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  • 1. Abbasi Hoseini, A.
    et al.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Andersson, H. I.
    Finite-length effects on dynamical behavior of rod-like particles in wall-bounded turbulent flow2015Inngår i: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533, Vol. 76, s. 13-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Combined Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) measurements have been performed in dilute suspensions of rod-like particles in wall turbulence. PIV results for the turbulence field in the water table flow apparatus compared favorably with data from Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of channel flow turbulence and the universality of near-wall turbulence justified comparisons with DNS of fiber-laden channel flow. In order to examine any shape effects on the dynamical behavior of elongated particles in wall-bounded turbulent flow, fibers with three different lengths but the same diameter were used. In the logarithmic part of the wall-layer, the translational fiber velocity was practically unaffected by the fiber length l. In the buffer layer, however, the fiber dynamics turned out to be severely constrained by the distance z to the wall. The short fibers accumulated preferentially in low-speed areas and adhered to the local fluid speed. The longer fibers (l/z > 1) exhibited a bi-modal probability distribution for the fiber velocity, which reflected an almost equal likelihood for a long fiber to reside in an ejection or in a sweep. It was also observed that in the buffer region, high-speed long fibers were almost randomly oriented whereas for all size cases the slowly moving fibers preferentially oriented in the streamwise direction. These phenomena have not been observed in DNS studies of fiber suspension flows and suggested l/z to be an essential parameter in a new generation of wall-collision models to be used in numerical studies.

  • 2.
    Abbasiasl, Taher
    et al.
    Sabanci University.
    Niazi, Soroush
    Sabanci University.
    Sheibani Aghdam, Araz
    Sabanci University.
    Chen, Hongjian
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Cebeci, Fevzi Cakmak
    Sabanci University.
    Ghorbani, Morteza
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning. 1 Sabanci University Nanote.
    Grishenkov, Dmitry
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Kosar, Ali
    Sabanci University.
    Effect of intensified cavitation using poly (vinyl alcohol) microbubbles on spray atomization characteristics in microscale2020Inngår i: AIP Advances, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 10, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, cavitating flows inside a transparent cylindrical nozzle with an inner diameter of 0.9 mm were visualized, and the effect of cavitation on atomization characteristics of emerging sprays was investigated. Different patterns of cavitating flows inside the nozzle were visualized using a high-speed camera. In-house codes were developed to process the captured images to study the droplet size distribution and droplet velocity in different flow regimes. The results show that cavitating flows at the microscale have significant effects on atomization characteristics of the spray. Two working fluids, namely, water and poly(vinyl alcohol) microbubble (PVA MB) suspension, were employed. Accordingly, the injection pressures were detected as 690 kPa, 1035 kPa, and 1725 kPa for cavitation inception, supercavitation, and hydraulic flip flow regimes in the case of water, respectively. The corresponding pressures for the aforementioned patterns for PVA MB suspension were 590 kPa, 760 kPa, and 1070 kPa, respectively. At the microscale, as a result of a higher volume fraction of cavitation bubbles inside the nozzle, there is no large difference between the cavitation numbers corresponding to cavitating and hydraulic flip flows. Although the percentage of droplets with diameters smaller than 200 μm was roughly the same for both cases of water and PVA MB suspension, the Sauter mean diameter was considerably lower in the case of PVA MBs. Moreover, higher droplet velocities were achieved in the case of PVA MBs at lower injection pressures.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Abbasiasl, Taher
    et al.
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Sutova, Hande
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Niazi, Soroush
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Celebi, Gizem
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Karavelioglu, Zeynep
    Yildiz Tech Univ, Dept Bioengn, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Kirabali, Ufuk
    Yildiz Tech Univ, Dept Mechatron Engn, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Yilmaz, Abdurrahim
    Yildiz Tech Univ, Dept Mechatron Engn, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Uvet, Huseyin
    Yildiz Tech Univ, Dept Mechatron Engn, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Kutlu, Ozlem
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Ctr Excellence Funct Surfaces & Interfaces Nanodi, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Ekici, Sinan
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Ghorbani, Morteza
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning. Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Ctr Excellence Funct Surfaces & Interfaces Nanodi, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Kosar, Ali
    Sabanci Univ, Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Ctr Excellence Funct Surfaces & Interfaces Nanodi, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    A Flexible Cystoscope Based on Hydrodynamic Cavitation for Tumor Tissue Ablation2022Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0018-9294, E-ISSN 1558-2531, Vol. 69, nr 1, s. 513-524Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Hydrodynamic cavitation is characterized by the formation of bubbles inside a flow due to local reduction of pressure below the saturation vapor pressure. The resulting growth and violent collapse of bubbles lead to a huge amount of released energy. This energy can be implemented in different fields such as heat transfer enhancement, wastewater treatment and chemical reactions. In this study, a cystoscope based on small scale hydrodynamic cavitation was designed and fabricated to exploit the destructive energy of cavitation bubbles for treatment of tumor tissues. The developed device is equipped with a control system, which regulates the movement of the cystoscope in different directions. According to our experiments, the fabricated cystoscope was able to locate the target and expose cavitating flow to the target continuously and accurately. The designed cavitation probe embedded into the cystoscope caused a significant damage to prostate cancer and bladder cancer tissues within less than 15 minutes. The results of our experiments showed that the cavitation probe could be easily coupled with endoscopic devices because of its small diameter. We successfully integrated a biomedical camera, a suction tube, tendon cables, and the cavitation probe into a 6.7 mm diameter cystoscope, which could be controlled smoothly and accurately via a control system. The developed device is considered as a mechanical ablation therapy, can be a solid alternative for minimally invasive tissue ablation methods such as radiofrequency (RF) and laser ablation, and could have lower side effects compared to ultrasound therapy and cryoablation.

  • 4. Abdulrazaq, Muhammed
    et al.
    Shahmardi, Armin
    KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik.
    Edoardo Rost, Marco
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik. Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Numerical modelling of the extensional dynamics in elastoviscoplastic fluidsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensional dynamics of an elasto-viscoplastic (EVP) fluid is studied by means of numerical simulations closely modelling an experimental configuration.  Specifically, we track the interface between the EVP material and the Newtonian medium using an algebraic volume of fluid method (MTHINC-VOF) and employ a fully Eulerian immersed boundary method (IBM) to model the motion of the piston responsible of the extension of the material.

    We investigate the role of different values of the yield stress, surface tension at the interface between the EVP material and the surrounding fluid, polymer viscosity ratio, and extension rates on the necking thickness of the material, extensional viscosity, and yielding of the material. 

     The results of the simulations reveal that when the yield stress of the EVP material is much larger than the viscous stresses, the material undergoes an elastic deformation, regardless of the selected values of extension rate, interfacial forces, and viscosity ratio. Moreover, increasing the ratio of the polymeric viscosity to the total viscosity of the system accelerates the EVP rupture due to the high stress concentration in the central part of the material sample. Specific and novel to our study, we show that interfacial forces cannot be ignored when the surface tension coefficient is such that a Capillary number based on the extensional rate is order 1. For large values of the surface tension coefficient, the EVP material fails sooner, with a clear deviation from the exponential reduction in the neck thickness.

  • 5.
    Abdulrazaq, Muhammed
    et al.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Appl Phys, Fluids & Flows Grp, POB 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Shahmardi, Armin
    KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik.
    Rosti, Marco Edoardo
    Grad Univ, Okinawa Inst Sci & Technol, Complex Fluids & Flows Unit, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 9040495, Japan..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik.
    Numerical modelling of the extensional dynamics in elastoviscoplastic fluids2023Inngår i: Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0377-0257, E-ISSN 1873-2631, Vol. 318, artikkel-id 105060Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensional dynamics of an elasto-viscoplastic (EVP) fluid is studied by means of numerical simulations modelling an experimental configuration. Specifically, we track the interface between the EVP material and the Newtonian medium using an algebraic volume of fluid method (MTHINC-VOF) and employ a fully Eulerian immersed boundary method (IBM) to model the motion of the piston responsible for the extension of the material. We investigate the role of different values of the yield stress, surface tension at the interface between the EVP material and the surrounding fluid, polymer viscosity ratio, and extension rates on the necking thickness of the material, extensional viscosity, and yielding of the material for two sets of parameter with low and high elasticity. The results of the simulations reveal that when the yield stress of the EVP material is much larger than the viscous stresses, the material undergoes an elastic deformation, regardless of the selected values of the extension rate, interfacial forces, and viscosity ratio. Moreover, by increasing the ratio of the polymeric viscosity to the total viscosity of the system, the EVP material produces stronger strain hardening and reaches the minimum resolvable width sooner. Specific and novel to our study, we show that interfacial forces cannot be ignored when the surface tension coefficient is such that a Capillary number based on the extensional rate is of order 1. For large values of the surface tension coefficient, the EVP material fails sooner, with a clear deviation from the exponential reduction in the neck thickness. Moreover, our results suggest that the role of the yield stress value on the dynamics of the material is more pronounced at lower elasticity.

  • 6. Abreu, L. I.
    et al.
    Cavalieri, A. V. G.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll.
    Wavepackets in turbulent flow over a NACA 4412 airfoil2018Inngår i: 31st Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, ICAS 2018, International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences , 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent flow over a NACA 4412 airfoil with an angle of attack AoA = 5◦ was analysed using an incompressible direct numerical simulation (DNS) at chord Reynolds number of Rec = 4 · 105. Snapshots of the flow field were analysed using the method of Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (SPOD) in frequency domain, in order to extract the dominant coherent structures of the flow. Focus is given to two-dimensional disturbances, known to be most relevant for aeroacoustics. The leading SPOD modes show coherent structures forming a wavepacket, with significant amplitudes in the trailing-edge boundary layer and in the wake. To model coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer, the optimal harmonic forcing and the associated linear response of the flow were obtained using the singular value decomposition of the linear resolvent operator. The resolvent analysis shows that the leading SPOD modes can be associated to most amplified, linearised flow responses. Furthermore, coherent structures in the wake are modelled as the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode from linear stability theory (LST). 

  • 7. Abreu, Leandra, I
    et al.
    Cavalieri, Andre V. G.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Resolvent modelling of near-wall coherent structures in turbulent channel flow2020Inngår i: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 85, artikkel-id 108662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent channel flow was analysed using direct numerical simulations at friction Reynolds numbers Re-tau = 180 and 550. The databases were studied using spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) to identify dominant near-wall coherent structures, most of which turn out to be streaks and streamwise vortices. Resolvent analysis was used as a theoretical approach to model such structures, as it allows the identification of the optimal forcing and most amplified flow response; the latter may be related to the observed relevant structures obtained by SPOD, especially if the gain between forcing and response is much larger than what is found for suboptimal forcings or if the non-linear forcing is white noise. Results from SPOD and resolvent analysis were compared for several combinations of frequencies and wavenumbers. For both Reynolds numbers, the best agreement between SPOD and resolvent modes was observed for the cases where the lift-up mechanism from resolvent analysis is present, which are also the cases where the optimal resolvent gain is dominant. These results confirm the outcomes in our previous studies (Abreu et al., 2019; Abreu et al., 2020), where we used a DNS database of a pipe flow for the same Reynolds numbers.

  • 8.
    Abreu, Leandra, I
    et al.
    Sao Paulo State Univ UNESP, Campus Sao Joao Boa Vista, BR-13876750 Sao Joao Da Boa Vista, SP, Brazil.;Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aeronaut, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Tanarro, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Cavalieri, Andre V. G.
    Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aeronaut, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Spanwise-coherent hydrodynamic waves around flat plates and airfoils2021Inngår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 927, artikkel-id A1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate spanwise-coherent structures in the turbulent flow around airfoils, motivated by their connection with trailing-edge noise. We analyse well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) of the flow around NACA 0012 and NACA 4412 airfoils, both at a Reynolds number of 400 000 based on the chord length. Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition performed on the data reveals that the most energetic coherent structures are hydrodynamic waves, extending over the turbulent boundary layers around the airfoils with significant amplitudes near the trailing edge. Resolvent analysis was used to model such structures, using the mean field as a base flow. We then focus on evaluating the dependence of such structures on the domain size, to ensure that they are not an artefact of periodic boundary conditions in small computational boxes. To this end, we performed incompressible LES of a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer, for three different spanwise sizes, with the momentum-thickness Reynolds number matching those near the airfoils trailing edge. The same coherent hydrodynamic waves were observed for the three domains. Such waves are accurately modelled as the most amplified flow response from resolvent analysis. The signature of such wide structures is seen in non-premultiplied spanwise wavenumber spectra, which collapse for the three computational domains. These results suggest that the spanwise-elongated structures are not domain-size dependent for the studied simulations, indicating thus the presence of very wide structures in wall-bounded turbulent flows.

  • 9.
    Abreu, Leandra I.
    et al.
    Divisão de Engenharia Aeronáutica, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.
    Tanarro, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Cavalieri, André V.G.
    Divisão de Engenharia Aeronáutica, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Mekanik. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Mekanik. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Wavepackets in turbulent flows around airfoilsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the recent analysis by Sano et al. 2019, Phys. Rev. Fluids, vol. 4, p. 094602, of spanwise-coherent structures in the turbulent flow around airfoils and their connection to trailing-edge noise, we carry out a thorough characterisation of such structures in three simulation databases. We analyse two different numerical simulations of incompressible flow in turbulent regime, both at chord Reynolds number of 400,000: a large-eddy simulation for a NACA 0012 profile at zero angle of attack, and a direct numerical simulation for a NACA 4412 airfoil with an angle of attack of 5 degrees. Snapshots of the flow field were analysed using Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (SPOD), in order to extract the dominant coherent structures of the flow. Focus is given to  the aforementioned spanwise-coherent fluctuations, which two-dimensional disturbances in the computational domain due to the use of periodic boundary conditions. The leading SPOD modes show that the most energetic coherent structures are wavepackets, extending over the whole turbulent boundary layers around the airfoils with significant amplitudes near the trailing-edge. Higher amplitudes are observed in the region of  stronger adverse pressure gradient at the suction side of the NACA 4412 airfoil. To understand how such structures in the turbulent field can be modelled, the linear response of the flow using the singular value decomposition of the linearised resolvent operator was performed, using the mean field as a base flow and considering a locally parallel approximation. Such analysis shows that the leading SPOD modes can be associated to optimal, linearised flow responses, particularly for stations far from the trailing edge; the latter introduces a discontinuity in boundary conditions, and the locally parallel approximation becomes questionable. We then focus on evaluating the dependence of such wavepackets on the domain size, to ensure that these structures are not an artifact of the use of periodic boundary conditions in small computational boxes. To do so, we performed an incompressible LES of a zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (ZPGTBL), for three different spanwise sizes: Lz=32 δ*, Lz=64 δ* and Lz=128 δ*, where δ* is a reference displacement thickness in a region of developed turbulent flow, with Reynolds number matching the values in the airfoil simulations. The signature of such wavepackets is seen in non-premultiplied spanwise wavenumber spectra, which reaches, for the three domain sizes, a plateau for spanwise wavelengths going to infinity (or wavenumbers going to zero); this plateau is representative of the spanwise-coherent structures seen in the airfoil simulations. Similar SPOD and resolvent analyses were carried out for the zero spanwise wavenumber of the ZPGTBL, and the same coherent wavepackets were observed for the three domains, with very similar amplitudes. Such wavepackets were also accurately modelled using the optimal resolvent response. These results confirm that the spanwise-elongated structures are not domain-size dependent for the studied simulations, and are thus a feature of turbulent boundary layers.

  • 10.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Numerisk analys, NA.
    Ewald summation for the rotlet singularity of Stokes flow2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ewald summation is an efficient method for computing the periodic sums that appear when considering the Green's functions of Stokes flow together with periodic boundary conditions. We show how Ewald summation, and accompanying truncation error estimates, can be easily derived for the rotlet, by considering it as a superposition of electrostatic force calculations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Numerisk analys, NA. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lindbo, Dag
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Numerisk analys, NA. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Numerisk analys, NA. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    An explicit Eulerian method for multiphase flow with contact line dynamics and insoluble surfactant2014Inngår i: Computers & Fluids, ISSN 0045-7930, E-ISSN 1879-0747, Vol. 101, s. 50-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow behavior of many multiphase flow applications is greatly influenced by wetting properties and the presence of surfactants. We present a numerical method for two-phase flow with insoluble surfactants and contact line dynamics in two dimensions. The method is based on decomposing the interface between two fluids into segments, which are explicitly represented on a local Eulerian grid. It provides a natural framework for treating the surfactant concentration equation, which is solved locally on each segment. An accurate numerical method for the coupled interface/surfactant system is given. The system is coupled to the Navier-Stokes equations through the immersed boundary method, and we discuss the issue of force regularization in wetting problems, when the interface touches the boundary of the domain. We use the method to illustrate how the presence of surfactants influences the behavior of free and wetting drops.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Numerisk analys, NA.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Numerisk analys, NA.
    Fast Ewald summation for Stokesian particle suspensions2014Inngår i: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, ISSN 0271-2091, E-ISSN 1097-0363, Vol. 76, nr 10, s. 669-698Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a numerical method for suspensions of spheroids of arbitrary aspect ratio, which sediment under gravity. The method is based on a periodized boundary integral formulation using the Stokes double layer potential. The resulting discrete system is solved iteratively using generalized minimal residual accelerated by the spectral Ewald method, which reduces the computational complexity to O(N log N), where N is the number of points used to discretize the particle surfaces. We develop predictive error estimates, which can be used to optimize the choice of parameters in the Ewald summation. Numerical tests show that the method is well conditioned and provides good accuracy when validated against reference solutions. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    postprint
  • 13.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Saine, Kari
    Wärtsilä Finland OyResearch and Development, WSSCVaasaFinland.
    Paro, Claus
    Wärtsilä Finland OyResearch and Development, WSSCVaasaFinland.
    Dascotte, Eddy
    Dynamic Design Solutions (DDS) NVLeuvenBelgium.
    Experimental evaluation of the inertia properties of large diesel engines2021Inngår i: Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Springer , 2021, s. 205-213Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inertia properties of several medium speed large diesel engines are evaluated using the Inertia Restrain Method (IRM). This method requires measuring frequency response functions (FRFs) at several well-chosen locations and under dynamic loading in different directions that stimulate rigid body movements. The mass line values of the measured FRFs are then evaluated and, together with the sensor locations, are used by IRM to determine center of gravity, mass and mass moments of inertia. The aim of the study is to investigate the accuracy and robustness of the IRM for extracting the inertia properties of complex structures. Therefore, several line- and V-engines were measured. The experimental results are compared with finite element models and result obtained from weighing tests. Different types of excitation source such as hammer and shaker are used to excite the structure. The result obtained from two excitation sources are compared and discussed. The effect of measurement point locations and driving point accelerometers on the FRFs and inertia properties are investigated. The extracted inertia properties in all cases are considered sufficiently accurate. This indicates that the IRM is a robust tool for identifying the inertia properties of large and complex structures and can be employed at an industrial level. 

  • 14. Agarwal, A.
    et al.
    Dowling, A. P.
    Shin, H. -C
    Graham, W.
    Sefi, Sandy
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Numerisk Analys och Datalogi, NADA.
    A ray tracing approach to calculate acoustic shielding by the silent aircraft airframe2006Inngår i: Collection of Technical Papers - 12th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, 2006, s. 2799-2818Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Silent Aircraft is in the form of a flying wing with a large wing planform and a propulsion system that is embedded in the rear of the airframe with intakes on the upper surface of the wing. Thus a large part of the forward-propagating noise from the intake ducts is expected to be shielded from observers on the ground by the wing. Acoustic shielding effects can be calculated by solving an external acoustic scattering problem for a moving aircraft. In this paper, acoustic shielding effects of the Silent Aircraft airframe are quantified by a ray-tracing method. The dominant frequencies from the noise spectrum of the engines are sufficiently high for ray theory to yield accurate results. It is shown that for low-Mach number homentropic flows, a condition satisfied approximately by the Silent Aircraft during take-off and approach, the acoustic rays propagate in straight lines. Thus, from Fermat's principle it is clear that classical Geometrical Optics and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction solutions are applicable to this moving-body problem as well. The total amount of acoustic shielding at an observer located in the shadow region is calculated by adding the contributions from all the diffracted rays (edge-diffracted and creeping rays) and then subtracting the result from the incident field without the airframe. Experiments on a model-scale geometry have been conducted in an anechoic chamber to test the applicability of the ray-tracing technique. The three-dimensional ray-tracing solver is validated by comparing the numerical solution with analytical high-frequency asymptotic solutions for canonical shapes.

  • 15. Agarwal, Akshat
    et al.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Zaki, Tamer A.
    Linear and nonlinear evolution of a localized disturbance in polymeric channel flow2014Inngår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 760, s. 278-303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of an initially localized disturbance in polymeric channel flow is investigated, with the FENE-P model used to characterize the viscoelastic behaviour of the flow. In the linear growth regime, the flow response is stabilized by viscoelasticity, and the maximum attainable disturbance energy amplification is reduced with increasing polymer concentration. The reduction in the energy growth rate is attributed to the polymer work, which plays a dual role. First, a spanwise polymer-work term develops, and is explained by the tilting action of the wall-normal voracity on the mean streamwise conformation tensor. This resistive term weakens the spanwise velocity perturbation thus reducing the energy of the localized disturbance. The second action of the polymer is analogous, with a wall-normal polymer work term that weakens the vertical velocity perturbation. Its indirect effect on energy growth is substantial since it reduces the production of Reynolds shear stress and in turn of the streamwise velocity perturbation, or streaks. During the early stages of nonlinear growth, the dominant effect of the polymer is to suppress the large-scale streaky structures which are strongly amplified in Newtonian flows. As a result, the process of transition to turbulence is prolonged and, after transition, a drag-reduced turbulent state is attained.

  • 16.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Ångstrom, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Demonstration of Air-Fuel Ratio Role in One-Stage Turbocompound Diesel Engines2013Inngår i: SAE Technical Papers, 2013, Vol. 11Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large portion of fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of internal combustion engines. Turbocompound can, however, recover part of this wasted heat. The energy recovery depends on the turbine efficiency and mass flow as well as the exhaust gas state and properties such as pressure, temperature and specific heat capacity.

    The main parameter influencing the turbocompound energy recovery is the exhaust gas pressure which leads to higher pumping loss of the engine and consequently lower engine crankshaft power. Each air-fuel equivalence ratio (λ) gives different engine power, exhaust gas temperature and pressure. Decreasing λ toward 1 in a Diesel engine results in higher exhaust gas temperatures of the engine.  λ can be varied by changing the intake air pressure or the amount of injected fuel which changes the available energy into the turbine. Thus, there is a compromise between gross engine power, created pumping power, recovered turbocompound power and consumed compressor power.

    In this study, the effects of different λ values and exhaust back-pressure have been investigated on the efficiency of a heavy-duty Diesel engine equipped with a single-stage electric turbocompounding. A one-dimensional gas dynamics model of a turbocharged engine was utilized that was validated against measurements at different load points. Two configurations of turbocompound engine were made. In one configuration an electric turbocharger was used and the amount of fuel was varied with constant intake air pressure. In another configuration the turbocharger turbine and compressor were disconnected to be able to control the turbine speed and the compressor speed independently; then the compressor pressure ratio was varied with constant engine fuelling and the exhaust back-pressure was optimized for each compressor pressure ratio.

    At each constant turbine efficiency there is a linear relation between the optimum exhaust back-pressure and ideally expanded cylinder pressure until bottom dead center with closed exhaust valves. There is an optimum λ for the turbocharged engine with regard to the fuel consumption. In the turbocompound engine, this will be moved to a richer λ that gives the best total specific fuel consumption; however, the results of this study indicates that turbocompound engine efficiency is relatively insensitive to the air-fuel ratio.

  • 17.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Improving Turbocharged Engine Simulation by Including Heat Transfer in the Turbocharger2012Inngår i: 2012 SAE International, SAE international , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engine simulation based on one-dimensional gas dynamics is well suited for integration of all aspects arising in engine and power-train developments. Commonly used turbocharger performance maps in engine simulation are measured in non-pulsating flow and without taking into account the heat transfer. Since on-engine turbochargers are exposed to pulsating flow and varying heat transfer situations, the maps in the engine simulation, i.e. GT-POWER, have to be shifted and corrected which are usually done by mass and efficiency multipliers for both turbine and compressor. The multipliers change the maps and are often different for every load point. Particularly, the efficiency multiplier is different for every heat transfer situation on the turbocharger. The aim of this paper is to include the heat transfer of the turbocharger in the engine simulation and consequently to reduce the use of efficiency multiplier for both the turbine and compressor. A set of experiment has been designed and performed on a water-oil-cooled turbocharger, which was installed on a 2 liter GDI engine with variable valve timing, for different load points of the engine and different conditions of heat transfer in the turbocharger. The experiments were the base to simulate heat transfer on the turbocharger, by adding a heat sink before the turbine and a heat source after the compressor. The efficiency multiplier of the turbine cannot compensate for all heat transfer in the turbine, so it is needed to put out heat from the turbine in addition to the using of efficiency multiplier. Results of this study show that including heat transfer of turbocharger in engine simulation enables to decrease the use of turbine efficiency multiplier and eliminate the use of compressor efficiency multiplier to correctly calculate the measured gas temperatures after turbine and compressor.

  • 18.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Temperature Estimation of Turbocharger Working Fluids and Walls under Different Engine Loads and Heat Transfer Conditions2013Inngår i: SAE Technical Papers, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbocharger performance maps, which are used in engine simulations, are usually measured on a gas-stand where the temperatures distributions on the turbocharger walls are entirely different from that under real engine operation. This should be taken into account in the simulation of a turbocharged engine. Dissimilar wall temperatures of turbochargers give different air temperature after the compressor and different exhaust gas temperature after the turbine at a same load point. The efficiencies are consequently affected. This can lead to deviations between the simulated and measured outlet temperatures of the turbocharger turbine and compressor. This deviation is larger during a transient load step because the temperatures of turbocharger walls change slowly due to the thermal inertia. Therefore, it is important to predict the temperatures of turbocharger walls and the outlet temperatures of the turbocharger working fluids in a turbocharged engine simulation.

    In the work described in this paper, a water-oil-cooled turbocharger was extensively instrumented with several thermocouples on reachable walls. The turbocharger was installed on a 2-liter gasoline engine that was run under different loads and different heat transfer conditions on the turbocharger by using insulators, an extra cooling fan, radiation shields and water-cooling settings. The turbine inlet temperature varied between 550 and 850 °C at different engine loads.

    The results of this study show that the temperatures of turbocharger walls are predictable from the experiment. They are dependent on the load point and the heat transfer condition of the turbocharger. The heat transfer condition of an on-engine turbocharger could be defined by the turbine inlet temperature, ambient temperature, oil heat flux, water heat flux and the velocity of the air around the turbocharger. Thus, defining the heat transfer condition and rotational speed of the turbocharger provides temperatures predictions of the turbocharger walls and the working fluids. This prediction enables increased precision in engine simulation for future work in transient operation.

  • 19.
    Agrawal, Vishal
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Farkostteknik och Solidmekanik, Hållfasthetslära.
    Scapin, Nicolo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    An efficient isogeometric/finite-difference immersed boundary method for the fluid–structure interactions of slender flexible structures2024Inngår i: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, ISSN 0045-7825, E-ISSN 1879-2138, Vol. 418, artikkel-id 116495Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, we present a robust and efficient computational framework capable of accurately capturing the dynamic motion and large deformation/deflection responses of highly-flexible rods interacting with an incompressible viscous flow. Within the partitioned approach, we adopt separate field solvers to compute the dynamics of the immersed structures and the evolution of the flow field over time, considering finite Reynolds numbers. We employ a geometrically exact, nonlinear Cosserat rod formulation in the context of the isogeometric analysis (IGA) technique to model the elastic responses of each rod in three dimensions (3D). The Navier–Stokes equations are resolved using a pressure projection method on a standard staggered Cartesian grid. The direct-forcing immersed boundary method is utilized for coupling the IGA-based structural solver with the finite-difference fluid solver. In order to fully exploit the accuracy of the IGA technique for FSI simulations, the proposed framework introduces a new procedure that decouples the resolution of the structural domain from the fluid grid. Uniformly distributed Lagrangian markers with density relative to the Eulerian grid are generated to communicate between Lagrangian and Eulerian grids consistently with IGA. We successfully validate the proposed computational framework against two- and three-dimensional FSI benchmarks involving flexible filaments undergoing large deflections/motions in an incompressible flow. We show that six times coarser structural mesh than the flow Eulerian grid delivers accurate results for classic benchmarks, leading to a major gain in computational efficiency. The simultaneous spatial and temporal convergence studies demonstrate the consistent performance of the proposed framework, showing that it conserves the order of the convergence, which is the same as that of the fluid solver.

  • 20.
    Ahlberg, Charlotte
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    An experimental study of fiber suspensions between counter-rotating discs2009Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior of fibers suspended in a flow between two counter-rotating discs has been studied experimentally. This is inspired by the refining process in the papermaking process where cellulose fibers are ground between discs in order to change performance in the papermaking process and/or qualities of the final paper product.

    To study the fiber behavior in a counter-rotating flow, an experimental set-up with two glass discs was built. A CCD-camera was used to capture images of the fibers in the flow. Image analysis based on the concept of steerable filters extracted the position and orientation of the fibers in the plane of the discs. Experiments were performed for gaps of 0.1-0.9 fiber lengths, and for equal absolute values of the angular velocities for the upper and lower disc. The aspect ratios of the fibers were 7, 14 and 28.

    Depending on the angular velocity of the discs and the gap between them, the fibers were found to organize themselves in fiber trains. A fiber train is a set of fibers positioned one after another in the tangential direction with a close to constant fiber-to-fiber distance. In the fiber trains, each individual fiber is aligned in the radial direction (i.e. normal to the main direction of the train).

    The experiments show that the number of fibers in a train increases as the gap between the discs decreases. Also, the distance between the fibers in a train decreases as the length of the train increases, and the results for short trains are in accordance with previous numerical results in two dimensions.Furthermore, the results of different aspect ratios imply that there are three-dimensional fiber end-effects that are important for the forming of fiber trains.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 21.
    Ahlman, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    A study of turbulence and scalar mixing in a wall-jet using direct numerical simulation2006Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulation is used to study the dynamics and mixing in a turbulent plane wall-jet. The investigation is undertaken in order to extend the knowledge base of the influence of the wall on turbulent dynamics and mixing. The mixing statistics produced can also be used to evaluate and develop models for mixing and combustion. In order to perform the simulations, a numerical code was developed. The code employs compact finite difference schemes, of high order, for spatial integration, and a low-storage Runge-Kutta method for the temporal integration. In the simulations performed the inlet based Reynolds and Mach numbers of the wall jet were Re = 2000 and M=0.5, respectively. Above the jet a constant coflow of 10% of the inlet jet velocity was applied. A passive scalar was added at the inlet of the jet, in a non-premixed manner, enabling an investigation of the wall-jet mixing as well as the dynamics. The mean development and the respective self-similarity of the inner and outer shear layers were studied. Comparisons of properties in the shear layers of different character were performed by applying inner and outer scaling. The characteristics of the wall-jet was compared to what has been observed in other canonical shear flows. In the inner part of the jet, 0 ≤ y+ ≤ 13, the wall-jet was found to closely resemble a zero pressure gradient boundary layer. The outer layer was found to resemble a free plane jet. The downstream growth rate of the scalar was approximately equal to that of the streamwise velocity, in terms of the growth rate of the half-width. The scalar fluxes in the streamwise and wall-normal direction were found to be of comparable magnitude.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 22.
    Ahlman, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Numerical studies of turbulent wall-jets for mixing and combustion applications2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulation is used to study turbulent plane wall-jets. The investigation is aimed at studying dynamics, mixing and reactions in wall bounded flows. The produced mixing statistics can be used to evaluate and develop models for mixing and combustion. An aim has also been to develop a simulation method that can be extended to simulate realistic combustion including significant heat release. The numerical code used in the simulations employs a high order compact finite difference scheme for spatial integration, and a low-storage Runge-Kutta method for the temporal integration. In the simulations the inlet based Reynolds and Mach numbers of the wall-jet are Re = 2000 and M=0.5 respectively, and above the jet a constant coflow of 10% of the inlet jet velocity is applied. The development of an isothermal wall-jet including passive scalar mixing is studied and the characteristics of the wall-jet are compared to observations of other canonical shear flows. In the near-wall region the jet resembles a zero pressure gradient boundary layer, while in the outer layer it resembles a plane jet. The scalar fluxes in the streamwise and wall-normal direction are of comparable magnitude. In order to study effects of density differences, two non-isothermal wall-jets are simulated and compared to the isothermal jet results. In the non-isothermal cases the jet is either warm and propagating in a cold surrounding or vice versa. The turbulence structures and the range of scales are affected by the density variation. The warm jet contains the largest range of scales and the cold the smallest. The differences can be explained by the varying friction Reynolds number. Conventional wall scaling fails due to the varying density. An improved collapse in the inner layer can be achieved by applying a semi-local scaling. The turbulent Schmidt and Prandtl number vary significantly only in the near-wall layer and in a small region below the jet center. A wall-jet including a single reaction between a fuel and an oxidizer is also simulated. The reactants are injected separately at the inlet and the reaction time scale is of the same order as the convection time scale and independent of the temperature. The reaction occurs in thin reaction zones convoluted by high intensity velocity fluctuations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 23.
    Ahlman, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Turbulens.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Turbulens.
    Johansson, Arne
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Turbulens.
    Direct numerical simulation of a plane turbulent wall-jet including scalar mixing2007Inngår i: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 065102-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulation is used to study a turbulent plane wall-jet including the mixing of a passive scalar. The Reynolds and Mach numbers at the inlet are Re=2000 and M=0.5, respectively, and a constant coflow of 10% of the inlet jet velocity is used. The passive scalar is added at the inlet enabling an investigation of the wall-jet mixing. The self-similarity of the inner and outer shear layers is studied by applying inner and outer scaling. The characteristics of the wall-jet are compared to what is reported for other canonical shear flows. In the inner part, the wall-jet is found to closely resemble a zero pressure gradient boundary layer, and the outer layer is found to resemble a free plane jet. The downstream growth rate of the scalar is approximately equal to that of the streamwise velocity in terms of the growth rate of the half-widths. The scalar fluxes in the streamwise and wall-normal direction are found to be of comparable magnitude. The scalar mixing situation is further studied by evaluating the scalar dissipation rate and the mechanical to mixing time scale ratio.

  • 24. Ahmed, Z.
    et al.
    Izbassarov, Daulet
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Costa, Pedro
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Muradoglu, M.
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent bubbly channel flows: Effects of soluble surfactant and viscoelasticity2020Inngår i: Computers & Fluids, ISSN 0045-7930, E-ISSN 1879-0747, Vol. 212, artikkel-id 104717Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interface-resolved direct numerical simulations are performed to examine the combined effects of soluble surfactant and viscoelasticity on the structure of a bubbly turbulent channel flow. The incompressible flow equations are solved fully coupled with the FENE-P viscoelastic model and the equations governing interfacial and bulk surfactant concentrations. The latter coupling is achieved through a non-linear equation of state which relates the surface tension to the surfactant concentration at the interface. The two-fluid Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a front-tracking method, augmented with a very efficient FFT-based pressure projection method that allows for massively parallel simulations of turbulent flows. It is found that, for the surfactant-free case, bubbles move toward the wall due to inertial lift force, resulting in formation of wall layers and a significant decrease in the flow rate. Conversely, a high-enough concentration of surfactant changes the direction of lateral migration of bubbles, i.e., the contaminated bubbles move toward the core region and spread out across the channel. When viscoelasticity is considered, viscoelastic stresses counteract the Marangoni stresses, promoting formation of bubbly wall-layers and consequently strong decrease in the flow rate. The formation of bubble wall-layers for combined case depends on the interplay of the inertial and elastic, and Marangoni forces. 

  • 25.
    Ahn, Myeonghwan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Karnam, A.
    Gutmark, E. J.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Flow and Near-field Pressure Fluctuations of Twin Square Jets2021Inngår i: AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum, 2021, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA , 2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We aim to investigate the aerodynamic and acoustics characteristics of a twin square jet using an implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES). A screeching cold jet condition, a nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) of 3.0, is considered to simulate a coupled twin-jet. A second-order central scheme with a modified version of Jameson’s artificial dissipation is adopted to damp numerical oscillations and to mimic the effect of small-scale turbulence without an explicit subgrid-scale (SGS) model. Numerical results show that the overall trends of time-averaged streamwise velocity profiles are similar to the experimental data, with the largest differences observed at locations associated with the presence of the shock-cell structures. A detailed investigation of the flow fluctuations in jet shear layers is performed. The amplitude of the velocity fluctuations is highly dependent on the location of the shear layers with respect to the twin-jet configuration (upper, lateral, or inner). The coupling mode of twin jets associated with the screech tone is determined as a symmetrical flapping mode be a two-points spacetime cross-correlation analysis. The overall trends of near-field pressure fluctuation spectra by LES agree well with the experimental results in both upstream and downstream regions. Near-field pressure fluctuation spectra by ILES agree well with the experimentally obtained spectra at different locations in the nozzle exit plane as well as at several downstream locations in the near-field acoustic region. The highest screech tone is observed at the inter-nozzle region where superposition of in-phase waves and standing waves are found. Fourier phase and amplitude fields at the fundamental frequency also confirm the symmetrical flapping mode of the twin jets by showing in-phase relations of hydrodynamic/acoustic waves and noise directivities. 

  • 26.
    Ahn, Myeonghwan
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, South Korea.
    Lee, Duck-Joo
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    A numerical study on near-field pressure fluctuations of symmetrical and anti-symmetrical flapping modes of twin-jet using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme2021Inngår i: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, s. 107147-107147, artikkel-id 107147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Screeching supersonic jets appears at off-design operating conditions and is perceived as an intense tonal noise. In a twin nozzle configuration, mutual interactions between the two jet plumes may occur with various coupling modes developing depending on the operating conditions and lateral distance between the jets. The investigation of the detailed flow behaviors and near-field pressure fluctuations with relevance to the twin jets system, the analysis of the developed instabilities, will enhance understanding of fundamental features associated with jets located close to each other.

    In the present study, the single jet is considered first to assess the large eddy simulation (LES) approach used and the near-field pressure fluctuation predictions. Based on the validated solver, twin jets are simulated. Two different twin-nozzle configurations having different separation distance or nozzle-to-nozzle centerline spacing are scrutinized for the same Mach number of 1.358. Notably, the twin jets are screeching by the coupling mode for both set-ups; however, the case of closer inter-nozzle distance presents a symmetrical dominant flapping mode, while the other case shows an anti-symmetrical flapping mode. The strength of the pressure fluctuation at the fundamental frequency changes depending on the location of the observer point (upstream or downstream) and the reference plane (twin-jet and normal to the twin-jet plane). The screech tones of the two cases, observable in the upstream region, are significantly different in the normal to the twin-jet plane direction because of the phase difference of fluctuating pressure. However, the first harmonic component remains strong, regardless of the flapping mode. It is also observed that, at the fundamental frequency, the amplitude of the pressure fluctuation at downstream locations is found to be strong in the normal to the twin-jet plane when the symmetrical flapping mode occurs. This feature is also observed in the twin-jet plane in the case of the opposite mode. By analyzing the developed vertical structures and performing correlation analyses of pressure fluctuations along jet shear layers, the periodicity of the flow in the downstream region with relevance to the fundamental frequency is revealed.

  • 27.
    Ahn, MyeongHwan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Effects of Temperature on the Characteristics of Twin Square Jets by Large Eddy Simulations2022Inngår i: AIAA Science and Technology Forum and Exposition, AIAA SciTech Forum 2022, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) , 2022, artikkel-id AIAA 2022-0681Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate the effects of temperature on the aerodynamic and aeroacoustics characteristics of twin square jets. Implicit Large Eddy Simulations (ILES) are performed for twin jets with a fixed nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) of 3.0 and temperature ratios (TR) of 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 7.0. A second-order central scheme is used to resolve acoustic waves, and an artificial dissipation model is applied to capture shock waves and to suppress non-physical oscillations. In addition, the variation of a specific heat ratio as function of temperature is considered under the chemical equilibrium assumption. The numerical results show that the length of potential core is reduced with the increase of temperature due to the enhanced mixing in jet shear layers which can be estimated by turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Meanwhile, the fluctuations of the transverse velocity show different trends between the cases within the corresponding potential core length, which can be associated with the screeching phenomena of the twin-jet. As temperature increases, the convection Mach number in the jet shear layers is also increased so that the Mach wave is generated for TR of 2.0, 4.0, and 7.0. However, a crackle noise is only observed for TR of 4.0 and 7.0, whose generation is identified by the skewness and kurtosis factors. Relatively low temperature jets (TR of 1.0 and 2.0) are screeching so that peaks are observed in the spectra obtained upstream. On the other hand, broadband component is gradually increased when the jets are heated, and the largest increase is observed at the location exposed to the Mach wave radiation.

  • 28.
    Ahn, MyeongHwan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Karnam, Aatresh
    University of Cincinnati.
    Gutmark, Ephraim
    Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
    Large-eddy simulations of flow and aeroacoustics of twin square jets including turbulence tripping2023Inngår i: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 35, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate the flow and aeroacoustics of twin square (i.e., aspect ratio of 1.0) jets by implicit large-eddy simulations (LESs) under a nozzle pressure ratio of 3.0 and a temperature ratio of 1.0 conditions. A second-order central scheme coupled with a modified Jameson's artificial dissipation is used to resolve acoustics as well as to capture discontinuous solutions, e.g., shock waves. The flow boundary layer inside of the nozzle is tripped, using a small step in the convergent section of the nozzle. The time-averaged axial velocity and turbulent kinetic energy of LES with boundary layer tripping approaches better to particle image velocimetry experimental data than the LES without turbulence tripping case. A two-point space–time cross-correlation analysis suggests that the twin jets are screeching and are coupled to each other in a symmetrical flapping mode. Intense pressure fluctuations and standing waves are observed between the jets. Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) confirms the determined mode and the relevant wave propagation. The upstream propagating mode associated with the shock-cell structures is confined inside jets. Far-field noise obtained by solving Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is in good agreement with the measured acoustic data. The symmetrical flapping mode of twin jets yields different levels of the screech tone depending on observation planes. The tonalities—the fundamental tone, second and third harmonics—appear clearly in the far-field, showing different contributions at angles corresponding to the directivities revealed by SPOD.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Alarcón, José Faúndez
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Cavalieri, André
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Role of streak secondary instabilities on free stream turbulence-induced transitionManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Alarcón, José Faúndez
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Cavalieri, André V.G.
    Aerodynamics Department, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900, São José dos Campos / SP, Brazil, SP.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Role of streak secondary instabilities on free-stream turbulence-induced transition2024Inngår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 988, artikkel-id A6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the stability of a zero-pressure gradient boundary layer subjected to free-stream disturbances by means of local stability analysis. The dataset under study corresponds to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a flat plate with a sharp leading edge in realistic wind tunnel conditions, with a turbulence level of 3.45 % at the leading edge. We present a method to track the convective evolution of the secondary instabilities of streaks by performing sequential stability calculations following the wave packet, connecting successive unstable eigenfunctions. A scattered nature, in time and space, of secondary instabilities is seen in the stability calculations. These instabilities can be detected before they reach finite amplitude in the DNS, preceding the nucleation of turbulent spots, and whose appearance is well correlated to the transition onset. This represents further evidence regarding the relevance of secondary instabilities of streaks in the bypass transition in realistic flow conditions. Consistent with the spatio-temporal nature of this problem, our approach allows us to integrate directly the local growth rates to obtain the spatial amplification ratio of the individual instabilities, where it is shown that instabilities reaching an -factor in the range [2.5,4] can be directly correlated to more than 65 % of the nucleation events. Interestingly, it is found that high amplification is not only attained by modes with high growth rates, but also by instabilities with sustained low growth rates for a long time.

  • 31.
    Alarcón, José Faúndez
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    On the size of transitional boundary layer streaksManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Alarcón, José Faúndez
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Morra, Pierluigi
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Disturbance growth on a NACA0008 wing subjected to free stream turbulence2022Inngår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 944, artikkel-id A44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of an incompressible boundary layer flow over a wing in the presence of free stream turbulence (FST) has been investigated by means of direct numerical simulations and compared with the linearised boundary layer equations. Four different. FST conditions have been considered, which are characterised by their turbulence intensity levels and length scales. In all cases the perturbed flow develops into elongated disturbances of high and low streamwise velocity inside the boundary layer, where their spacing has been found to be strongly dependent on the scales of the incoming free stream vorticity. The breakdown of these streaks into turbulent spots from local secondary instabilities is also observed, presenting the same development as the ones reported in flat plate experiments. The disturbance growth, characterised by its root mean squares value, is found to depend not only on the turbulence level, but also on the FST length scales. Particularly, higher disturbance growth is observed for our cases with larger length scales. This behaviour is attributed to the preferred wavenumbers that can exhibit maximum transient growth. We study this boundary layer preference by projection of the flow fields at the leading edge onto optimal disturbances. Our results demonstrate that optimal disturbance growth is the main cause of growth of disturbances on the wing boundary layer.

  • 33.
    Albernaz, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik.
    Phase change, surface tension and turbulence in real fluids2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sprays are extensively used in industry, especially for fuels in internal combustion and gas turbine engines. An optimal fuel/air mixture prior to combustion is desired for these applications, leading to greater efficiency and minimal levels of emissions. The optimization depends on details regarding the different breakups, evaporation and mixing processes. Besides, one should take into consideration that these different steps depend on physical properties of the gas and fuel, such as density, viscosity, heat conductivity and surface tension.

    In this thesis the phase change and surface tension of a droplet for different flow conditions are studied by means of numerical simulations.This work is part of a larger effort aiming to developing models for sprays in turbulent flows. We are especially interested in the atomization regime, where the liquid breakup causes the formation of droplet sizes much smaller than the jet diameter. The behavior of these small droplets is important to shed more light on how to achieve the homogeneity of the gas-fuel mixture as well as that it directly contributes to the development of large-eddy simulation (LES) models.

    The numerical approach is a challenging process as one must take into account the transport of heat, mass and momentum for a multiphase flow. We choose a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) due to its convenient mesoscopic natureto simulate interfacial flows. A non-ideal equation of state is used to control the phase change according to local thermodynamic properties. We analyze the droplet and surrounding vapor for a hydrocarbon fuel close to the critical point. Under forced convection, the droplet evaporation rate is seen to depend on the vapor temperatureand Reynolds number, where oscillatory flows can be observed. Marangoni forces are also present and drivethe droplet internal circulation once the temperature difference at the droplet surface becomes significant.In isotropic turbulence, the vapor phase shows increasing fluctuations of the thermodynamic variables oncethe fluid approaches the critical point. The droplet dynamics is also investigated under turbulent conditions, where the presence of coherent structures with strong shear layers affects the mass transfer between the liquid-vapor flow, showing also a correlation with the droplet deformation. Here, the surface tension and droplet size play a major role and are analyzed in detail.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Thesis
  • 34.
    Albernaz, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Do, Quang Minh
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Multirelaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for droplet heating and evaporation under forced convection2015Inngår i: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 91, nr 4, artikkel-id 043012Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the evaporation of a droplet surrounded by superheated vapor with relative motion between phases. The evaporating droplet is a challenging process, as one must take into account the transport of mass, momentum, and heat. Here a lattice Boltzmann method is employed where phase change is controlled by a nonideal equation of state. First, numerical simulations are compared to the D-2 law for a vaporizing static droplet and good agreement is observed. Results are then presented for a droplet in a Lagrangian frame under a superheated vapor flow. Evaporation is described in terms of the temperature difference between liquid-vapor and the inertial forces. The internal liquid circulation driven by surface-shear stresses due to convection enhances the evaporation rate. Numerical simulations demonstrate that for higher Reynolds numbers, the dynamics of vaporization flux can be significantly affected, which may cause an oscillatory behavior on the droplet evaporation. The droplet-wake interaction and local mass flux are discussed in detail.

  • 35.
    Albernaz, Daniel L.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik.
    Simulation of a suspended droplet under evaporation with Marangoni effects2016Inngår i: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, ISSN 0017-9310, E-ISSN 1879-2189, Vol. 91, s. 853-860Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the Marangoni effects in a hexane droplet under evaporation and close to its critical point. A lattice Boltzmann model is used to perform 3D numerical simulations. In a first case, the droplet is placed in its own vapor and a temperature gradient is imposed. The droplet locomotion through the domain is observed, where the temperature differences across the surface is proportional to the droplet velocity and the Marangoni effect is confirmed. The droplet is then set under a forced convection condition. The results show that the Marangoni stresses play a major role in maintaining the internal circulation when the superheated vapor temperature is increased. Surprisingly, surface tension variations along the interface due to temperature change may affect heat transfer and internal circulation even for low Weber number. Other results and considerations regarding the droplet surface are also discussed.

  • 36.
    Albernaz, Daniel L.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lattice Boltzmann Method for the evaporation of a suspended droplet2013Inngår i: Interfacial phenomena and heat transfer, ISSN 2167-857X, Vol. 1, s. 245-258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider a thermal multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to investigate the heating and vaporization of a suspended droplet. An important benefit from the LBM is that phase separation is generated spontaneously and jump conditions for heat and mass transfer are not imposed. We use double distribution functions in order to solve for momentum and energy equations. The force is incorporated via the exact difference method (EDM) scheme where different equations of state (EOS) are used, including the Peng-Robinson EOS. The equilibrium and boundary conditions are carefully studied. Results are presented for a hexane droplet set to evaporate in a superheated gas, for static condition and under gravitational effects. For the static droplet, the numerical simulations show that capillary pressure and the cooling effect at the interface play a major role. When the droplet is convected due to the gravitational field, the relative motion between the droplet and surrounding gas enhances the heat transfer. Evolution of density and temperature fields are illustrated in details.

  • 37.
    Albernaz, Daniel L.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik.
    Hermanson, Jim C.
    University of Washington, USA.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik.
    Droplet deformation and heat transfer in isotropic turbulence2016Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The heat and mass transfer of deformable droplets in turbulent flows is crucial to a wide range of applications, such as cloud dynamics and internal combustion engines. This study investigates a droplet undergoing phase change in isotropic turbulence using numerical simulations with a hybrid lattice Boltzmann scheme. We solve the momentum and energy transport equations, where phase separation is controlled by a non-ideal equation of state and density contrast is taken into consideration. Deformation is caused by pressure and shear stress at the droplet interface. The statistics of thermodynamic variables is quantified and averaged in terms of the liquid and vapor phases. The occurrence of evaporation and condensation is correlated to temperature fluctuations, surface tension variation and turbulence intensity. The temporal spectra of droplet deformations are analyzed and related to the droplet surface area.Different modes of oscillation are clearly identified from the deformation power spectrum for low Taylor Reynolds number $Re_\lambda$, whereas nonlinearities are produced with the increase of $Re_\lambda$, as intermediate frequencies are seen to overlap. As an outcome a continuous spectrum is observed, which shows a decrease that scales as $\sim f^{-3}$.Correlations between the droplet Weber number, deformation parameter, fluctuations of the droplet volume and thermodynamic variables are also examined.

  • 38.
    Albernaz, Daniel L.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik.
    Hermanson, Jim C.
    University of Washington, USA.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik.
    Real fluids near the critical point in isotropic turbulenceInngår i: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the behavior of a uid near the critical point by using numerical simulations of weakly compressible three-dimensional isotropic turbulence. Much has been done for a turbulent ow with an ideal gas. The primary focus of this work is to analyze uctuations of thermodynamic variables (pressure, density and temperature) when a non-ideal Equation Of State (EOS) is considered. In order to do so, a hybrid lattice Boltzmann scheme is applied to solve the momentum and energy equations. Previously unreported phenomena are revealed as the temperature approaches the critical point. These phenomena include increased uctuations in pressure, density and temperature, followed by changes in their respective probability density functions (PDFs). Unlike the ideal EOS case, signicant dierences in the thermodynamic properties are also observed when the Reynolds number is increased. We also address issues related to the spectral behavior and scaling of density, pressure, temperature and kinetic energy.

  • 39.
    Alcantara-Avila, Francisco
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Univ Matemat Pura & Aplicada, Valencia 46022, Spain.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, FLOW, Engn Mech, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Garcia-Raffi, Luis Miguel
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Univ Matemat Pura & Aplicada, Valencia 46022, Spain..
    Hoyas, Sergio
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Univ Matemat Pura & Aplicada, Valencia 46022, Spain..
    Oberlack, Martin
    Tech Univ Darmstadt, Chair Fluid Dynam, Otto Bernd Str 2, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany.;Tech Univ Darmstadt, Ctr Computat Engn, Dolivostr 15, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany..
    Validation of symmetry-induced high moment velocity and temperature scaling laws in a turbulent channel flow2024Inngår i: Physical review. E, ISSN 2470-0045, E-ISSN 2470-0053, Vol. 109, nr 2, artikkel-id 025104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The symmetry -based turbulence theory has been used to derive new scaling laws for the streamwise velocity and temperature moments of arbitrary order. For this, it has been applied to an incompressible turbulent channel flow driven by a pressure gradient with a passive scalar equation coupled in. To derive the scaling laws, symmetries of the classical Navier-Stokes and the thermal energy equations have been used together with statistical symmetries, i.e., the statistical scaling and translation symmetries of the multipoint moment equations. Specifically, the multipoint moments are built on the instantaneous velocity and temperature fields other than in the classical approach, where moments are based on the fluctuations of these fields. With this instantaneous approach, a linear system of multipoint correlation equations has been obtained, which greatly simplifies the symmetry analysis. The scaling laws have been derived in the limit of zero viscosity and heat conduction, i.e., Ret -> infinity and Pr > 1, and they apply in the center of the channel, i.e., they represent a generalization of the deficit law, thus extending the work of Oberlack et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 024502 (2022)]. The scaling laws are all power laws, with the exponent of the high moments all depending exclusively on those of the first and second moments. To validate the new scaling laws, the data from a large number of direct numerical simulations (DNS) for different Reynolds and Prandtl numbers have been used. The results show a very high accuracy of the scaling laws to represent the DNS data. The statistical scaling symmetry of the multipoint moment equations, which characterizes intermittency, has been the key to the new results since it generates a constant in the exponent of the final scaling law. Most important, since this constant is independent of the order of the moments, it clearly indicates anomalous scaling.

  • 40.
    Alenius, Emma
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strömningsakustik.
    CFD of Duct Acoustics for Turbocharger Applications2010Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for quieter internal combustion engines drives the quest for a better understanding of the acoustic properties of engine duct components. In this work the main focus is the turbocharger compressor and a discussion of turbocharger acoustics and earlier work within the area is presented, giving an insight into its sound generating mechanisms and the damping effect it has on pressure pulses, i.e. incoming waves. However, despite the fact that turbo-charging was developed during the first part of the 20th century, there is not much research results available within the area of centrifugal compressor acoustics.

    To improve the understanding of the acoustics of engine duct components, methods based on compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are explored. With these methods it is possible to capture both the complex flow, with sound generating mechanisms, and acoustic - flow interactions. It is also possible to get a detailed insight into some phenomena by access to variables and/or areas where it is difficult to perform measurements. In order to develop these methods the linear scattering of low frequency waves by an orifice plate have been studied, using an acoustic two-port model. This simple geometry was chosen since the flow has several of the characteristics seen in a compressor, like unsteady separation, vortex generation and shock waves at high Mach numbers. Furthermore the orifice plate is in itself interesting in engine applications, where constrictions are present in the ducts. The results have been compared to measurements with good agreement and the sensitivity to different parameters has been studied, showing an expected dependence on inlet Mach number and difficulties to simultaneously keep the amplitude low enough for linearity and high enough to suppress flow noise with the short times series available in LES. 

    During the development of new engines the industry uses 1D engine CFD tools. These tools are developed to give performance data, but sometimes also the acoustic pulsations are studied. The duct components are modelled and the turbocharger is often modelled with a map, representing its fluid mechanical properties measured under steady state conditions. An aim in this work has been to study the limitations of the models available in the commercial software GT-Power. The scattering of incoming waves was simulated and the results were compared to measurements, showing a large discrepancy for the compressor and a significant discrepancy for the orifice plate.

  • 41.
    Alenius, Emma
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strömningsakustik.
    Flow Duct Acoustics: An LES Approach2012Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for quieter internal combustion engines drives the quest for a better understanding of the acoustic properties of engine duct components. Simulations are an important tool for enhanced understanding; they give insight into the flow-acoustic interaction in components where it is difficult to perform measurements. In this work the acoustics is obtained directly from a compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES). With this method complex flow phenomena can be captured, as well as sound generation and acoustic scattering.

    The aim of the research is enhanced understanding of the acoustics of engine gas exchange components, such as the turbocharger compressor.In order to investigate methods appropriate for such studies, a simple constriction, in the form of an orifice plate, is considered. The flow through this geometry is expected to have several of the important characteristics that generate and scatter sound in more complex components, such as an unsteady shear layer, vortex generation, strong recirculation zones, pressure fluctuations at the plate, and at higher flow speeds shock waves.

    The sensitivity of the scattering to numerical parameters, and flow noise suppression methods, is investigated. The most efficient method for reducing noise in the result is averaging, both in time and space. Additionally, non-linear effects were found to appear when the amplitude of the acoustic velocity fluctuations became larger than around 1~\% of the mean velocity, in the orifice.

    The main goal of the thesis has been to enhance the understanding of the flow and acoustics of a thick orifice plate, with a jet Mach number of 0.4 to 1.2. Additionally, we evaluate different methods for analysis of the data, whereby better insight into the problem is gained. The scattering of incoming waves is compared to measurements with in general good agreement. Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) is used in order to find significant frequencies in the flow and their corresponding flow structures, showing strong axisymmetric flow structures at frequencies where a tonal sound is generated and incoming waves are amplified.The main mechanisms for generating plane wave sound are identified as a fluctuating mass flow at the orifice openings and a fluctuating force at the plate sides, for subsonic jets. This study is to the author's knowledge the first numerical investigation concerning both sound generation and scattering, as well as coupling sound to a detailed study of the flow.With decomposition techniques a deeper insight into the flow is reached. It is shown that a feedback mechanism inside the orifice leads to the generation of strong coherent axisymmetric fluctuations, which in turn generate a tonal sound.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Thesis_Alenius
  • 42.
    Alenius, Emma
    Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Mode switching in a thick orifice jet, an LES and dynamic mode decomposition approach2014Inngår i: Computers & Fluids, ISSN 0045-7930, E-ISSN 1879-0747, Vol. 90, s. 101-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of a confined thick orifice plate jet, at Mach 0.4, are studied with dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), of the velocity from a large eddy simulation (LES). The jet exhibits strong periodic structures, due to an initially laminar shear layer, and a non-deterministic switching is observed between an axisymmetric and an azimuthal jet mode. The DMD captures the shape of these structures as different dynamic modes, but (by definition) not their true time-evolution. In order to study the time-evolution of semi-periodic structures in the flow, such as the jet modes that come and go in time, it is suggested to use DMD for identifying the shape of the structures and then calculate time-coefficients for them, by expressing the velocity field as a linear combination of the most important dynamic modes. These time-coefficients are then shown to capture the physics of the flow; they oscillate at the frequency of the corresponding mode, within an envelope with a non-deterministically varying period, representing the mode switching. Additionally, a time variation of the strength of the jet, represented by mode zero, is found to be related to this switching.

  • 43.
    Alenius, Emma
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strömningsakustik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Sound Generating Flow Structures in a Thick Orifice Plate Jet2014Inngår i: Progress in Turbulence V: Proceedings of the iTi Conference in Turbulence 2012, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2014, s. 201-204Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of thiswork is to study sound generating flowstructures in a thickcircular orifice plate jet, placed in a circular duct. Large eddy simulations (LES)are performed for two jet Mach numbers, 0.4 and 0.9. Characteristic frequenciesin the flow, and their corresponding flow structures, are identified with dynamicmode decomposition (DMD). The results show that a tonal noise is generated atfrequencies where the jet displays strong ring vortices, in the plane wave range.The main sound generating mechanisms seems to be a fluctuating mass flow at theorifice opening and a fluctuating surface force at the plate sides, caused by the ringvortices. The frequencies are believed to be chosen, and strengthened, by a feedbackmechanism between the orifice in- and outlet.

  • 44.
    Alenius, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strömningsakustik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Åbom, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strömningsakustik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Large eddy simulations of acoustic-flow interaction at an orifice plate2015Inngår i: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 345, s. 162-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The scattering of plane waves by an orifice plate with a strong bias flow, placed in a circular or square duct, is studied through large eddy simulations and dynamic mode decomposition. The acoustic-flow interaction is illustrated, showing that incoming sound waves at a Strouhal number of 0.43 trigger a strong axisymmetric flow structure in the orifice in the square duct, and interact with a self-sustained axisymmetric oscillation in the circular duct orifice. These structures then generate a strong sound, increasing the acoustic energy at the frequency of the incoming wave. The structure triggered in the square duct is weaker than that present in the circular duct, but stronger than structures triggered by waves at other frequencies. Comparing the scattering matrix with measurements, there is a good agreement. However, the results are found to be sensitive to the inflow, where the self-sustained oscillation in the circular duct simulation is an artefact of an axisymmetric, undisturbed inflow. This illustrates a problem with using an undisturbed inflow for studying vortex-sound effects, and can be of interest when considering musical instruments, where the aim is to get maximum amplification of specific tones. Further, it illustrates that at the frequency where an amplification of acoustic energy is found for the orifice plate, the flow has a natural instability, which is suppressed by non-axisymmetry and incoming disturbances.

  • 45.
    Alenius, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strömningsakustik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Åbom, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strömningsakustik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Scattering of Plane Waves by a Constriction2011Inngår i: Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2011, Vol 7, Parts A-C, American Society Of Mechanical Engineers , 2011, s. 1043-1052Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Liner scattering of low frequency waves by an orifice plate has been studied using Large Eddy Simulation and an acoustic two-port model. The results have been compared to measurements with good agreement for waves coming from the downstream side. For waves coming from the upstream side the reflection is over-predicted, indicating that not enough of the acoustic energy is converted to vorticity at the upstream edge of the plate. Furthermore, the sensitivity to the amplitude of the acoustic waves has been studied, showing difficulties to simultaneously keep the amplitude low enough for linearity and high enough to suppress flow noise with the relatively short times series available in LES.

  • 46.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The Diagnostic Plot—A Tutorial with a Ten Year Perspective2021Inngår i: Progress in Turbulence IX: Proceedings of the iTi Conference in Turbulence 2021, Springer Nature , 2021, Vol. 267, s. 125-135Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The diagnostic plot was introduced in 2010 (Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids 29: 403–406) but was used already in 2008 during a large measurement campaign as a litmus test to determine if tripped zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers fulfilled basic criteria of being canonical. It used the rms-level of streamwise velocity (urms ) in the outer part of the boundary layer, a region where urms can give clear indications if insufficient or too tough tripping has been used. In standard plots one needs both the friction velocity and measurement of the full velocity and turbulence profiles. By instead plotting urms/ U∞ as a function of U/ U∞, it was found that this gives rise to a well-defined distribution that could be used as a canonical measure. It was later discovered that it is possible to extend the description to the near wall region. It has also been extended to boundary layers over rough surfaces and with pressure gradients, and some further uses. This paper aims to be both a review of the development of the method during the last 10+ years and a tutorial for those who want to employ it in their research and maybe also find new uses of the methodology.

  • 47.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lingwood, Rebecca J.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. University of Cambridge, United Kingdom .
    Rotation Effects on Wall-Bounded Flows: Some Laboratory Experiments2014Inngår i: Modeling Atmospheric and Oceanic Flows: Insights from Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, s. 83-100Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on three different categories: (1) system rotation vector parallel to mean-flow vorticity; (2) flows set up by the rotation of one or more boundaries; and (3) system rotation aligned with the mean-flow direction. The flows in the different categories above differ with respect to their geometry but, more importantly, in how rotation affects them. The chapter focuses on three different flows that are relatively amenable to laboratory investigation, one from each category described above: One is plane Couette flow undergoing system rotation about an axis normal to the mean flow, another is the von Kármán boundary layer flow, and the third is axially rotating pipe flow. It defines important nondimensional parameters that govern them and discuss some of their interesting flow features in various parameter ranges. Various experimental realizations of the three different flow systems are described and considerations and limitations regarding the laboratory systems are discussed.

  • 48.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The diagnostic plot - a litmus test for wall bounded turbulence data2010Inngår i: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 403-406Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A diagnostic plot is suggested that can be used to judge wall bounded turbulence data of the mean and the rms of the streamwise velocity in terms of reliability both near the wall, around the maximum in the rms as well as in the outer region. The important feature of the diagnostic plot is that neither the wall position nor the friction velocity needs to be known, since it shows the rms value as a function of the streamwise mean velocity, both normalized with the free stream velocity. One must remember, however, that passing the test is a necessary, but not sufficient condition to prove good data quality.

  • 49.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A new formulation for the streamwise turbulence intensity distribution2011Inngår i: 13th European Turbulence Conference (ETC13): Wall-Bounded Flows And Control Of Turbulence, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2011, s. 022002-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical and experimental data from zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers over smooth walls have been analyzed by means of the so called diagnostic plot introduced by Alfredsson & Orlu [Eur. J. Fluid Mech. B/Fluids, 4 2, 403 (2010)]. In the diagnostic plot the local turbulence intensity is shown as a function of the local mean velocity normalized with a reference velocity scale. In the outer region of the boundary layer a universal linear decay of the turbulence intensity is observed independent of Reynolds number. The deviation from this linear region appears in the buffer region and seems to be universal when normalized with the friction velocity. Therefore, a new empirical fit for the streamwise velocity turbulence intensity distribution is proposed and the results are compared with up to date reliable high-Reynolds number experiments and extrapolated towards Reynolds numbers relevant to atmospherical boundary layers.

  • 50.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A new formulation for the streamwise turbulence intensity distribution in wall-bounded turbulent flows2012Inngår i: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 36, s. 167-175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of the streamwise velocity turbulence intensity has recently been discussed in several papers both from the viewpoint of new experimental results as well as attempts to model its behavior. In the present paper numerical and experimental data from zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers, channel and pipe flows over smooth walls have been analyzed by means of the so called diagnostic plot introduced by Alfredsson & ÖrlÌ [P.H. Alfredsson, R. ÖrlÌ, The diagnostic plot-a litmus test for wall bounded turbulence data, Eur. J. Mech. B Fluids 29 (2010) 403-406]. In the diagnostic plot the local turbulence intensity is plotted as function of the local mean velocity normalized with a reference velocity scale. Alfredsson et al. [P.H. Alfredsson, A. Segalini, R. ÖrlÌ, A new scaling for the streamwise turbulence intensity in wall-bounded turbulent flows and what it tells us about the outer peak, Phys. Fluids 23 (2011) 041702] observed that in the outer region of the boundary layer a universal linear decay of the turbulence intensity independent of the Reynolds number exists. This approach has been generalized for channel and pipe flows as well, and it has been found that the deviation from the previously established linear region appears at a given wall distance in viscous units (around 120) for all three canonical flows. Based on these results, new empirical fits for the streamwise velocity turbulence intensity distribution of each canonical flow are proposed. Coupled with a mean streamwise velocity profile description the model provides a composite profile for the streamwise variance profile that agrees nicely with existing numerical and experimental data. Extrapolation of the proposed scaling to high Reynolds numbers predicts the emergence of a second peak of the streamwise variance profile that at even higher Reynolds numbers overtakes the inner one.

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