framework to explicitly capture and character-ize predictable platform templates that can be used to formulate a genericdesign flow for real-time streaming applications in a composable manner. Aproof-of-concept implementation of such a flow is performed and used to mapa JPEG encoder application onto an FPGA-based time-predictable platform.

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    fulltext
  • 42.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mikulcak, Marcus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Automatic Generation of Virtual Prototypes from Platform Templates2015In: Languages, Design Methods, and Tools for Electronic System Design: Selected Contributions from FDL 2013 / [ed] Marie-Minerve Louërat, Torsten Maehne, Switzerland: Springer, 2015, p. 147-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Prototypes (VPs) provide an early development platform to embedded software designers when the hardware is not ready yet and allows them to explore the design space of a system, both from the software and architecture perspective. However, automatic generation of VPs is not straightforward because several aspects such as the validity of the generated platforms and the timing of the components needs to be considered. To address this problem, based on a framework which characterizes predictable platform templates, we propose a method for automated generation of VPs which is integrated into a combined design flow consisting of analytic and simulation based design-space exploration. Using our approach the valid TLM-2.0-based simulated VP instances with timing annotation can be generated automatically and used for further development of the system in the design flow. We have demonstrated the potential of our method by designing a JPEG encoder system.

  • 43.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mikulcak, Marcus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Rapid virtual prototyping of real-time systems using predictable platform characterizations2013In: Forum on Specification Design Languages (FDL) 2013, 2013, p. 6646652-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual prototypes (VPs) provide an early development platform to embedded software designers when the hardware is not ready yet and allows them to explore the design space of a system, both from the software and architecture perspective. However, automatic generation of VPs is not straightforward because several aspects such as the validity of the generated platforms and the timing of the components needs to be considered. To address this problem, based on a framework which characterizes predictable platform templates, we propose a method for automated generation of VPs which is integrated into a combined design flow consisting of analytic and simulation based design-space exploration. Using our approach the valid TLM 2.0-based simulated VP instances with timing annotation can be generated automatically and used for further development of the system in the design flow. We have demonstrated the potential of our method by designing a JPEG encoder system.

  • 44.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    An Automated Parallel Simulation Flow for Heterogeneous Embedded Systems2013In: Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), 2013, 2013, p. 27-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation of complex embedded and cyber-physical systems requires exploitation of the computation power ofavailable parallel architectures. Current simulation environments either do not address this parallelism or use separate models for parallel simulation and for analysis and synthesis, which might lead to model mismatches. We extend a formal modeling framework targeting heterogeneous systems with elements that enable parallel simulations. An automated flow is then proposed that starting from a serial executable specification generates an efficient MPI-based parallel simulation model by using aconstraint-based method. The proposed flow generates parallel models with acceptable speedups for a representative example.

  • 45.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Co-simulation of embedded systems in a heterogeneous MoC-based modeling framework2011In: 2011 6th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES): Proceedings of a meeting held 15-17 June 2011, Vasteras, Sweden., IEEE Press, 2011, p. 238-247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New design methodologies and modeling frameworks are required to provide a solution for integrating legacy code and IP models in order to be accepted in the industry. To tackle this problem, we introduce the concept of wrappers in the context of a formal heterogeneous embedded system modeling framework. The formalism is based on the language-independent concept of models of computation. Wrappers enable the framework to co-simulate/co-execute with external models which might be legacy code, an IP block, or an implementation of a partially refined system. They are defined formally in order to keep the analyzability of the original framework and also enable automations such as generation of model wrappers and co-simulation interfaces. As a proof of concept, three wrappers for models in different abstraction levels are introduced and implemented for two case studies.

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    fulltext
  • 46.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Semi-formal refinement of heterogeneous embedded systems by foreign model integration2011In: 2011 Forum on Specification and Design Languages (FDL), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 179-186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for integration of external models in high-level system design flows. We introduce a set of partial refinement operations to implement models of heterogeneous embedded systems. The models are in form of process networks where each process belongs to a single model of computation. A semi-formal design flow has been introduced based on these operations to incrementally refine system specifications to their implementation. Wrapper processes, which allow co-simulation of a system model in the framework with external models and implementations are used to keep the intermediate system models after each refinement step verifiable. Additionally, this design flow has the advantage of integrating legacy code and IP cores. Using a simple example as the case study, we have shown how we can apply this design methodology to a simple system.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47. Attarzadeh-Niaki, S. -H
    et al.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems.
    Heterogeneous co-simulation for embedded and cyber-physical systems design2020In: Simulation (San Diego, Calif.), ISSN 0037-5497, E-ISSN 1741-3133, Vol. 96, no 9, p. 753-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing complexity of embedded and cyber-physical systems makes the design of all system components from scratch increasingly impractical. Consequently, already from early stages of a design flow, designers rely on prior experience, which comes in the form of legacy code or third-party intellectual property (IP) blocks. Current approaches partly address the co-simulation problem for specific scenarios in an ad hoc style. This work suggests a general method for co-simulation of heterogeneous IPs with a system modeling and simulation framework. The external IPs can be integrated as high-level models running in an external simulator or as software- and hardware-in-the-loop simulation with minimal effort. Examples of co-simulation scenarios for wrapping models with different semantics are presented together with their practical usage in two case studies. The presented method is also used to formulate a refinement-by-replacement workflow for IP-based system design.

  • 48. Attarzadeh-Niaki, S. -H
    et al.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems.
    Ahmadi, M.
    An automated parallel simulation flow for cyber-physical system design2021In: Integration, ISSN 0167-9260, E-ISSN 1872-7522, Vol. 77, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parallel and distributed simulation (PDS) is often employed to tackle the computational intensity of system-level simulation of real-world complex embedded and cyber-physical systems (CPSs). However, CPS models comprise heterogeneous components with diverge semantics for which incompatible PDS approaches are developed. We propose an automated PDS flow based on a formal modeling framework—with necessary extensions—targeting heterogeneous embedded and CPS design. The proposed flow characterizes the sequential executable specification of a heterogeneous model and generates a PDS cluster. State-of-the-art graph partitioning methods are adopted and a new extensible constraint-base formulation of the model partitioning problem is developed. The applicability, effectiveness, and scalability of the proposed flow is demonstrated using case studies.

  • 49.
    Attarzadeh-Niaki, Seyed-Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems.
    Altinel, Ekrem
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems.
    Koedam, Martijn
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Molnos, Anca
    CEA-LETI.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems.
    Goossens, Kees
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    A Composable and Predictable MPSoC Design Flow for Multiple Real-Time Applications2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design of real-time MPSoC systems including multiple appli-cations is challenging because temporal requirements of each applicationmust be respected throughout the entire design flow. Currently the de-sign of different applications is often interdependent, making converge toa solution for each application difficult. This paper proposes a composi-tional method to design applications independently, and then to executethem without interference. We define a formal modeling framework as asuitable entry point for application design. The models are executable,which enables early detection of specification errors, and include the for-mal properties of the applications based on well-defined models of com-putation. We combine this with a predictable MPSoC platform templatethat has a supporting design flow but lacks a simulation front-end. Thestructure and behavior of the application models are exported to an in-termediate format via introspection which is iteratively adapted for thebackend flow. We identify the problems arising in this adaptation andprovide appropriate solutions. The design flow is demonstrated by a sys-tem consisting of two streaming applications where less than half of thedesign time is dedicated to operating on the integrated system model.

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    ForSyDe-CompSOC-MiFi
  • 50.
    Attarzadeh-Niaki, Seyed-Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    An extensible modeling methodology for embedded and CPS designManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract models are important tools to manage the increasing complexity of system design. The choice of a modeling language for constructing models governs what types of systems can be modeled and which subsequent design activities can be performed. This is especially true for the area of embedded electronic and cyber-physical system design, which poses several challenging requirements on modeling and design methodologies. This article argues that the ForSyDe methodology with the necessary extensions can fulfill these requirements and thus qualifies for the design of tomorrow’s systems. Based on the theory of models of computation and the concept of process constructors, heterogeneous models are captured in ForSyDe with precise semantics. A refined layer of the formalism is introduced to make its denotational-style semantics easy to implement on top of the commonly used imperative languages and an open-source realization on top of the IEEE standard language SystemC is reported. The introspection mechanism is introduced to automatically export an intermediate representation of the constructed models for further analysis/synthesis by external tools. Flexibility and extensibility of ForSyDe is emphasized by integrating a new timed model of computation without central synchronization, and providing mechanisms for integrating foreign models, parallel and distributed simulation, modeling adaptive, data-parallel, and non-deterministic systems. A set of ForSyDe features are demonstrated in practice and compared to similar approaches using two relevant case studies. 

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