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  • 1. Abel, S
    et al.
    Bäbler, Matthäus
    ETH, Inst Chem & Bioengn, Dept Chem & Appl Biosci.
    Arpagaus, C
    Mazzotti, M
    Stadler, J
    Two-fraction and three-fraction continuous simulated moving bed separation of nucleosides2004In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1043, no 2, p. 201-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     A new experimental set-up and a new simulated moving bed (SMB) operation are presented in this work. A desktop SMB unit developed as a modification of the commercial AKTA(TM) explorer working platform has been utilized for the separation of different mixtures of nucleosides. Both two fraction and three fraction SMB separations have been carried out, the latter made possible by the adoption of a new SMB configuration and operating mode (three fraction SMB, 3F-SMB, operation). Experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the 3F-SMB operation, and confirm the trends predicted based on considerations about retention of the components to be separated along the unit. 

  • 2.
    BHANDARI, SHASHANK
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Design of a solvent recovery system in a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Solvents play a crucial role in the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) manufacturing and are used in large quantities. Most of the industries incinerate the waste solvents or send it to waste management companies for destruction to avoid waste handling and cross-contamination. It is not a cost effective method and also hazardous to the environment. This study has been performed at AstraZeneca’s API manufacturing plant at Sodertalje, Sweden. In order to find a solution, a solvent recovery system is modeled and simulated using ASPEN plus and ASPEN batch modeler. The waste streams were selected based on the quantity and cost of the solvents present in them. The solvent mixture in the first waste stream was toluene-methanol in which toluene was the key-solvent whereas in the second waste stream, isooctane-ethyl acetate was the solvent mixture in which isooctane was the key-solvent. The solvents in the waste stream were making an azeotrope and hence it was difficult to separate them using conventional distillation techniques. Liquid-Liquid Extraction with water as a solvent followed by batch distillation was used for the first waste stream and Pressure Swing Distillation was used for the second waste stream. The design was optimized based on cost analysis and was successful to deliver 96.1% toluene recovery with 99.5% purity and 83.6% isooctane recovery with 99% purity. The purity of the solvents was decided based on the quality conventions used at AstraZeneca so that it can be recovered and recycled in the same system. The results were favorable with a benefit of €335,000 per year and preventing nearly one ton per year carbon dioxide emissions to the environment. A theoretical study for the recovery system of toluene-methanol mixture was performed. The proposed design was an integration of pervaporation to the batch distillation. A blend of polyurethane / poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PU / PDMS) membrane was selected for the separation of methanol and toluene mixture. The results of preliminary calculations show 91.4% toluene recovery and 72% methanol recovery with desired purity.

  • 3.
    KOLAKOWSKI, MARCIN JANUSZ
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    CFD simulation of fluid flow in milliliter vials used for crystal nucleation experiments2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the fluid flow in a cylindrical millilitre vial stirred by a magnetic stirred bar using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). Stirred millilitre vials are used to study nucleation phenomena and crystallization as an outline of literature study of nucleation and crystallization phenomena and the role of stirring in this process. The baffle free vial was meshed with around 500,000 cells. To simulate the stirring a rotary frame and moving walls were used. Stirring speeds were between 100 and 1000 rpm where considered, correspondently to a stirrer Reynolds number between 260 and 2600. For stirring speeds bellow 500 rpm, simulations by both the both laminar flow model and the k-ε model where run, while above 500 rpm only k-ε was used. Results of the two models were very similar indicative the adequacy of k-ε to simulate the flow even at low Reynolds. The flow shows expected circulation pattern with upwards pumping close to side walls and downwards pumping in the centre of cylindrical vial. At 1000 rpm circulation patterns expands up to the top of the vial while at 300 rpm and lower the upper half of the vial is poorly mixed. The average turbulent energy of the flow is very low comparing with the squared stirrer tip speed and the power number decrees with Reynolds number, indicating that the flow is not fully turbulent.

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