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  • 1.
    Abbas, Naeem
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik- och datorsystem, ECS.
    Runtime Parallelisation Switching for MPEG4 Encoder on MPSoC2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent development for multimedia applications on mobile terminals raised the need for flexible and scalable computing platforms that are capable of providing considerable (application specific) computational performance within a low cost and a low energy budget. The MPSoC with multi-disciplinary approach, resolving application mapping, platform architecture and runtime management issues, provides such multiple heterogeneous, flexible processing elements. In MPSoC, the run-time manager takes the design time exploration information as an input and selects an active Pareto point based on quality requirement and available platform resources, where a Pareto point corresponds to a particular parallelization possibility of target application. To use system’s scalability at best and enhance application’s flexibility a step further, the resource management and Pareto point selection decisions need to be adjustable at run-time. This thesis work experiments run-time Pareto point switching for MPEG-4 encoder. The work involves design time exploration and then embedding of two parallelization possibilities of MPEG-4 encoder into one single component and enabling run-time switching between parallelizations, to give run-time control over adjusting performance-cost criteria and allocation de-allocation of hardware resources at run-time. The newer system has the capability to encode each video frame with different parallelization. The obtained results offer a number of operating points on Pareto curve in between the previous ones at sequence encoding level. The run-time manager can improve application performance up to 50% or can save memory bandwidth up to 15%, according to quality request.

  • 2.
    Abdirahman, Khalid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Förnberg, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Styrsystem för solcellsladdade batterier2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av solceller ökar kontinuerligt i Sverige och effekten som genererasav solcellerna förvaras oftast i bly-syra batterier. Dessa batterier har en dåligpåverkan på miljön eftersom det krävs mycket energi och miljöfarliga material såsom bly och svavelsyra för att tillverka dessa batterier. Östersjökompaniet AB ochmånga av dess kunder inser vikten av ett hållbart tänkande och var intresseradeav att veta om det var möjligt att maximera livslängden av dessa batterier. Underarbetets gång analyserades olika metoder för upp- och urladdning av batterier somkan påverka ett batteris livslängd och hur man kan bära sig åt för att optimera det.En laddningskontroller användes för att optimera laddningen av batteriet. För attberäkna laddningsnivån i batteriet användes metoden ”Extended voltmeter”. Enprototyp som kunde ladda batterierna på ett optimalt sätt, varna då batterietsladdningsnivå blev för låg samt en användarvänlig applikation för övervakning avbatteriet konstruerades. Ett batteris beräknade livslängd är ingen exakt vetenskap.Enligt studier kan livslängden av ett batteri fördubblas om det laddas upp ochladdas ur på ett optimalt sätt i jämförelse med då det laddas ur helt.

  • 3.
    Alam, Assad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Björk, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Garcia Alonso, Liliana
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Khaksari, Farzad
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Khan, Altamash
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Kjellberg, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Liang, Kuo-Yun
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Lyberger, Rickard
    Scania CV AB.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Nilsson, John-Olof
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Scania CV AB.
    Pettersson, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Stålklinga, Elin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Sundman, Dennis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Zachariah, Dave
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Cooperative driving according to Scoop2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Scania are entering the GCDC 2011 under the name Scoop –Stockholm Cooperative Driving. This paper is an introduction to their team and to the technical approach theyare using in their prototype system for GCDC 2011.

  • 4.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Pelc, Mariusz
    University of Greenwich.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Context-Aware Adaptation in DySCAS2009Ingår i: Electronic Communications of the EASST, ISSN 1863-2122, E-ISSN 1863-2122, ISSN 1863-2122, Vol. 19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    DySCAS is a dynamically self-configuring middleware for automotivecontrol systems. The addition of autonomic, context-aware dynamic configurationto automotive control systems brings a potential for a wide range of benefits in termsof robustness, flexibility, upgrading etc. However, the automotive systems representa particularly challenging domain for the deployment of autonomics concepts, havinga combination of real-time performance constraints, severe resource limitations,safety-critical aspects and cost pressures. For these reasons current systems are staticallyconfigured. This paper describes the dynamic run-time configuration aspectsof DySCAS and focuses on the extent to which context-aware adaptation has beenachieved in DySCAS, and the ways in which the various design and implementationchallenges are met.

  • 5.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea Data AB.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Autonomic Middleware for Automotive Embedded Systems2009Ingår i: Autonomic Communication / [ed] Vasilakos, Athanasios V.; Parashar, Manish; Karnouskos, Stamatis; Pedrycz, Witold, Springer US , 2009, s. 169-210Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes DySCAS: an advanced autonomic platform-independent middleware framework for automotive embedded systems. The concepts and architecture are motivated and described in detail, focusing on the need for, and achievement of, high flexibility and automatic run-time reconfiguration. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, and performance challenges of the automotive domain. Self-management is achieved in terms of automatic configuration for context-aware behavior, resource-use efficiency, and self-healing to handle run-time detected faults. The self-management is governed by the use of policies distributed throughout the middleware components. The simulation techniques that have been used for extensive validation are described and some key results presented. A reference implementation is presented, illustrating the way in which the various concepts and mechanisms can be realized and orchestrated.

  • 6.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Leonhardi, Alexander
    Daimler AG.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Jahnich, Isabell
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Burton, Simon
    Redell, Ola
    Enea Data AB.
    Weber, Alexander
    Vollmer, Vasco
    A Future Dynamically Reconfigurable Automotive Software System2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug, 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software systems in vehicles are of rapidly increasing commercial importance for the automotive industry. Current systems employ a static run-time environment; due to the difficulty and cost involved in the development of dynamic systems in a high-integrity embedded control context. A dynamic system, referring to the system configuration, would greatly increase the flexibility of the offered functionality and enable customised software configuration for individual vehicles, adding customer value through plug-and-play capability, and increased quality due to its inherent ability to adjust to changes in hardware and software. We envisage an automotive system containing a variety of components, from a multitude of organizations, not necessarily known at development time. The system dynamically adapts its configuration to suit the run-time system constraints.This paper presents our vision for future automotive control systems that will be regarded in an EU research project, referred to as DySCAS (Dynamically Self-Configuring Automotive Systems). We propose a self-configuring vehicular control system architecture, with capabilities that include automatic discovery and inclusion of new devices, self-optimisation to best-use the processing, storage and communication resources available, self-diagnostics and ultimately self-healing. Such an architecture has benefits extending to reduced development and maintenance costs, improved passenger safety and comfort, and flexible owner customisation.Specifically, this paper addresses the following issues: The state of the art of embedded software systems in vehicles, emphasising the current limitations arising from fixed run-time configurations; and the benefits and challenges of dynamic configuration, giving rise to opportunities for self-healing, self-optimisation, and the automatic inclusion of users’ Consumer Electronic (CE) devices. Our proposal for a dynamically reconfigurable automotive software system platform is outlined and a typical use-case is presented as an example to exemplify the benefits of the envisioned dynamic capabilities.

  • 7.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Jahnich, Isabell
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Towards a Dynamically Reconfigurable Automotive Control System Architecture2007Ingår i: Embedded System Design: Topics, Techniques and Trends, 2007, s. 71-84Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a vehicular control system architecture that supports self-configuration. The architecture is based on dynamic mapping of processes and services to resources to meet the challenges of future demanding use-scenarios in which systems must be flexible to exhibit context-aware behaviour and to permit customization. The architecture comprises a number of low-level services that will provide the required system functionalities, which include automatic discovery and incorporation of new devices, self-optimisation to best-use the processing, storage and communication resources available, and self-diagnostics. The benefits and challenges of dynamic configuration and the automatic inclusion of users' Consumer Electronic (CE) devices are briefly discussed and the self-management and control-theoretic technologies that will be used are described in outline. A number of generic use-cases have been identified, each with several specific use-case scenarios. To demonstrate the extent of the flexible reconfiguration facilitated by the architecture, some of these use-cases are described, each exemplifying a different aspect of dynamic reconfiguration.

  • 8.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Ward, Paul
    The University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Hawthorne, James
    The University of Greenwich.
    Mariusz, Pelc
    The University of Greenwich.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    A Middleware Approach to Dynamically Configurable Automotive Embedded Systems2008Ingår i: ISVCS 2008: The First Annual International ICST Symposium on Vehicular Computing Systems, EUDL - European Union Digital Library , 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an advanced dynamically configurable middleware for automotive embedded systems. The layered architecture of the middleware, and the way in which core and optional services provide transparency and flexible platform independent support for portability, is described. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, performance and safety challenges of the automotive domain. The use of policies to achieve flexible run-time configuration is explained with reference to the core policy technology which has been extended and adapted specifically for this project. The component model is described, focussing on how the configuration logic is distributed throughout the middleware and application components, by inserting ‘decision points’ wherever deferred logic or run-time context-sensitive configuration is required. Included in this discussion are the way in which context information is automatically provided to policies to inform context-aware behaviour; the dynamic wrapper mechanism which isolates policies, provides transparency to software developers and silently handles run-time errors arising during dynamic configuration operations.

  • 9. Anwar, Hassan
    et al.
    Jafri, Syed Mohammad Asad Hassan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Sergei, Dytckov
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Hemani, Ahmed
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Plosila, Juha
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Exploring Spiking Neural Network on Coarse-Grain Reconfigurable Architectures2014Ingår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2014, s. 64-67Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, reconfigurable architectures are becoming increas- ingly popular as the candidate platforms for neural net- works. Existing works, that map neural networks on re- configurable architectures, only address either FPGAs or Networks-on-chip, without any reference to the Coarse-Grain Reconfigurable Architectures (CGRAs). In this paper we investigate the overheads imposed by implementing spiking neural networks on a Coarse Grained Reconfigurable Ar- chitecture (CGRAs). Experimental results (using point to point connectivity) reveal that up to 1000 neurons can be connected, with an average response time of 4.4 msec.

  • 10.
    Armengaud, Eric
    et al.
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Zoier, Markus
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Baumgart, Andreas
    OFFIS E. V., Germany.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Chen, De Jiu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Griessnig, Gerhard
    AVL List GmbH, Austria; Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Hein, Christian
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Ritter, Tom
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Tavakoli-Kolagari, Ramin
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Sweden.
    Model-based Toolchain for the Efficient Development of Safety-Relevant Automotive Embedded Systems2011Ingår i: SAE Technical Paper: Paper Number: 2011-01-0056, Society of Automotive Engineers, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced functionalities unthinkable a few decades ago are now being introduced into automotive vehicles through embedded systems for reasons like emission control, vehicle connectivity, safety and cooperative behaviors. As the development often involves stakeholders from different engineering disciplines and organizations, the complexity due to shared requirements, interdependencies of data, functions, and resources, as well as tight constraints in regards to timing, safety, and resource efficiency makes the system integration, quality control and assurance, reuse and change management increasingly more difficult. This calls for a more rigorous approach to the development of automotive embedded systems and components. This paper describes the CESAR reference technology platform (RTP) that supports the formalization of various engineering concerns in the development of safety-relevant embedded systems and thereby a model-based integration of various tools and methods to form seamless environments or toolchains for the development of such systems.

  • 11. Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Khalilzad, Nima
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Elektroniksystemkonstruktion.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Behnam, Moris
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Elektroniksystemkonstruktion.
    Almeida, Luis
    Nolte, Thomas
    Designing end-to-end resource reservations in predictable distributed embedded systems2017Ingår i: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary distributed embedded systems in many domains have become highly complex due to ever-increasing demand on advanced computer controlled functionality. The resource reservation techniques can be effective in lowering the software complexity, ensuring predictability and allowing flexibility during the development and execution of these systems. This paper proposes a novel end-to-end resource reservation model for distributed embedded systems. In order to support the development of predictable systems using the proposed model, the paper provides a method to design resource reservations and an end-to-end timing analysis. The reservation design can be subjected to different optimization criteria with respect to runtime footprint, overhead or performance. The paper also presents and evaluates a case study to show the usability of the proposed model, reservation design method and end-to-end timing analysis. © 2017, The Author(s).

  • 12.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Exploratory Testing: Do Contextual Factors Influence Software Fault Identification?2018Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Exploratory Testing (ET) is a manual approach to software testing in which learning, test design and test execution occurs simultaneously. Still a developing topic of interest to academia, although as yet insufficiently investigated, most studies focus on the skills and experience of the individual tester. However, contextual factors such as project processes, test scope and organisational boundaries are also likely to affect the approach.

    Objective: This study explores contextual differences between teams of testers at a MedTec firm developing safety-critical products to ascertain whether contextual factors can influence the outcomes of ET, and what associated implications can be drawn for test management.

    Method: A development project was studied in two iterations, each consisting of a quantitative phase testing hypotheses concerning when ET would identify faults in comparison to other testing approaches and a qualitative phase involving interviews.

    Results: Influence on ET is traced to how the scope of tests focus learning on different types of knowledge and imply an asymmetry in the strength and number of information flows to test teams.

    Conclusions: While test specialisation can be attractive to software development organisations, results suggest changes to processes and organisational structures might be required to maintain test efficiency throughout projects: the responsibility for test cases might need to be rotated late in projects, and asymmetries in information flows might require management to actively strengthen the presence and connections of test teams throughout the firm. However, further research is needed to investigate whether these results also hold for non safety-critical faults.

  • 13.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Safety and Tool Integration, A System-Theoretic Process Analysis2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report I detail a System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) hazard analysis of the tool integration of development environments for embedded systems. Building on results from previous studies I generalize and expand on earlier findings regarding the relationship between safety and tool integration.

    To prepare for the analysis I customized STPA for the context of tool integration. This customization allowed me to subsequently design and analyze three versions of a tool chain originally provided by an industrial partner. A net result of 85, 98 and 73 risks was identified, in comparison to 25 integration weaknesses identified through expert knowledge. The design of the different versions of the tool chain and a comparison of the identified risks with the integration weaknesses allowed me to validate the usefulness of STPA for both identifying and correctly categorizing risks and causes in the context of tool integration. An analysis of my results also points out the fact that STPA is not a silver bullet, without enough expertise it is easy to omit important parts of process models and thus arrive at incomplete conclusions.

    In regard to the relationship between safety and tool integration nine properties were identified, properties that need to be supported correctly to avoid hazards in the context of tool integration. These properties require support throughout a noticeable part of a development environment to have an impact and derive much of that impact from the possibility to centralize them. They also interrelate, so that often several of them need to be handled to mitigate one type of risk. However, introducing support for them across a whole development environment is likely to be costly, or even impossible. Furthermore, introducing support for these properties will mitigate some risks, but also create other risks at higher levels of organization.

    These properties therefore point to the size a development environment, the number of contexts towards which the development environment can be verified and the effort required to ensure the added requirements at higher levels of organization as deciding factors on whether the effort to support them should be made (other efforts, more efficient in those particular cases, could otherwise be considered). The existence of these properties also point to the possibility of developing and pre-qualifying tools and tool chains based on the assumption that some or all of these properties will be supported by the final development environment. This could potentially lower, or at least distribute, the cost of the final qualification.

  • 14.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Tool Integration and Safety: A Foundation for Analysing the Impact of Tool Integrationon Non-functional Properties2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of embedded systems development is becoming difficult to handle with development environments based on disjoint engineering tools. Support for interactions between various engineering tools, especially through automated means, has therefore received an increased amount of attention during the last few years. The subsequent increase in the amount of tool integration is leading to an increased impact of tool integration on non-functional properties of development efforts, development environments and end products. At the same time there is a lack of methods and tools for analysing the relationship between these properties and tool integration. To establish a foundation for analysing this generic relationship, the specific relationship between tool integration and the safety of end products is analysed in this thesis.

    A survey was conducted to analyze the State of the Art of tool integration as related to safety. This survey specifically identified the lack of an efficient handling of tool integration by modern safety standards as an important concern. In relation to this survey, three theories were identified as of specific importance. These are the school of thought known as Systems Thinking, the Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) causality model and the System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) hazard analysis technique.

    Building on these theories, this thesis provides original contributions intended to (1) describe concepts and models related to tool integration and safety (the first and second contribution), (2) link tool integration to safety in a way that reduces complexity during analysis (the third contribution) and (3) propose how to interpret and make use of the implications of the presented theories and the first three contributions (the fourth and fifth contribution).

    • The first contribution is a new conceptual model of a development effort that emphasizes tool integration.

    • The second contribution is a new reference model for tool integration in highly heterogeneous environments.

    • The third contribution consists of nine safety-related tool chain properties, i.e. properties of tool chains that could mitigate at least part of the risks introduced by tool integration.

    • The fourth contribution is a proposition on how to identify safety implications due to a high level of automation of tool integration.

    • The fifth contribution is a proposition for a new software tool qualification process.

  • 15.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Towards the Automated Qualification of Tool Chain Design2012Ingår i: SAFECOMP 2012 Workshops: Sassur, ASCoMS, DESEC4LCCI, ERCIM/EWICS, IWDE, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012, Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, s. 392-399Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of safety-critical embedded systems is supported by a number of development tools, which are increasingly integrated into automated tool chains. Safety standards require these tool chains to be qualified, which is costly and requires a large effort. To reduce cost and effort tool chains can be composed of pre-qualified tools and then themselves pre-qualified by identifying the parts of tool chain software that have an impact on safety more exactly. In this paper we propose the use of a modeling language to describe this tool chain composition. This allows us to reduce effort even further by automatically analyzing the tool chain model for safety issues. It also promises to reduce the effort and cost of later steps in the deployment of the tool chain by formalizing the communication of safety issues and automating the generation of code for tool chain software.

  • 16.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Qualifying Software Tools, a Systems Approach2012Ingår i: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 31st International Conference, SAFECOMP 2012, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, s. 340-351Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern safety standards designed to ensure safety in embedded system products often take a descriptive approach, focusing on describing appropriate requirements on management, processes, methods and environments during development. While the qualification of software tools has been included in several such standards, how to handle the safety implications of tools integrated into tool chains has been largely ignored. This problem is aggravated by an increase both in automation of tool integration and the size of development environments.

    In this paper we define nine safety goals for tool chains and suggest a qualification method that takes a systems approach on certifying software tools as parts of tool chains. With this method, software tools are developed and pre-qualified under the assumption that certain properties will be supported by the development environment they are to be deployed in. The proposed method is intended to (1) achieve a stronger focus on the relevant parts of tool chains in regard to safety and (2) separate the extra effort these parts imply from the effort already stipulated by safety standards.

  • 17.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Safety-Guided Design through System-Theoretic Process Analysis, Benefits and Difficulties2012Ingår i: 30th International System Safety Conference Proceedings, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Development environments for embedded systems are moving towards increased automation between Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) engineering tools. While automation provides new opportunities for e.g. verification, it also to some extent decreases the possibility of identifying and acting on safety issues that arise during development. To investigate the relationship between tool integration and safety we performed a System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) of a tool chain from an industrial case study. This tool chain was then reanalyzed and redesigned twice, in part motivated by identified hazards.

    This paper presents our experiences from applying STPA to safety-guided design in the context of integrating COTS engineering tools into tool chains. We discuss the benefits of and difficulties with applying STPA. We also suggest improvements that complement STPA with support methods and tools.

    The primary benefit was the support in categorizing risks and causes. The three difficulties we encountered were identifying context-specific causal factors, defining control structures across several domains (management, user, technical, etc.) and limiting the domains taken into account. The use of STPA during safety-guided design would be facilitated by the use of expert systems and simulation, especially in regard to relating different domains.

  • 18.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinkonstruktion (Avd.).
    Grimheden, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinkonstruktion (Avd.).
    Reinforcing Learning in an Engineering Master’s Degree Program: The Relevance of Research Training2019Ingår i: International journal of engineering education, ISSN 0949-149X, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 598-616Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Master students at our institute were graduating without acceptable research proficiency. We intervened by shifting our research training from teaching-centred to student-centred, and from research-related subject content to research-related processes. We performed a mixed methods study aimed to confirm there was improved research proficiency without a negative trade-off for our students’ engineering skills. Results indicated improvements to research proficiency, which our students were able to transfer to engineering-related learning activities to increase their ability to achieve engineering synthesis. This outcome was potentially supported by our courses including several perspectives on scientific knowledge production. This implies that research training, rather than having a negative effect on engineering skills, can be helpful in learning diametrically opposing aspects of thinking required by current engineering. As engineering education evolves towards more cross-disciplinary cooperation, this implies the need to pursue the increased opportunities for students to learn about different perspectives on knowledge production.

  • 19.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    McDermid, John
    University of York.
    Oates, Robert
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Roberts, Jonathan
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Rapid Integration of CPS Security and Safety2018Ingår i: IEEE Embedded Systems Letters, ISSN 1943-0663Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The security and safety of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) often influence each other. Ensuring that this does not have negative implications might require a large and rigorous effort during the development of CPS. However, early in the lifecycle, quick feedback can be valuable helping security and safety engineers to understand how seemingly trivial design choices in their domain may have unacceptable implications in the other.

    We propose the Cyber Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) for this purpose. The CRAF is based on openly available and widely used taxonomies from the safety and security domains, and a unique mapping of where loss of data security may impact aspects of data with safety implications. This paper represents the first time these different elements have been brought together into a single framework with an associated process. Through examples from within our organisations we show how this framework can be put to good use.

  • 20.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    The Discourse on Tool Integration Beyond Technology, A Literature Survey2015Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 106, s. 117-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The tool integration research area emerged in the 1980s. This survey focuses on those strands of tool integration research that discuss issues beyond technology.

     

    We reveal a discourse centered around six frequently mentioned non-functional properties. These properties have been discussed in relation to technology and high level issues. However, while technical details have been covered, high level issues and, by extension, the contexts in which tool integration can be found, are treated indifferently. We conclude that this indifference needs to be challenged, and research on a larger set of stakeholders and contexts initiated.

     

    An inventory of the use of classification schemes underlines the difficulty of evolving the classical classification scheme published by Wasserman. Two frequently mentioned redefinitions are highlighted to facilitate their wider use.

     

    A closer look at the limited number of research methods and the poor attention to research design indicates a need for a changed set of research methods. We propose more critical case studies and method diversification through theory triangulation.

     

    Additionally, among disparate discourses we highlight several focusing on standardization which are likely to contain relevant findings. This suggests that open communities employed in the context of (pre-)standardization could be especially important in furthering the targeted discourse.

  • 21.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Törngren, Martin
    Biehl, Matthias
    El-khoury, Jad
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Tool Integration, from Tool to Tool Chain with ISO 262622012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of innovative power sources in future cars has long-ranging implications on vehicle safety.  We studied these implications in the context of the guidance on software tool qualification in the then current ISO 26262 draft, when building an urban concept vehicle to participate in the 2011 Shell Eco-Marathon. While the guidance on tool qualification is detailed, the guidance in regard to tools integrated into tool chains is limited. It only points out that the environment that tools execute in needs to be taken into consideration.

    In this paper we clarify the implications of tool chains on tool qualification in the context of ISO 26262 by focusing on answering two questions; first, are there parts of the development environment related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside of tool qualification efforts as currently defined by ISO 26262; secondly, can we define if, and -if so- how, tool integration is affected by ensuring functional safety.

    We conclude by identifying two areas related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside the tool qualification efforts (data integrity and process logic) and describing how different constraints imposed by ISO 26262 in relation to tool qualification conflict when tool integration is improved (improvements aimed at supporting completeness, consistency and the safety lifecycle vs. tool qualification cost).

    We are able to make additional conclusions in relation to the State of the Art discussion on software tool qualification according to ISO 26262. First, reference tool chains and guidelines on which characteristics tool qualification should ensure for tool chains are needed to complement ISO 26262. Secondly, guidance on tool integration can be found in the completeness characteristic, the consistency characteristic and the ISO 26262 safety lifecycle process. Finally, qualification efforts should ideally target tool chains rather than individual tools.

  • 22.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Hawkins, Richard
    University of York.
    McDermid, John A.
    University of York.
    The Need for a Confidence View of CPS Support Environments (Fast Abstract)2015Ingår i: Proceedings of HASE 2015, The 16th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, s. 273-274Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-View Modelling Integration Frameworks (MVMIFs) may help mitigate complexity associated with the development of CPS, but may also have implications on safety. Safety-related standards do not provide guidance to mitigate this problem. We therefore suggest that MVMIFs are extended with a confidence view to support the creation of an assurance case that covers issues related to risks in the support environment.

  • 23.
    Assenai, Sumeia
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Prototype algorithm development for innovative sensor technology2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    För tidigt födda barn är känsliga för felaktiga syrgasnivåer i blodet. Därför krävs det noggranna och kontinuerliga mätningar. Dagens metoder är begränsade och ständiga blodprover behöver tas.Neosense Technologies AB har utvecklat en sensor som mäter syrehalten i blodet kontinuerligt och i realtid.Syftet med detta examensarete är att utveckla en prototypalgoritm för att härleda hjärtminutvolymen baserat på dynamiska förändringar i syrehalten i inandningsluften och den motsvarande syrgasnivån i blodet med hjälp av den elektrokemiska sensorn.Två mätningar gjordes med hjälp av sensorn där stegsvaret för partialtrycket av syre mättes för att erhålla data för algoritmutvecklingen. Med hjälp av den erhållna datan utvecklades två algoritmer och från valideringsanalysen valdes en av algoritmerna på grund av betydande bättre resultat.

  • 24.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik- och datorsystem, ECS.
    Design Space Exploration Of Field Programmable Counter Arrays And Their Integration With FPGAs2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Field Programmable Counter Arrays (FPCAs) have been recently introduced to close the gap between FPGA and ASICs for arithmetic dominated applications. FPCAs are reconfigurable lattices that can be embedded into FPGAs to efficiently compute the result of multi-operand additions.

    The first contribution of this work is a Design Space Exploration (DSE) of the FPCAs and the identification of trade-offs between different parameters which describe them. Methods for analyzing and pruning the design space are proposed to enable a smart exploration. Finally, a set of best performing architectures in terms of area and delay is determined.

    Secondly, a study of possible integration schemes to build a hybrid FPGA/FPCA chip is performed. The goal is to find a solution with optimal usage of on-chip silicon area. The advantages and disadvantages of each solution are studied and a new integration solution based on properties of FPCAs is suggested. A VLSI implementation proves the applicability of the proposed solutions.

  • 25.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Managing the Complexity in Embedded and Cyber-Physical System Design: System Modeling and Design-Space Exploration2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ökande komplexiteten är en stor utmaning för konstruktionen av framtida inbyggda system. För att möta utmaningen utvecklas nu konstruktionsmetoder som har som mål att starta från en abstrakt modell och att generera en implementering genom ett konstruktionsflöde med hög automatiseringsgrad. Dessvärre är dock skapandet av abstrakta systemmodeller och formaliseringen av de relaterade matematiska problemen i sig ett mycket utmanande problem. Konstruktion genom komposition av basenheter är en lovande idé, men tyvärr är det väldigt svårt att introducera metoden i dagens industriella konstruktionsflöden på grund av imperativa programmeringsspråk och ett gammalt arv i form av existerande kodbas och äldre konstruktioner.

    Avhandlingen adresserar komplexiten inom systemkonstruktion genom att föreslå passande formalismer för att uttrycka modeller i en deklarativ stil och angripa problemet att hitta en passande implementering. Dessutom visar avhandlingen hur dessa formalismer kan realiseras i en form som kan användas i ett industriellt sammanhang utan att förlora formalismens viktiga grundläggande egenskaper som komposition och parallelism.

    Modelleringen använder och utökar ForSyDe, en konstruktionsmetod för heterogena inbyggda system. Tilläggen består av en modelleringsmodell som kan fånga specifika egenskaper hos heterogena inbyggda system, samt en implementering av ForSyDe i SystemC, ett industriellt modelleringsspråk som är standardiserat av IEEE. Den nya utvecklingsmiljön, ForSyDe-SystemC, kan användas för att modellera inbyggda system, komponera systemmodeller till större system, samt möjliggör genomförandet av parallella och distribuerade simuleringar med medföljande hög simuleringshastighet. Avhandlingen introducerar också “wrapper”-konceptet i ForSyDe som möjliggör integrationen av existerande modeller och system som en del av en formell ForSyDe-modell och deras co-simulering. ForSyDe-SystemC har använts inom EU-projekt av industriella partner för modellering av egna system.

    Att hitta en korrekt och effektiv implementering av en abstrakt systemmodell är målet inom aktiviteten “design space exploration” (DSE) som är ett svårt problem för parametriserbara och flexibla plattformar. Avhandlingen presenterar två generationer av Tahmuras, som är baserade på villkorsprogrammering och har som mål att konstruera DSE-problemet som en komposition av tre olika delproblem: applikation, plattform, och bindning. Ett integrerat DSE-problem kan sedan automatiskt genereras genom en kombination av dessa delproblem. Olika metoder, från heuristisk till komplett sökning, kan användas inom villkorsprogrammering för att lösa DSE-problemet. För att visa Tahmuras potential har DSE-metoden validerats med hjälp av olika systemapplikationer av skilda tidsegenskaper och olika plattformar. 

  • 26.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Beserra, G. S.
    University of Brasilia.
    Andersen, N.
    Novelda AS.
    Verdon, M.
    DA-Design Oy.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Heterogeneous system-level modeling for small and medium enterprises2012Ingår i: Integrated Circuits and Systems Design (SBCCI), 2012 25th Symposium on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, s. 1-6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of today's electronic embedded systems is an increasingly complicated task. This is especially problematic for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) which have limited resources. In this work, we identify a set of common design practices used in industry, with a special focus on problems faced by smaller companies, and formulate them as design scenarios. We show how SMEs can benefit from a system-level design approach by customizing a formal heterogeneous system modeling framework for each scenario. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated by two industrial use cases, an impulse-radio radar and a UART-based protocol.

  • 27.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Cevrero, Alessandro
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Brisk, Philip
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Nicopoulos, Chrysostomos
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Gurkaynak, Frank K.
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Leblebici, Yusuf
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Ienne, Paolo
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Design space exploration for field programmable compressor trees2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2008 international conference on Compilers, architectures and synthesis for embedded systems, New York: ACM Press, 2008, s. 207-216Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Field Programmable Compressor Tree (FPCT) is a programmable compressor tree (e.g., a Wallace or Dadda Tree) intended for integration in an FPGA or other reconfigurable device. This paper presents a design space exploration (DSE) method that can be used to identify the best FPCT architecture for a given set of arithmetic benchmark circuits; in practice, an FPGA vendor can use the design space exploration to tailor the FPCT to meet the needs of the most important benchmark circuits of the vendor’s largest-volume clients. One novel feature of the DSE is the introduction of a metric called I/O utilization; we found that I/O utilization has a strong correlation with both the critical path delay and area of the benchmark circuits under study. Pruning the search space using I/O utilization allowed us to reduce significantly the number of FPCTs that must be synthesized and evaluated during the DSE, while giving high confidence that the best architectures are still explored. The DSE was applied to seven small-to-medium range benchmark circuits; one FPCT architecture was found that was 30% faster than the second best in terms of critical path delay, and only 3.34% larger than the smallest.

  • 28.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Jakobsen, M. K.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Sulonen, T.
    DA-Design Oy.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Formal heterogeneous system modeling with SystemC2012Ingår i: Proceedings of Forum on Specification and Design Languages (FDL) 2012, 2012, s. 160-167Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic System Level (ESL) design of embedded systems proposes raising the abstraction level of the design entry to cope with the increasing complexity of such systems. To exploit the benefits of ESL, design languages should allow specification of models which are a) heterogeneous, to describe different aspects of systems; b) formally defined, for application of analysis and synthesis methods; c) executable, to enable early detection of specification; and d) parallel, to exploit the multi- and many-core platforms for simulation and implementation. We present a modeling library on top of SystemC, targeting heterogeneous embedded system design, based on four models of computation. The library has a formal basis where all elements are well defined and lead in construction of analyzable models. The semantics of communication and computation are implemented by the library, which allows the designer to focus on specifying the pure functional aspects. A key advantage is that the formalism is used to export the structure and behavior of the models via introspection as an abstract representation for further analysis and synthesis.

  • 29.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Mikulcak, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Robino, Francesco
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    A Framework for Characterizing Predictable Platform Templates2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of real-time multiprocessor systems is a very costly and time-consuming process due to the need for extensive verification efforts. Genericcorrect-by-construction system-level design flows, targeting predictable plat-forms, would help to tackle this problem. Unfortunately, because system-level design problems are formulated monolithically, existing methods areeither not powerful enough to perform efficient design space exploration,over-customized to a specific class of platforms, or do not allow to be ex-tended with new heuristics and solving methods, which makes their reusedifficult. We present a formal framework to explicitly capture and character-ize predictable platform templates that can be used to formulate a genericdesign flow for real-time streaming applications in a composable manner. Aproof-of-concept implementation of such a flow is performed and used to mapa JPEG encoder application onto an FPGA-based time-predictable platform.

  • 30.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Mikulcak, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Automatic Generation of Virtual Prototypes from Platform Templates2015Ingår i: Languages, Design Methods, and Tools for Electronic System Design: Selected Contributions from FDL 2013 / [ed] Marie-Minerve Louërat, Torsten Maehne, Switzerland: Springer, 2015, s. 147-166Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Prototypes (VPs) provide an early development platform to embedded software designers when the hardware is not ready yet and allows them to explore the design space of a system, both from the software and architecture perspective. However, automatic generation of VPs is not straightforward because several aspects such as the validity of the generated platforms and the timing of the components needs to be considered. To address this problem, based on a framework which characterizes predictable platform templates, we propose a method for automated generation of VPs which is integrated into a combined design flow consisting of analytic and simulation based design-space exploration. Using our approach the valid TLM-2.0-based simulated VP instances with timing annotation can be generated automatically and used for further development of the system in the design flow. We have demonstrated the potential of our method by designing a JPEG encoder system.

  • 31.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Mikulcak, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Rapid virtual prototyping of real-time systems using predictable platform characterizations2013Ingår i: Forum on Specification Design Languages (FDL) 2013, 2013, s. 6646652-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual prototypes (VPs) provide an early development platform to embedded software designers when the hardware is not ready yet and allows them to explore the design space of a system, both from the software and architecture perspective. However, automatic generation of VPs is not straightforward because several aspects such as the validity of the generated platforms and the timing of the components needs to be considered. To address this problem, based on a framework which characterizes predictable platform templates, we propose a method for automated generation of VPs which is integrated into a combined design flow consisting of analytic and simulation based design-space exploration. Using our approach the valid TLM 2.0-based simulated VP instances with timing annotation can be generated automatically and used for further development of the system in the design flow. We have demonstrated the potential of our method by designing a JPEG encoder system.

  • 32.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    An Automated Parallel Simulation Flow for Heterogeneous Embedded Systems2013Ingår i: Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), 2013, 2013, s. 27-30Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation of complex embedded and cyber-physical systems requires exploitation of the computation power ofavailable parallel architectures. Current simulation environments either do not address this parallelism or use separate models for parallel simulation and for analysis and synthesis, which might lead to model mismatches. We extend a formal modeling framework targeting heterogeneous systems with elements that enable parallel simulations. An automated flow is then proposed that starting from a serial executable specification generates an efficient MPI-based parallel simulation model by using aconstraint-based method. The proposed flow generates parallel models with acceptable speedups for a representative example.

  • 33.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Co-simulation of embedded systems in a heterogeneous MoC-based modeling framework2011Ingår i: 2011 6th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES): Proceedings of a meeting held 15-17 June 2011, Vasteras, Sweden., IEEE Press, 2011, s. 238-247Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New design methodologies and modeling frameworks are required to provide a solution for integrating legacy code and IP models in order to be accepted in the industry. To tackle this problem, we introduce the concept of wrappers in the context of a formal heterogeneous embedded system modeling framework. The formalism is based on the language-independent concept of models of computation. Wrappers enable the framework to co-simulate/co-execute with external models which might be legacy code, an IP block, or an implementation of a partially refined system. They are defined formally in order to keep the analyzability of the original framework and also enable automations such as generation of model wrappers and co-simulation interfaces. As a proof of concept, three wrappers for models in different abstraction levels are introduced and implemented for two case studies.

  • 34.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Semi-formal refinement of heterogeneous embedded systems by foreign model integration2011Ingår i: 2011 Forum on Specification and Design Languages (FDL), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, s. 179-186Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for integration of external models in high-level system design flows. We introduce a set of partial refinement operations to implement models of heterogeneous embedded systems. The models are in form of process networks where each process belongs to a single model of computation. A semi-formal design flow has been introduced based on these operations to incrementally refine system specifications to their implementation. Wrapper processes, which allow co-simulation of a system model in the framework with external models and implementations are used to keep the intermediate system models after each refinement step verifiable. Additionally, this design flow has the advantage of integrating legacy code and IP cores. Using a simple example as the case study, we have shown how we can apply this design methodology to a simple system.

  • 35.
    Attarzadeh-Niaki, Seyed-Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik och Inbyggda System.
    Altinel, Ekrem
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik och Inbyggda System.
    Koedam, Martijn
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Molnos, Anca
    CEA-LETI.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik och Inbyggda System.
    Goossens, Kees
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    A Composable and Predictable MPSoC Design Flow for Multiple Real-Time Applications2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Design of real-time MPSoC systems including multiple appli-cations is challenging because temporal requirements of each applicationmust be respected throughout the entire design flow. Currently the de-sign of different applications is often interdependent, making converge toa solution for each application difficult. This paper proposes a composi-tional method to design applications independently, and then to executethem without interference. We define a formal modeling framework as asuitable entry point for application design. The models are executable,which enables early detection of specification errors, and include the for-mal properties of the applications based on well-defined models of com-putation. We combine this with a predictable MPSoC platform templatethat has a supporting design flow but lacks a simulation front-end. Thestructure and behavior of the application models are exported to an in-termediate format via introspection which is iteratively adapted for thebackend flow. We identify the problems arising in this adaptation andprovide appropriate solutions. The design flow is demonstrated by a sys-tem consisting of two streaming applications where less than half of thedesign time is dedicated to operating on the integrated system model.

  • 36.
    Attarzadeh-Niaki, Seyed-Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    An extensible modeling methodology for embedded and CPS designManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract models are important tools to manage the increasing complexity of system design. The choice of a modeling language for constructing models governs what types of systems can be modeled and which subsequent design activities can be performed. This is especially true for the area of embedded electronic and cyber-physical system design, which poses several challenging requirements on modeling and design methodologies. This article argues that the ForSyDe methodology with the necessary extensions can fulfill these requirements and thus qualifies for the design of tomorrow’s systems. Based on the theory of models of computation and the concept of process constructors, heterogeneous models are captured in ForSyDe with precise semantics. A refined layer of the formalism is introduced to make its denotational-style semantics easy to implement on top of the commonly used imperative languages and an open-source realization on top of the IEEE standard language SystemC is reported. The introspection mechanism is introduced to automatically export an intermediate representation of the constructed models for further analysis/synthesis by external tools. Flexibility and extensibility of ForSyDe is emphasized by integrating a new timed model of computation without central synchronization, and providing mechanisms for integrating foreign models, parallel and distributed simulation, modeling adaptive, data-parallel, and non-deterministic systems. A set of ForSyDe features are demonstrated in practice and compared to similar approaches using two relevant case studies. 

  • 37.
    Attarzadeh-Niaki, Seyed-Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    An extensible modeling methodology for embedded and cyber-physical system design2016Ingår i: Simulation (San Diego, Calif.), ISSN 0037-5497, E-ISSN 1741-3133, Vol. 92, nr 8, s. 771-794Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    models are important tools to manage the increasing complexity of system design. The choice of a modeling language for constructing models governs what types of systems can be modeled, and which subsequent design activities can be performed. This is especially true for the area of embedded electronic and cyber-physical system design, which poses several challenging requirements of modeling and design methodologies. This article argues that the Formal System Design (ForSyDe) methodology with the necessary presented extensions fulfills these requirements, and thus qualifies for the design of tomorrow's systems. Based on the theory of models of computation and the concept of process constructors, heterogeneous models are captured in ForSyDe with formal semantics. A refined layer of the formalism is introduced to make its denotational-style semantics easy to implement on top of commonly used imperative languages, and an open-source realization on top of the IEEE standard language SystemC is presented. The introspection mechanism is introduced to automatically export an intermediate representation of the constructed models for further analysis/synthesis by external tools. Flexibility and extensibility of ForSyDe is emphasized by integrating a new timed model of computation without central synchronization, and by providing mechanisms for integrating foreign models, parallel and distributed simulation, modeling adaptive, data-parallel, and non-deterministic systems. A set of ForSyDe features is demonstrated in practice, and compared with similar approaches using a running example and two relevant case studies.

  • 38.
    Attarzadeh-Niaki, Seyed-Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Automatic Construction of Models for Analytic Design Space Exploration ProblemsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the variety of application semantics and also the target platforms used in embedded electronic system design, it is challenging to propose a generic and extensible analytic design-space exploration (DSE) framework. Current approaches support a restricted class of application and platform models and are difficult to extend. This paper proposes a framework to capture the system functionality, a flexible target platform, and a binding policy explicitly using coherent constraint-based representations; together with a method for automatic construction of DSE problem models from them. Heterogeneous semantics is captured using constraints on logical clocks. The applicability of this method is demonstrated by constructing DSE problem models from various combinations of application and platforms models. Time-triggered and untimed models of the system functionality and heterogeneous target platforms are used for this purpose. The constructed models can be solved using different solvers and heuristics. 

  • 39.
    Awan, Ahsan Javed
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Accelerating Apache Spark with Fixed Function Hardware Accelerators Near DRAM and NVRAM2016Övrigt (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Badawi, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik och Inbyggda System.
    Adaptive Coarse-grain Reconfigurable Protocol Processing Architecture2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital signal processors and their variants have provided significant benefit to efficient implementation of Physical Layer (PHY) of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model’s seven-layer protocol processing stack compared to the general purpose processors. Protocol processors promise to provide a similar advantage for implementing higher layers in the (OSI)'s seven-layer model. This thesis addresses the problem of designing customizable coarse-grain reconfigurable protocol processing fabrics as a solution to achieving high performance and computational efficiency. A key requirement that this thesis addresses is the ability to not only adapt to varying applications and standards, and different modes in each standard but also to time varying load and performance demands while maintaining quality of service.This thesis presents a tile-based multicore protocol processing architecture that can be customized at design time to meet the requirements of the target application. The architecture can then be reconfigured at boot time and tuned to suit the desired use-case. This architecture includes a packet-oriented memory system that has deterministic access time and access energy costs, and hence can be accurately dimensioned to fulfill the requirements of the desired use-case. Moreover, to maintain quality of service as predicted, while minimizing the use of energy and resources, this architecture encompasses an elastic management scheme that controls run-time configuration to deploy processing resources based on use-case and traffic demands.To evaluate the architecture presented in this thesis, different case studies were conducted while quantitative and qualitative metrics were used for assessment. Energy-delay product, energy efficiency, area efficiency and throughput show the improvements that were achieved using the processing cores and the memory of the presented architecture, compared with other solutions. Furthermore, the results show the reduction in latency and power consumption required to evaluate controlling states when using the elastic management scheme. The elasticity of the scheme also resulted in reducing the total area required for the controllers that serve multiple processing cores in comparison with other designs. Finally, the results validate the ability of the presented architecture to support quality of service without misutilizing available energy during a real-life case study of a multi-participant Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) call.

  • 41.
    Badawi, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Hemani, Ahmed
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    A Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Protocol Processor2011Ingår i: International Symposium on System-on-Chip, 2011. Proceedings, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade-off between flexibility and performance became an important factor for characterizing modern protocol processing architectures. While some solutions tend to be more flexible and less computational efficient like GPPs, other solutions like custom ASIC devices provide high computational efficiency while loosing the ability to cope with the diversity of current and evolving protocols. We propose a reconfigurable protocol processor that is flexible and highly adaptable to the needs of the required protocol with the ability to operate individually or as a multi-core integrating processors. We show how a common protocol processing task that consumes one third of RISC CPU time can be performed on our processor at high speed and low energy cost.

  • 42.
    Badawi, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik och Inbyggda System.
    Lu, Zhonghai
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik och Inbyggda System.
    Hemani, Ahmed
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik och Inbyggda System.
    Service-Guaranteed Multi-Port PacketMemory for Parallel Protocol Processing Architecture2016Ingår i: Proceedings - 24th Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed, and Network-Based Processing, PDP 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 408-412, artikel-id 7445367Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Parallel processing architectures have been increasingly utilized due to their potential for improving performance and energy efficiency. Unfortunately, the anticipated improvement often suffers from a limitation caused by memory access latency and latency variation, which consequently impact Quality of Service (QoS). This paper presents a service-guaranteed multi-port packet memory system to boost parallelism in protocol processing architectures. In this proposed memory system, all arriving packets are guaranteed a memory space, such that, a packet memory space can be allocated in a bounded number of cycles and each of its locations is accessible in a single cycle. We consider a real-time Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) call as a case-study to evaluate our service-guaranteed memory system.

  • 43.
    Baumann, Christoph
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Schwarz, Oliver
    RISE SICS.
    Dam, Mads
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Compositional Verification of Security Properties for Embedded Execution Platforms2017Ingår i: PROOFS 2017: 6th International Workshop on Security Proofs for Embedded Systems / [ed] Ulrich Kühne and Jean-Luc Danger and Sylvain Guilley, 2017, Vol. 49, s. 1-16Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The security of embedded systems can be dramatically improved through the use of formally verified isolation mechanisms such as separation kernels, hypervisors, or microkernels. For trustworthiness, particularly for system level behaviour, the verifications need precise models of the underlying hardware. Such models are hard to attain, highly complex, and proofs of their security properties may not easily apply to similar but different platforms. This may render verification economically infeasible. To address these issues, we propose a compositional top-down approach to embedded system specification and verification, where the system-on-chip is modeled as a network of distributed automata communicating via paired synchronous message passing. Using abstract specifications for each component allows to delay the development of detailed models for cores, devices, etc., while still being able to verify high level security properties like integrity and confidentiality, and soundly refine the result for different instantiations of the abstract components at a later stage. As a case study, we apply this methodology to the verification of information flow security for an industry scale security-oriented hypervisor on the ARMv8-A platform. The hypervisor statically assigns (multiple) cores to each guest system and implements a rudimentary, but usable, inter guest communication discipline. We have completed a pen-and-paper security proof for the hypervisor down to state transition level and report on a partially completed verification of guest mode security in the HOL4 theorem prover.

  • 44. Bačkalov, I.
    et al.
    Bulian, G.
    Rosén, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Marina system.
    Shigunov, V.
    Themelis, N.
    Improvement of ship stability and safety in intact condition through operational measures: Challenges and opportunities2016Ingår i: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 120, s. 353-361Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attaining a sufficient level of safety from the point of view of stability is typically considered to be a matter of design. However, it is impossible to ensure safety only by design measures, and operational measures can then represent a complementary tool for efficiently and cost-effectively increasing the overall safety of the vessel. Time could therefore be coming for systematically considering operational measures as a recognised and regulated integral part of a holistic approach to ship safety from the point of view of stability. This paper therefore aims at capturing recent trends of research targeting operational safety measures, with specific attention to the intact ship condition. Open challenges and opportunities for research are identified, potential benefits and shortcomings of different options are discussed, and needs and possibilities for further developments in this area are explored. As an overall goal, this paper aims at providing food for thoughts as well as a ground for further proceeding towards the target of implementing a virtuous integrated approach to intact ship safety, from the point of view of stability, which gives due credit to effective and robust operational risk control options.

  • 45.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Architecting Autonomous Automotive Systems: With an emphasis on Cooperative Driving2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing usage of electronics and software in a modern automobile enables realization of many advanced features. One such feature is autonomous driving. Autonomous driving means that a human driver’s intervention is not required to drive the automobile; rather, theautomobile is capable of driving itself. Achieving automobile autonomyrequires research in several areas, one of which is the area of automotive electrical/electronics (E/E) architectures. These architectures deal with the design of the computer hardware and software present inside various subsystems of the vehicle, with particular attention to their interaction and modularization. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how automotive E/E architectures should be designed so that 1) it ispossible to realize autonomous features and 2) a smooth transition canbe made from existing E/E architectures, which have no explicit support for autonomy, to future E/E architectures that are explicitly designed for autonomy.The thesis begins its investigation by considering the specific problem of creating autonomous behavior under cooperative driving condi-tions. Cooperative driving conditions are those where continuous wireless communication exists between a vehicle and its surroundings, which consist of the local road infrastructure as well as the other vehicles in the vicinity. In this work, we define an original reference architecture for cooperative driving. The reference architecture demonstrates how a subsystem with specific autonomy features can be plugged into an existing E/E architecture, in order to realize autonomous driving capabilities. Two salient features of the reference architecture are that it isminimally invasive and that it does not dictate specific implementation technologies. The reference architecture has been instantiated on two separate occasions and is the main contribution of this thesis. Another contribution of this thesis is a novel approach to the design of general, autonomous, embedded systems architectures. The approach introduces an artificial consciousness within the architecture, that understands the overall purpose of the system and also how the different existing subsystems should work together in order to meet that purpose.This approach can enable progressive autonomy in existing embedded systems architectures, over successive design iterations.

  • 46.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Architecture support for automobile autonomy:A state of the art survey2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Reference Architectures for Highly Automated Driving2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated driving systems promise increased road traffic safety, as well as positive impacts on sustainable transportation by means of increased traffic efficiency and environmental friendliness. The design and development of such systems require scientific advances in a number of areas. One area is the vehicle's electrical/electronic (E/E) architecture. The E/E architecture can be presented using a number of views, of which an important one is the functional view. The functional view describes the decomposition of the system into its main logical components, along with the hierarchical structure, the component inter-connections, and requirements. When this view captures the principal ideas and patterns that constitute the foundation of a variety of specific architectures, it may be termed as a reference architecture. Two reference architectures for highly automated driving form the principal contribution of this thesis. The first reference architecture is for cooperative driving. In a cooperative driving situation, vehicles and road infrastructure in the vicinity of a vehicle continuously exchange wireless information and this information is then used to control the motion of the vehicle. The second reference architecture is for autonomous driving, wherein the vehicle is capable of driver-less operation even without direct communication with external entities. The description of both reference architectures includes their main components and the rationale for how these components should be distributed across the architecture and its layers. These architectures have been validated via multiple real-world instantiations, and the guidelines for instantiation also form part of the architecture description. A comparison with similar architectures is also provided, in order to highlight the similarities and differences. The comparisons show that in the context of automated driving, the explicit recognition of components for semantic understanding, world modeling, and vehicle platform abstraction are unique to the proposed architecture. These components are not unusual in architectures within the Artificial Intelligence/robotics domains; the proposed architecture shows how they can be applied within the automotive domain. A secondary contribution of this thesis is a description of a lightweight, four step approach for model based systems engineering of highly automated driving systems, along with supporting model classes. The model classes cover the concept of operations, logical architecture, application software components, and the implementation platforms. The thesis also provides an overview of current implementation technologies for cognitive driving intelligence and vehicle platform control, and recommends a specific setup for development and accelerated testing of highly automated driving systems, that includes model- and hardware-in-the-loop techniques in conjunction with a publish/subscribe bus. Beyond the more "traditional" engineering concepts, the thesis also investigates the domain of machine consciousness and computational self-awareness. The exploration indicates that current engineering methods are likely to hit a complexity ceiling, breaking through which may require advances in how safety-critical systems can self-organize, construct, and evaluate internal models to reflect their perception of the world. Finally, the thesis also presents a functional architecture for the brake system of an autonomous truck. This architecture proposes a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems of the truck in a way that provides dynamic, diversified redundancy, and an increase in the system reliability and availability, while meeting safety requirements.

  • 48.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Scoop Technical Report: Year 20112011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with the technical solution that was implemented for the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2011. The GCDC involved developing a system to drive a vehicle autonomously in specific situations. Some reflections on the design process are also included. The goal of the report is to make the user understand the technical solution and the motivations behind the design choices made.

  • 49.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Systems Engineering and Architecting for Intelligent Autonomous Systems2016Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides insights into architecture and systems engineering for autonomous driving systems, through a set of complementary perspectives. For practitioners, a short term perspective uses the state of the art to define a three layered functional architecture for autonomous driving, consisting of a vehicle platform, a cognitive driving intelligence, and off-board supervisory and monitoring services. The architecture is placed within a broader context of model based systems engineering (MBSE), for which we define four classes of models: Concept of Operations, Logical Architecture, Application Software Components, and Platform Components. These classes aid an immediate or subsequent MBSE methodology for concrete projects. Also for concrete projects, we propose an implementation setup and technologies that combine simulation and implementation for rapid testing of autonomous driving functionality in physical and virtual environments. Future evolution of autonomous driving systems is explored with a long term perspective looking at stronger concepts of autonomy like machine consciousness and self-awareness. Contrasting these concepts with current engineering practices shows that scaling to more complex systems may require incorporating elements of so-called \emph{constructivist} architectures. The impact of autonomy on systems engineering is expected to be mainly around testing and verification, while implementations shall continue experiencing an influx of technologies from non-automotive domains.

  • 50.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.). The SP Technical Research Institute, Sweden.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Architecture challenges for intelligent autonomous machines: An industrial perspective2016Ingår i: 13th International conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-13), Springer, 2016, Vol. 302, s. 1669-1681Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Machines are displaying a trend of increasing autonomy. This has a far reaching impact on the architectures of the embedded systems within the machine. The impact needs to be clearly understood and the main obstacles to autonomy need to be identified. The obstacles, especially from an industrial perspective, are not just technological butalso relate to system aspects like certification, development processes and product safety. In this paper, we identify and discuss some of the main obstacles to autonomy from the viewpoint of technical specialists working on advanced industrial product development. The identified obstacles cover topics like world modeling, user interaction, complexity and system safety.

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