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  • 1.
    Alberth, Lena
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Experimentell studie av kinetiken vid peroxidblekning av pappersmassa2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During TCF-bleaching of pulp, hydrogen peroxide is one of the main chemicals. Today it is difficult to control the bleaching stages. The process operators must consider the production rate, changes in the bleach ability of the pulp and delays of trends in the control system. The PO-bleaching stage at Södra Cell Värö has approximately a retention time of four(4) hours and it is first after that, a result of a change in the process can be seen. Overbleaching is expensive due to high chemical need and therefore it is requested to find a way to control and optimize the peroxide bleaching stage. One way to do this was too simulate the stage experimentally and from those kinetic data accomplish a mathematical model that predicts the brightness increase of the pulp.

    Pulp from the mill was bleached at the laboratory under controlled conditions and with charges similar to what are used in the plant. The parameters that were studied at lab were temperature, hydrogen peroxide charge and alkali charge as they affect the brightness mostly. A model for brightness increase was adjusted to the achieved bleaching data. Equations for consumption of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxide anions were also developed from analyses of the bleaching filtrates. 

    From the start parameters, as concentration of the chemicals, temperature and pulp concentration, the model predicts the brightness well according to verification of data from mill and verification bleaching at laboratory. The value from the model is somewhat higher compared to that of the plant but that was expected due to the fact that the conditions at lab give a cleaner system. For those parameters that were studied, the model did adjust well to changes made and according to the verification at lab it was seen that the model also worked for changes in pulp concentration and different brightness at the beginning of the stage.

  • 2.
    Ali, Silvia
    et al.
    STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Salmén, Lennart
    From wood shavings to mechanical pulp - a new raw material?2005In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 418-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood chips used in the thermomechanical pulping (TMP) process were originally designed to suit the chemical pulping process. The production of small wood pieces more suitable for the TMP process could lead to an energy saving in this energy-intensive process. This paper discusses the potential benefits of using wood shavings instead of chips as the raw material for TMP production. In some exploratory trials, wood shavings with a thickness of about 2 mm and wood chips were refined in two steps under normal TMP process conditions in a pilot refiner. The first-stage refining was performed under pressurized conditions at 130°C. The second-stage refining was performed at atmospheric pressure at approximately 100°C at four different energy levels. The quality of the pulp produced from wood shavings was found to be better than that of the pulp produced from wood chips, with respect to both strength properties (except tear index) and optical properties at comparable energy levels. The potential for energy savings at a given tensile index using wood shavings instead of the traditional chips is estimated to be about 25%.

  • 3. Alm, Hajer Kamal
    et al.
    Ström, Göran
    Karlström, Katarina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Schoelkopf, Joachim
    Gane, Patrick A. C.
    Effect of excess dispersant on surface properties and liquid interactions on calcium carbonate containing coatings2010In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 82-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to identify what effects excess amount of sodium polyacrylate, a commonly used dispersant, has on the coating properties and the interaction between ink and the paper coating in offset printing. Since polyacrylate strongly interacts with calcium ions, soluble calcium salt was added to some coating colours to illustrate the impact of charge neutralization by calcium ions. It was found that the coating structure was only slightly affected by the extra addition of polyacrylate, showing some weak flocculation, whereas the surface chemistry was strongly influenced. The coatings became more polar and interacted more strongly with water. This resulted in slower ink setting and reduced ink-paper coating adhesion, especially in the presence of applied water/dampening solution, which are identified as contributory factors in ink piling and print mottle.

  • 4. Almgren, Karin
    et al.
    Gamstedt, Kristofer E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nygård, P.
    Malmberg, F.
    Lindblad, J.
    Lindström, M.
    Role of fibre-fibre and fibre-matrix adhesion in stress transfer in composites made from resin-impregnated paper sheets.2009In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 551-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper-reinforced plastics are gaining increased interest as packaging materials, where mechanical properties are of great importance. Strength and stress transfer in paper sheets are controlled by fibre-fibre bonds. In paper-reinforced plastics, where the sheet is impregnated with a polymer resin, other stress-transfer mechanisms may be more important. The influence of fibre-fibre bonds on the strength of paper-reinforced plastics was therefore investigated. Paper sheets with different degrees of fibre-fibre bonding were manufactured and used as reinforcement in a polymeric matrix. Image analysis tools were used to verify that the difference in the degree of fibre-fibre bonding had been preserved in the composite materials. Strength and stiffness of the composites were experimentally determined and showed no correlation to the degree of fibre-fibre bonding, in contrast to the behaviour of unimpregnated paper sheets. The degree of fibre-fibre bonding is therefore believed to have little importance in this type of material, where stress is mainly transferred through the fibre-matrix interface.

  • 5.
    Almgren, Karin M.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Wood-fibre composites: Stress transfer and hygroexpansion2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fibres is a type of natural fibres suitable for composite applications. The abundance of wood in Swedish forests makes wood-fibre composites a new and interesting application for the Swedish pulp and paper industry. For large scale production of composites reinforced by wood fibres to be realized, the mechanical properties of the materials have to be optimized. Furthermore, the negative effects of moisture, such as softening, creep and degradation, have to be limited. A better understanding of how design parameters such as choice of fibres and matrix material, fibre modifications and fibre orientation distribution affect the properties of the resulting composite material would help the development of wood-fibre composites.

    In this thesis, focus has been on the fibre-matrix interface, wood-fibre hygroexpansion and resulting mechanical properties of the composite. The importance of an efficient fibre-matrix interface for composite properties is well known, but the determination of interface properties in wood-fibre composites is difficult due to the miniscule dimensions of the fibres. This is a problem also when hygroexpansion of wood fibres is investigated. Instead of tedious single-fibre tests, more straightforward, macroscopic approaches are suggested. Halpin-Tsai’s micromechanical models and laminate analogy were used to attain efficient interface characteristics of a wood-fibre composite. When Halpin-Tsai’s model was replaced by Hashin’s concentric cylinder assembly model, a value of an interface parameter could be derived from dynamic mechanical analysis. A micromechanical model developed by Hashin was used also to identify the coefficient of hygroexpansion of wood fibres. Measurements of thickness swelling of wood-fibre composites were performed. Back-calculation through laminate analogy and the micromechanical model made it possible to estimate the wood-fibre coefficient of hygroexpansion. Through these back-calculation procedures, information of fibre and interface properties can be gained for ranking of e.g. fibre types and modifications.

    Dynamic FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy was investigated as a tool for interface characterization at the molecular level. The effects of relative humidity in the test chamber on the IR spectra were studied. The elastic response of the matrix material increased relative to the motion of the reinforcing cellulose backbone. This could be understood as a stress transfer from fibres to matrix when moisture was introduced to the system, e.g. as a consequence of reduced interface efficiency in the moist environment. The method is still qualitative and further development is potentially very useful to measure stress redistribution on the molecular level.

  • 6.
    Almgren, Karin M.
    et al.
    Innventia.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    Innventia.
    Lindström, Mikael
    Innventia.
    Moisture uptake and hygroexpansion of wood fiber composite materials with polylactide and polypropylene matrix materials2009In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 1809-1816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of butantetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) modification, choice of matrix, and fiber volume fraction on hygroexpansion of wood fiber composites have been investigated. Untreated reference wood fibers and BTCA-modified fibers were used as reinforcement in composites with matrices composed of polylactic acid (PLA), polypropylene (PP), or a mixture thereof. The crosslinking BTCA modification reduced the out-of-plane hygroexpansion of PLA and PLA/PP composites, under water-immersed and humid conditions, whereas the swelling increased when PP was used as matrix material. This is explained by difficulties for the BTCA-modified fibers to adhere to the PP matrix. Fiber volume fraction was the most important parameter as regards out-of-plane hygroexpansion, with a high-fiber fraction leading to large hygroexpansion. Fiber-matrix wettability during processing and consolidation also showed to have a large impact on the dimensional stability and moisture uptake. POLYM. COMPOS., 30:1809-1816, 2009.

  • 7. Almgren, Karin M.
    et al.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, LTU.
    Contribution of wood fiber hygroexpansion to moisture induced thickness swelling of composite plates2010In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 762-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main drawbacks of wood fiber-based composite materials is their propensity to swell due to moisture uptake. Because the wood fibers are usually the main contributor to hygroexpansion, it is of interest to quantify the hygroexpansion coefficient of wood fibers, to compare and rank different types of fibers. This investigation outlines an inverse method to estimate the transverse hygroexpansion coefficient of wood fibers based on measurements of moisture induced thickness swelling of composite plates. The model is based on composite micromechanics and laminate theory. Thickness swelling has been measured on polylactide matrix composites with either bleached reference fibers or crosslinked fibers. The crosslinking modification reduced the transverse hygroexpansion of the composites and the transverse coefficient of hygroexpansion of the fibers was reduced from 0.28 strain per relative humidity for reference fibers to 0.12 for cross-linked fibers

  • 8. Almgren, Karin M.
    et al.
    Åkerholm, Margaretha
    Gamstedt, Kristofer
    Salmén, Lennart
    Lindström, Mikael
    Effects of Moisture on Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Wood Fiber Composites Studied by Dynamic FT-IR Spectroscopy2008In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 27, no 16-17, p. 1709-1721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fiber reinforced polylactide is a biodegradable composite where both fibers and matrix are from renewable resources. In the development of such new materials, information on mechanical behavior on the macroscopic and the molecular level is useful. In this study, dynamic Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is used to measure losses at the molecular level during cyclic tensile loading for bonds that are characteristic of the cellulosic fibers and the polylactid matrix. This molecular behavior is compared with measured macroscopic hysteresis losses for different moisture levels. The results show that moisture ingress will transfer the load from the fibers to the matrix, and that a more efficient fiber-matrix interface would diminish mechanical losses. Although the dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy method is still qualitative, this investigation shows that it can provide information on the stress transfer of the constituents in wood fiber reinforced plastics.

  • 9.
    Aminzadeh, Selda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Valorization of Kraft Lignin by Fractionation and Chemical Modifications for Different Applications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Lignin is one of the most abundant biopolymers. Approximately 70 million tons of technical lignin is generated annually, but only little is used for products other than energy. The complexity of lignin hinders full utilization in high-value products and materials. In spite of the large recent progress of knowledge of lignin structure and biosynthesis, much is still not fully understood, including structural inhomogeneity. We made synthetic lignin at different pH’s and obtained structural differences that might explain the structural inhomogeneity of lignin.

    Technical lignins from the chemical pulping are available in large scale, but the processes result in alterations, such as oxidation and condensation. Therefore, to utilize technical lignin, modifications, such as fractionation and/or chemical modifications are necessary. Fractionation with ceramic membranes is one way to lower the polydispersity of lignin. The main advantage is their tolerance towards high temperature and harsh conditions. We demonstrated that low Mw lignin was extracted from industrially produced LignoBoost lignin aiming: i) to investigate the performance of the membrane over time; ii) to analyze the antioxidant properties of the low Mw lignin.

    Chemical modification can also improve the properties of lignin. By adding moieties, different properties can be obtained. Amination and methacrylation of kraft lignin were performed, as well as lignin-silica hybrid materials with potential for the adsorption were produced and investigated.

    Non-modified and methacrylated lignin were used to synthesize lignin-St-DVB porous microspheres to be utilized as a sorbent for organic pollutants. The possibility to substitute styrene with methacrylated lignin was evaluated, demonstrating that interaction between lignin and DVB, and porosity increased.

    Lignin has certain antibacterial properties. Un-modified and modified (aminated) lignin samples and sphere nanoparticles of lignin were tested for their effect against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria’s and an injectable hydrogel was developed with encapsulated lignin for being used as an injectable gel for the open wounds. Results demonstrated promising antibacterial efficiency of lignins against gram-positive, more especially better inhibition with aminated lignins against gram-positive and negative bacterium.

     

     

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-22 11:08
  • 10.
    Aminzadeh, Selda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Zhang, Liming
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    A possible explanation for the structural inhomogeneity of lignin in LCC networks2017In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 1365-1376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin has a very complex structure, and this is partly due to the monomers being connected by many different types of covalent bonds. Furthermore, there are multiple covalent bonds between lignin and polysaccharides in wood, and it is known that the structure of lignin covalently bound to the hemicellulose xylan is different to lignin bound to the hemicellulose glucomannan. Here, synthetic lignin (DHP) is synthesized at different pH and it is shown that lignin made at lower pH has a structure more similar to the lignin bound to xylan, i.e., having higher relative content of beta-O-4 ethers. It is hypothesized that xylan due to its carboxylic acids forms a locally lower pH and thus "direct" the lignin structure to have more beta-O-4 ethers. The biological significance of these results is discussed.

  • 11.
    Anderfors, Mikael
    et al.
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Llindström, Tom
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    On the manufacture of carboxymethylated microfibrillated cellulose from different pulp typesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Anderfors, Mikael
    et al.
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Llindström, Tom
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Innventia AB, Sweden.
    The use of microfibrillated cellulose in fine paper manufacturing: Results from a pilot scale papermaking trial2014In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 476-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the strength enhancing capabilities of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in highly filled papers was studied. Both the MFC production and the paper making were done in pilot scale under realistic industrial conditions. The results clearly show that MFC (2.5 - 5.0wt-%) could improve the mechanical properties of highly filled papers (20 - 35 wt-% filler contents). All studied dry mechanical properties were improved and the improvements were most pronounced for Z-strength and fracture toughness. By combining the MFC with a C-starch dosage further improvements in mechanical properties could be achieved. The improvements in mechanical properties enabled increased filler content with retained properties. The filler increase could be achieved at the same time as the sheet formation and the dry content after pressing were improved.

  • 13. Andersson, J.
    et al.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ageing of Flexographic Printed Model Cellulose Surfaces and Determination of the Mechanisms Behind Ageing2009In: Pulp & paper Canada, ISSN 0316-4004, Vol. 110, no 6, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of storage conditions on the ink detachment efficiency of water-based flexographic ink printed onto model cellulose surfaces and handsheets was investigated. It was shown that UV light, elevated temperatures, longer storage time, increasing surface roughness, and increasing surface hydrophobicity all had a negative effect on ink detachment. It was also shown that the ink's chemical and structural characteristics changed when stored at elevated temperatures. No chemical or structural changes could be observed for the ink when stored under UV light.

  • 14.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Polyelectrolyte complexes: Preparation, characterization, and use for control of wet and dry adhesion between surfaces2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) preparation, adsorption behaviour, and potential use for control of wet and dry adhesion between surfaces.

    PEC formation was studied using a jet-mixing method not previously used for mixing polyelectrolytes. The PECs were formed using various mixing times, and the results were compared with those for PECs formed using the conventional polyelectrolyte titration method. The results indicated that using the jet mixer allowed the size of the formed PECs to be controlled, which was not the case with the polyelectrolyte titration method, and a two-step mechanism for PEC formation was suggested.

    Adsorption experiments comparing two types of PECs, both produced from PAA and PAH, but with different molecular weights, demonstrated that surface-induced aggregation occurred in the high-molecular-weight PECs, whereas the adsorption stopped at a low level in the low-molecular-weight PECs. It was suggested that the latter PECs consisted of two fractions of complexes and that the fraction with lower polymer density exerted a site-blocking effect, hindering further adsorption.

    It was also demonstrated that particle-PECs (PPECs), in which one polyion was replaced with a silica nanoparticle, could be prepared. The purpose of preparing PPECs was to create a PEC structure that could create a joint with a special failure pattern referred to as disentanglement behaviour. Using the colloidal probe AFM technique, the expected disentanglement could be detected in PPECs, though the joint strength was low. Adhesion experiments demonstrated significantly higher pull-off values with polymer–polymer complexes than with PPECs. However, there was large spread in the data, possibly due to the surface inhomogeneity.

    Experiments using low-molecular-weight PECs as a paper strength agent demonstrated that PECs can indeed increase paper strength. Comparing the PEC results with those for polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) prepared from the same polyelectrolytes indicated that, since the PEM strategy enables higher adsorption levels than does the PEC strategy, greater absolute strength improvements could be achieved using PEMs. However, PEC treatment resulted in the greatest effect per adsorbed amount of polymer.

  • 15.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Polyelectrolyte complexes: their preparation, adsorption behaviour and effect on paper properties2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) has been studied using a jet mixing method not previously used for mixing polyelectrolytes. The PECs were formed from two weak polyelectrolytes, i.e., polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH), with different mixing times, and the results were compared with those for PECs formed using the conventional polyelectrolyte titration method.

     

    The adsorption behaviour of the formed PECs on silicon oxide substrates and pulp fibres was analysed, and the results were compared with those for polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) prepared from the same two polyelectrolytes.

     

    The results indicated that by using the jet mixer, the size of the formed PECs could be controlled, which was not the case with the polyelectrolyte titration method. The PECs produced by jet mixing were also found to be smaller than those produced by polyelectrolyte titration. From these results, a two-step mechanism for the formation of PECs was suggested: initial precomplex formation, which is a fast and diffusion-controlled process, followed by a reconformation process, during which the vigorous mixing in the jet mixer can partially limit secondary aggregation.

     

    When the complexes were adsorbed to silicon oxide or pulp fibre surfaces, adsorption studies indicated that it was impossible to reach the same adsorption levels for PECs as for PEMs. This was explained in terms of free energy, entropical, reasons rather than to any geometric limitation of the surface. Despite the smaller amount of polyelectrolyte adsorbed from the PEC treatment than from the PEM treatment of pulp fibres, the PEC treatment had the greatest effect on paper strength per adsorbed amount of polymer. This was thought to be because the three-dimensional structure of the PECs, versus the smoother structure of PEMs, allows for the formation of multiple contact points between the macroscopically rough fibres and increased molecular contact area.

     

    In the adsorption experiments, it was also found that net cationic complexes can adsorb to both anionic and cationic substrates. This phenomenon was explained by the occurrence of anionic patches on the surface of the net cationic PECs and the ability of the PECs, formed from weak polyelectrolytes, to partially change charge upon exposure to a surface of the same charge as the complex itself, due to a change of the degree of dissociation of the polyelectrolytes constituting the complex.

  • 16.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lingström, Rikard
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ödberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    A comparison of polyelectrolyte complexes and multilayers: Their adsorption behaviour and use for enhancing tensile strength of paper2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 77-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the adsorption behaviour and paper-strength-enhancing properties of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) and polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) of polyallylamine hydrochloride and polyacrylic acid. Model adsorption experiments using SPAR (stagnation point adsorption reflectometry) and QCM-D (quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation) showed that the amount of complexes adsorbed was lower than the amount adsorbed when forming a multilayer using the same polymer system. From these experiments, in combination with AFM and ESEM imaging, it was concluded that the PEC adsorption stopped before full surface coverage was reached. Tensile testing of handsheets treated with PECs and PEM showed a significant increase in both tensile index and strain-at-break using both systems. The largest strength improvement was achieved with the fibres treated with the largest number of PEMs, but the largest effect per adsorbed amount of polymer was achieved by PEC treatment.

  • 17.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ondaral, Sedat
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ödberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Applying jet mixing to the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes: complex properties and their interaction with silicon oxide surfacesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 18. Ankerfors, M.
    et al.
    Lindstrom̈, T.
    Sod̈erberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    The use of microfibrillated cellulose in high filler fine papers2013In: Pap. Conf. Trade Show, PaperCon, 2013, p. 1129-1132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of communication, printing and writing papers has become an increasingly competitive field during the latest years as the market demand of printing and writing papers and newsprint has finally started to decline in the developed economies. One obvious approach to stay competitive is to increase the filler content of such papers. High filler paper is not a new idea and numerous approaches have been tested over the years to produce such papers. In order to reach industrial implementation, pilot-scale research and development under industrial conditions is necessary as a step after laboratory studies. Therefore an environment has been developed in order to perform projects targeting existing technologies for high filler applications as well as the new possibilities incurred by e.g. microfibrillated cellulose.

  • 19.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Microfibrillated cellulose: Energy-efficient preparation techniques and applications in paper2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes three alternative processes for producing microfibrillated cellulose (MFC; also referred to as cellulose nanofibrils, CNF) in which bleached pulp fibres are first pretreated and then homogenized using a high-pressure homogenizer. In one process, fibre cell wall delamination was facilitated by a combined enzymatic and mechanical pretreatment. In the two other processes, cell wall delamination was facilitated by pretreatments that introduced anionically charged groups into the fibre wall, by means of either a carboxymethylation reaction or irreversibly attaching carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to the fibres. All three processes are industrially feasible and enable energy-efficient production of MFC. Using these processes, MFC can be produced with an energy consumption of 500–2300 kWh/tonne. These materials have been characterized in various ways and it has been demonstrated that the produced MFCs are approximately 5–30 nm wide and up to several microns long.

    The MFCs were also evaluated in a number of applications in paper. The carboxymethylated MFC was used to prepare strong free-standing barrier films and to coat wood-containing papers to improve the surface strength and reduce the linting propensity of the papers. MFC, produced with an enzymatic pretreatment, was also produced at pilot scale and was studied in a pilot-scale paper making trial as a strength agent added at the wet-end for highly filled papers.

  • 20.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Microfibrillated cellulose: Energy-efficient preparation techniques and key properties2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes three alternative processes for producing microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in which pulp fibres are first pre-treated and then homogenized using a high-pressure homogenizer. In one process, fibre cell wall delamination was facilitated with a combined enzymatic and mechanical pre-treatment. In the two other processes, cell wall delamination was facilitated by pre-treatments that introduced anionically charged groups into the fibre wall, by means of either a carboxymethylation reaction or irreversibly attaching carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) onto the fibres. All three processes are industrially feasible and enable production with low energy consumption. Using these methods, MFC can be produced with an energy consumption of 500–2300 kWh/tonne, which corresponds to a 91–98% reduction in energy consumption from that presented in earlier studies. These materials have been characterized in various ways and it has been demonstrated that the produced MFCs are approximately 5–30 nm wide and up to several microns long.

  • 21.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindström, Tom
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Method for providing a nanocellulose involving modifying cellulose fibers2009Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention provides a method for the manufacturing of nanocellulose. The method includes a first modification of the cellulose material, where the cellulose fibres are treated with an aqueous electrolyte-containing solution of an amphoteric cellulose derivative. The modification is followed by a mechanical treatment. By using this method for manufacturing nanocellulose, clogging of the mechanical apparatus is avoided. Also disclosed is nanocellulose manufactured in accordance with said method and uses of said cellulose.

  • 22.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Galland, Sylvain
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Cellulose nanofiber network of high specific surface area provides altered curing reacion and moisture stability in ductile epoxy biocompositesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Galland, Sylvain
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Plummer, Christopher J. G.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cellulose nanofiber network for moisture stable, strong and ductile biocomposites and increased epoxy curing rate2014In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 63, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposites with high volume fractions (15-50 vol%) of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) were prepared by impregnation of a wet porous NFC network with acetone/epoxy/amine solution. Infrared spectroscopy studies revealed a significant increase in curing rate of epoxy (EP) in the presence of NFC. The NFC provided extremely efficient reinforcement (at 15 vol%: 3-fold increase in stiffness and strength to 5.9 GPa and 109 MPa, respectively), and ductility was preserved. Besides, the glass transition temperature increased with increasing NFC content (from 68 degrees C in neat epoxy to 86 degrees C in 50 vol% composite). Most interestingly, the moisture sorption values were low and even comparable to neat epoxy for the 15 vol% NFC/EP. This material did not change mechanical properties at increased relative humidity (90% RH). Thus, NFC/EP provides a unique combination of high strength, modulus, ductility, and moisture stability for a cellulose-based biocomposite. Effects from nanostructural and interfacial tailoring are discussed.

  • 24.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Lindh, Erik L.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Mats K.G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Interface tailoring through covalent hydroxyl-epoxy bonds improves hygromechanical stability in nanocellulose materials2016In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 134, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide-spread use of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) biocomposites and nanomaterials is limited by CNF moisture sensitivity due to surface hydration. We report on a versatile and scalable interface tailoring route for CNF to address this, based on technically important epoxide chemistry. Bulk impregnation of epoxide-amine containing liquids is used to show that CNF hydroxyls can react with epoxides at high rates and high degree of conversion to form covalent bonds. Reactions take place inside nanostructured CNF networks under benign conditions, and are verified by solid state NMR. Epoxide modified CNF nanopaper shows significantly improved mechanical properties under moist and wet conditions. High resolution microscopy is used in fractography studies to relate the property differences to structural change. The cellulose-epoxide interface tailoring concept is versatile in that the functionality of molecules with epoxide end-groups can be varied over a wide range. Furthermore, epoxide reactions with nanocellulose can be readily implemented for processing of moisture-stable, tailored interface biocomposites in the form of coatings, adhesives and molded composites.

  • 25.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Sjöstedt, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hierarchical wood cellulose fiber/epoxy biocomposites: Materials design of fiber porosity and nanostructure2015In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 74, p. 60-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delignified chemical wood pulp fibers can be designed to have a controlled structure of cellulose fibril aggregates to serve as porous templates in biocomposites with unique properties. The potential of these fibers as reinforcement for an epoxy matrix (EP) was investigated in this work. Networks of porous wood fibers were impregnated with monomeric epoxy and cured. Microscopy images from ultramicrotomed cross sections and tensile fractured surfaces were used to study the distribution of matrix inside and around the fibers - at two different length scales. Mechanical characterization at different relative humidity showed much improved mechanical properties of biocomposites based on epoxy-impregnated fibers and they were rather insensitive to surrounding humidity. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of cellulose-fiber biocomposites were compared with those of cellulose-nanofibril (CNF) composites; strong similarities were found between the two materials. The reasons for this, some limitations and the role of specific surface area of the fiber are discussed.

  • 26.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Skrifvars, M.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Nanostructured biocomposites based on unsaturated polyester resin and a cellulose nanofiber network2015In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 117, p. 298-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biocomposites reinforced by natural plant fibers tend to be brittle, moisture sensitive and have limited strength. Wood cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were therefore used to reinforce an unsaturated polyester matrix (UP) without the need of coupling agents or CNF surface modification. The nanostructured CNF network reinforcement strongly improves modulus and strength of UP but also ductility and toughness. A template-based prepreg processing approach of industrial potential is adopted, which combines high CNF content (up to 45 vol%) with nanoscale CNF dispersion. The CNF/UP composites are subjected to moisture sorption, dynamic thermal analysis, tensile tests at different humidities, fracture toughness tests and fractography. The glass transition temperature (T-g) increases substantially with CNF content. Modulus and strength of UP increase about 3 times at 45 vol% CNF whereas ductility and apparent fracture toughness are doubled. Tensile properties at high humidity are compared with other bio-composites and interpreted based on differences in molecular interactions at the interface.

  • 27.
    Antonsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Strategies for improving kraftliner pulp properties2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    A large part of the world paper manufacturing consists of production of corrugated board components, kraftliner and fluting, that are used in many different types of corrugated boxes. Because these boxes are stored and transported, they are often subjected to changes in relative humidity. These changes together with mechanical loads will increase the deformation of the boxes compared to the case where the same loads are applied in a static environment. This enlarged creep due to the changes in relative humidity is called mechano-sorptive or accelerated creep. Mechano-sorptive creep forces producers to use high safety factors when designing boxes, and therefore, this is one of the key properties of kraftliner boards.

     

    Different strategies to decrease mechano-sorptive creep, and to simultaneously gain more knowledge about the causes for this phenomenon in paper, are the aim of this work. Derivatised and underivatised black liquor lignins, a by-product produced in pulp mills in large quantities, have been used together with biomimetic methods, to modify the properties of kraftliner pulp. Furthermore, the properties of kraftliner pulp have been compared to other pulps in order to evaluate the influence of fibre morphological factors, such as fibre width and shape factor, on the mechano-sorptive creep. In addition the influence of the chemical composition of the kraftliner pulp has been evaluated both by means of treating a kraftliner pulp with chlorite and xylanase and by producing pulps with different chemical composition.

     

    By using lignin and biomimetic methods, to create radical coupling reactions, it has been shown that it is possible to increase the wet strength of kraftliner pulp sheets. This method of treating the pulp showed, however, no significant effects on the mechano-sorptive creep. The addition of an apolar suberin-like lignin derivative, which has been shown to be possible to produce from natural resources, did show a positive effect on mechano-sorptive creep properties, but at the expense of stiffness properties in constant climate. Different pulps were compared with a kraftliner pulp and it was observed that the ratio between tensile stiffness and hygroexpansion can be used to estimate the mechano-sorptive creep properties. The hardwood kraft pulps investigated had lower hygroexpansion, probably due to more slender and straighter fibres, and higher tensile stiffness, probably due to lower lignin content. As the lignin content was varied by different methods in kraft pulps, it was observed that increased lignin content gives an increased hygroexpansion and decreased tensile stiffness as well as an increased mechano-sorptive creep. There were also indications of increased mechano-sorptive creep due to higher xylan content.

     

     

  • 28.
    Antonsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    The Use of Lignin Derivatives to Improve Selected Paper Properties2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood consists mainly of three types of polymers; cellulose, hemi cellulose and lignin. Lignin is formed in nature through enzymatic initiated oxidative coupling of three different kinds of phenyl propane units. These form by various carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen bonds, an amorphous three-dimensional polymer. As chemical pulp is produced, lignin is degraded and dissolved into pulping liquors. These liquors contain the spent cooking chemicals and are generally burnt in a recovery boiler to regenerate cooking chemicals and produce steam. However, the recovery boiler is expensive. Hence, it has become the bottleneck for production in many pulp mills. Removal of some lignin from the spent cooking liquor would, for that reason, be desired and valuable products based on lignin from cooking liquors are searched for.

    One suitable area for lignin products would be as additive in unbleached pulp. A major product from unbleached pulp is kraftliner, the top and bottom layers of corrugated board. When boxes of corrugated board are stored in containers travelling overseas the relative humidity is varying. This makes the boxes collapse more easily than if they were stored at constant humidity, even a high one. This is due to the so called mechano-sorptive or accelerated creep phenomenon. By addition of wet strength additive to kraftliner or treating it with hydrophobic compounds there are indications on that the mechano-sorptive effect would decrease.

    Trying to decrease this effect, low molecular weight kraft lignin has been used. It was obtained by cross-flow filtration of black liquor and precipitation by sulphuric acid. By derivatisation of this lignin by linseed oil, a hydrophobic lignin derivative was obtained, similar in structure to units in the biopolymer suberin. As this suberin-like lignin-derivative was added to pulp the mechano-sorptive creep seemed to be lowered. Furthermore, when the low molecular weight lignin was used together with the lignin radical initiators laccase or manganese(III) in kraftliner pulp, a wet strength of about 5% of dry strength was obtained. An amination treatment of this lignin and addition to kraftliner pulp resulted in a wet strength of up to 10% of dry strength. There are indications of that the mechano-sorptive creep also decreases as these treatments, resulting in increased wet strength, are made.

  • 29.
    Antonsson, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Adding lignin derivatives to decrease the effect of mechano-sorptive creep in linerboard2008In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 468-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When load is applied to any type of paper while varying the relative humidity, the paper will creep more than if the same load is applied at constant humidity. This behaviour is called mechano-sorptive creep or accelerated creep, and the reasons for its occurrence in paper are still not fully understood. However, wet strength and the addition of apolar (hydrophobic) compounds to sheets have previously been suggested as factors improving the mechano-sorptive creep performance.

    This work evaluates a method for improving wet strength and tests the addition of a hydrophobic compound, with particular reference to mechano-sorptive creep stiffness. Wet strength was improved by subjecting kraft liner pulp to low-molecular-weight lignin, obtained by cross-flow filtration, and to the radical initiator manganese(III). The hydrophobic compound added was a suberin-like lignin derivative. Adding the suberin-like lignin derivative significantly increased the mechano-sorptive creep stiffness, even though the stiffness at 90% rh decreased in the tested samples. This was probably because of the decrease in hygroexpansion caused by this hydrophobic additive.

    Even though it is possible significantly to increase the wet strength of kraft liner pulp by adding manganese(III) and cross-flow-filtered lignin, doing so has no significant effect on mechano-sorptive creep stiffness.

  • 30.
    Antonsson, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    The influence of lignin and xylan on some kraftliner pulp properties2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 403-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the influence of lignin and hemicellulose content on the mechanical and physical properties of softwood kraft liner pulp. Tensile properties, hygroexpansion, and mechano-sorptive creep properties were measured. The lignin and hemicellulose contents were modified by chlorite delignification and xylanase treatment.

    After treatment, the chemical composition of the pulps was 3-14% Klason lignin, 69-77% cellulose, 16-21% hemicellulose, and 4-7% xylan. In the tested pulps, low lignin content tended to decrease hygroexpansion as well as increase tensile stiffness and mechano-sorptive creep stiffness. Xylan contributed less to the pulp sheet properties, but at equal lignin contents, higher xylan content tended to give increased hygroexpansion and worse mechano-sorptive creep properties.

  • 31.
    Antonsson, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Karlström, Katarina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Applying a novel cooking technique to produce high kappa number pulps: the effects on physical properties2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 415-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recently developed kraft cooking technique, with a longer impregnation time at lower temperatures to facilitate diffusion over consumption of active cooking chemicals, makes it possible to produce kraftliner pulp without inline refining. This technique was applied to prepare two pulps with different lignin contents, which were compared with two industrial pulps from conventional kraft cooks in order to evaluate the physical properties of the pulps.

    It was demonstrated that pulps with lower lignin content can increase tensile stiffness, decrease hygroexpansion, and decrease the mechano-sorptive creep of handsheets. However, no difference in SCT and tensile energy absorption values due to different lignin contents was observed. It was further demonstrated that pulps made with Extended Impregnation Cooking (EIC) results in straighter pulp fibres with higher cellulose content. These pulps tended to have lower mechano-sorptive creep than conventional pulps. A higher brightness of the pulp sheets can also be obtained by choosing a higher alkali profile.

  • 32.
    Antonsson, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mäkelä, Petri
    Innventia AB.
    Fellers, Christer
    Innventia AB.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Comparison of the physical properties between hardwood and softwood pulps2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 409-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High mechano-sorptive creep resistance, i.e., good creep resistance in environments with changing relative humidity, is one of the key requirements for linerboards. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pulp types and pulp properties on the mechano-sorptive creep of kraftliner. A high-yield softwood, kraftliner pulp, and four different hardwood pulps were investigated. The physical properties of laboratory sheets were evaluated, with emphasis on the mechano-sorptive creep properties.

    The results showed that the density increase due to increased beating significantly improved the tensile stiffness of all pulps, while its effect on the isocyclic creep stiffness was less pronounced. The hardwood pulps showed higher tensile stiffness, better mechano-sorptive creep properties, and lower hygroexpansion than the softwood pulp at a given density. However, the softwood pulp did exhibit better tensile strength and fracture toughness properties than the hardwood pulps.

    The results imply that hardwood pulps can be competitive with softwood pulps in kraftliners, provided that their tensile strength and fracture toughness properties can be improved by, for example, chemical means. Furthermore, the isocyclic creep stiffness correlates with the ratio of tensile stiffness to hygroexpansion, indicating that this ratio can be used for engineering estimates of the mechano-sorptive creep performance of paper materials.

  • 33.
    Antonsson, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Pulkkinen, Iiro
    Chemical Engineering, Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Espoo, Finland.
    Fiskari, Juha
    Metsä-Botnia, Joutseno Mill, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Karlström, Katarina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    The relationship between hygroexpansion, tensile stiffness, and mechano–sorptive creep in bleached hardwood kraft pulps2010In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 231-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hygroexpansion coefficient and tensile stiffness are important parameters in many paper applications. This study compares several bleached industrial hardwood kraft pulps, comprising five eucalypt pulps from South America, Europe, and Africa as well as an acacia pulp from Asia and a birch pulp from Scandinavia. Refined and unrefined pulps are compared. The results indicate significant differences in hygroexpansion but smaller differences in tensile stiffness index at comparable densities. No single factor offering a reasonable explanation of these differences in hygroexpansion coefficient, such as carbohydrate composition, fibre dimensions, or fibre form, was found. However, correlation between hygroexpansion coefficient and the mechano-sorptive creep stiffness was observed. We suggest that the hygroexpansion coefficient at a given tensile stiffness level can be used to rank pulps in terms of their mechano-sorptive creep properties.

  • 34.
    Areskogh, Dimitri
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Fenton's reaction: a simple and versatile method to structurally modify commercial lignosulphonates2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of lignosulphonates with hydrogen peroxide and Fe (II) acetate under mild conditions can be used to increase the molecular weight and content of carboxylic acids. Such Fenton's oxidation can produce, in some of the conditions of and lignosulphonate concentration, a two-fold increase in the molecular weight and a 6-7 fold increase in the carboxylic acid content. The structural modifications of lignosulphonate may increase the technical performance of the product in several applications. Possible reaction mechanisms of the Fenton system are proposed and discussed.

  • 35.
    Areskogh, Dimitri
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Li, Jiebing
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Structural modification of commercial lignosulphonates through laccase catalysis and ozonolysis2010In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 458-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignosulphonates are by-products from the sulphite pulping process, in which lignin is separated from cellulose by the addition of sulphonic acid groups to the alpha-position of lignin, thereby increasing the solubility of lignin in water. The predominant industrial utilisations of lignosulphonates are as dispersants, plasticisers and water-reducing agents in concrete preparation. The ability of lignosulphonates to function as a good plasticisers and water reducers is intimately linked with the purity of the lignosulphonate, its molecular weight and the number of charged groups present in the macromolecule. Currently, lignosulphonates are outrivaled by synthetic plasticisers termed superplasticisers due to their superior properties when used as additives to high-strength concrete. If lignosulphonates are to successfully compete with these superplasticisers, significant modifications are required. This paper describes a two-stage treatment of lignosulphonates in which the molecular weight is increased through laccase oxidation and carboxylic groups are introduced through ozonolysis. The technical significance of the results is also discussed.

  • 36.
    Areskogh, Dimitri
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Li, Jiebing
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Nousiainen, Paula
    University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Sipilä, Jussi
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Oxidative polymerisation of models for phenolic lignin end-groups by laccase2010In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 21-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The redox enzyme laccase can lead to cross-linking of lignin molecules by oxidising phenolic end groups to resonance-stabilised radicals that can undergo radical coupling to form covalent bonds. This property has potential for many technical applications. However, laccase treatment can also lead to degradation. Experiments were performed with two laccases of different oxidation potential and pH and temperature optima. The predominant reaction following laccase oxidation is the formation of 5-5' and 4-O-5' bonds. If the 5-position is blocked, other reactions occur, including coupling of the 1-position and oxidation of the a-position, which aggravates cross-linking of different lignin molecules. The product profile generated by the two laccases is somewhat different, mainly because of the different pH rather than differences in enzyme activity. Reaction mechanisms and the technical and biological significance of the results are discussed.

  • 37.
    Asplund, G
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Pulp and Paper Technology.
    Norman, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Pulp and Paper Technology.
    Fibre orientation anisotropy profile over the thickness of a headbox jet2004In: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 217-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fibre orientation anisotropy at various levels of the jet from a model headbox has been investigated. Stiff nylon fibres, 3 mm long, were added at extremely low concentrations to make it possible to observe also the centre of the jet. This meant that fibre interactions, such as floc forming, could not take place. Transparent, parallel walls enclosed the jet where fibre orientation was measured. A thin laser sheet illuminated the jet from the side and a video camera captured the light reflected perpendicularly from the fibres. Using image analysis, the orientation of the fibres was evaluated. A central vane was mounted in the headbox nozzle so the effects of the vane wake could be studied. The results show that the effect a the boundary layers, at the walls of a headbox and at the surface of a vane, was to locally reduce fibre orientation anisotropy. Depending on the vane tip shape, fibre orientation anisotropy could be additionally decreased. Overall, the fibre orientation anisotropy was weakly affected by changes inflow rate and strongly dependent on the contraction ratio in the nozzle; low speed and large contractions produced more anisotropic orientations.

  • 38.
    Aulin, Christian
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Novel oil resistant cellulosic materials2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to prepare and characterise oil resistant cellulosic materials, ranging from model surfaces to papers and aerogels. The cellulosic materials were made oil resistant by chemical and topographic modifications, based on surface energy, surface roughness and barrier approaches. Detailed wetting studies of the prepared cellulosic materials were made using contact angle measurements and standardised penetration tests with different alkanes and oil mixtures.

    A significant part of the activities were devoted to the development of model cellulosic surfaces with different degrees of crystalline ordering for the wetting studies. Crystalline cellulose I, II and amorphous cellulose surfaces were prepared by spin-coating of cellulose nanocrystal or microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) dispersions, with Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) films or by a layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique. The formation of multilayers consisting of polyethyleneimine (PEI)/anionic MFC or cationic MFC/anionic MFC was further studied and optimized in terms of total layer thickness and adsorbed amount by combining Dual Polarization Interferometry (DPI) or Stagnation Point Adsorption Reflectrometry (SPAR) with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D).

    The smooth cellulosic surfaces prepared had different molecular and mesostructure properties and different surface energies as shown by X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging, ellipsometry measurements and contact angle measurements.

    The cellulose model surfaces were found to be ideal for detailed wetting studies, and after the surface has been coated or covalently modified with various amounts of fluorosurfactants, the fluorinated cellulose films were used to follow the spreading mechanisms of different oil mixtures. The viscosity and surface tension of the oil mixtures, as well as the dispersive surface energy of the cellulose surfaces, were found to be essential parameters governing the spreading kinetics. A strong correlation was found between the surface concentration of fluorine, the dispersive surface energy and the measured contact angle of the oil mixtures.

    Silicon surfaces possessing structural porous characteristics were fabricated by a plasma etching process. The structured silicon surfaces were coated with sulfate-stabilized cellulose I nanocrystals using the LbL technique. These artificial intrinsically oleophilic cellulose surfaces were made highly oleophobic when coated with a thin layer of fluorinated silanes. By comparison with flat cellulose surfaces, which are oleophilic, it is demonstrated that the surface energy and the surface texture are essential factors preventing oil from spreading on the surface and, thus, inducing the observed macroscopic oleophobic properties.

    The use of the MFC for surface coating on base papers demonstrated very promising characteristics as packaging materials. Environmental-Scanning Electron Microscopy (E-SEM) micrographs indicated that the MFC layer reduced the sheet porosity, i.e. the dense structure formed by the nanofibers resulted in superior oil barrier properties. Attempts were made to link the procedure for preparation of the MFC dispersions to the resulting microstructure of the coatings, and film porosity and the film moisture content to the resulting permeability properties.

    Finally, MFC aerogels were successfully prepared by freeze-drying. The surface texture of the porous aerogels was carefully controlled by adjusting the concentration of the MFC dispersion used for the freeze-drying. The different scales of roughness of the MFC aerogels were utilised, together with the very low surface energy created by fluorination of the aerogel, to induce highly oleophobic properties.

  • 39.
    Aulin, Christian
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Preparation, characterisation and wetting of fluorinated cellulose surfaces2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the wetting by oil mixtures of two different model cellulose surfaces. The surfaces studied were a regenerated cellulose (RG) surface prepared by spin-coating, and a film consisting of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) of Poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and a carboxymethylated Microfibrillated Cellulose (MFC). After coating or covalently modifying the cellulose surfaces with various amounts of fluorosurfactants, the fluorinated cellulose films were used to follow the spreading mechanisms of the different oil mixtures. The viscosity and surface tension of the oil, as well as the dispersive surface energy of the cellulose surface, are essential parameters governing the spreading kinetics. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and dispersive surface energy measurements were made on the cellulose films treated with fluorosurfactants. A strong correlation between the surface coverage of fluorine, the dispersive surface energy and the measured contact angle of the oil mixtures was found. For example, a dispersive surface energy less than 18 mN/m was required in order for the cellulose surface to be non-wetting (θe > 90º) by castor oil.

    Significant parts of this work were devoted to the development of cellulose surfaces for the wetting studies. The formation of a PEM consisting of PEI and MFC was studied and the total layer thickness and adsorbed amount were optimized by combining Dual Polarization Interferometry (DPI) with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D). The adsorption behaviour as well as the influence of the charge density, pH and electrolyte concentration of PEI, and electrolyte concentration of the MFC dispersion on the adsorbed amount of MFC were investigated. Results indicate that a combination of a high pH, a fairly high electrolyte concentration for PEI solution together with low or zero electrolyte concentration for the MFC resulted in the largest possible adsorbed amounts of the individual PEI and MFC layers.

    The structures of the two cellulose surfaces were characterised with atomic force microscopy measurements and a difference in terms of surface structure and roughness were observed. Both surfaces were however very smooth with calculated RMS roughness values in the range of a few nanometers.

    The adsorption behaviour of water-dispersible fluorosurfactants physically adsorbed at various concentrations onto the two model cellulose surfaces was investigated using DPI. The aggregate structure of an anionic fluorosurfactant, perfluorooctadecanoic acid, dispersed in water was studied by Cryo Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM). The fluorosurfactants had an adsorption and desorption behaviour in water which was dependent on the fluorinated chain length and the aggregation form of the fluorosurfactant. Perfluorooctanoic acid and a commercial cationic fluorosurfactant with a formal composition of CF3 (CF2)nSO2NH(CH2)3-4N(CH3)3+I- was found to desorb from the MFC and RG surfaces upon rinsing with water, whereas perfluorooctadecanoic acid was strongly adsorbed to the surfaces. It is essential for a fluorosurfacatant to be strongly adsorbed to the cellulose surface even after rinsing to yield hydrophobic and lipophobic (oleophobic) properties with a large contact angle for oils and water.

  • 40.
    Aulin, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Gallstedt, Mikael
    Lindström, Tom
    Oxygen and oil barrier properties of microfibrillated cellulose films and coatings2010In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 559-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preparation of carboxymethylated microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) films by dispersion-casting from aqueous dispersions and by surface coating on base papers is described. The oxygen permeability of MFC films were studied at different relative humidity (RH). At low RH (0%), the MFC films showed very low oxygen permeability as compared with films prepared from plasticized starch, whey protein and arabinoxylan and values in the same range as that of conventional synthetic films, e.g., ethylene vinyl alcohol. At higher RH's, the oxygen permeability increased exponentially, presumably due to the plasticizing and swelling of the carboxymethylated nanofibers by water molecules. The effect of moisture on the barrier and mechanical properties of the films was further studied using water vapor sorption isotherms and by humidity scans in dynamic mechanical analysis. The influences of the degree of nanofibrillation/dispersion on the microstructure and optical properties of the films were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and light transmittance measurements, respectively. FE-SEM micrographs showed that the MFC films consisted of randomly assembled nanofibers with a thickness of 5-10 nm, although some larger aggregates were also formed. The use of MFC as surface coating on various base papers considerably reduced the air permeability. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (E-SEM) micrographs indicated that the MFC layer reduced sheet porosity, i.e., the dense structure formed by the nanofibers resulted in superior oil barrier properties.

  • 41.
    Aulin, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Johansson, E.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindström, T.
    Adsorption behaviour, structural and adhesive properties of microfibrillated cellulose-based multilayersArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Aulin, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Josefsson, Peter
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nanoscale Cellulose Films with Different Crystallinities and Mesostructures: Their Surface Properties and Interaction with Water2009In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 25, no 13, p. 7675-7685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic study of the degree of molecular ordering and swelling of different nanocellulose model films has been conducted. Crystalline cellulose II surfaces were prepared by spin-coating of the precursor cellulose solutions onto oxidized silicon wafers before regeneration in water or by using the Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) technique. Amorphous cellulose films were also prepared by spin-coating of a precursor cellulose solution onto oxidized silicon wafers. Crystalline cellulose I surfaces were prepared by spin-coating wafers with aqueous suspensions of sulfate-stabilized cellulose nanocrystals and low-charged microfibrillated cellulose (LC-MFC). In addition, a dispersion of high-charged MFC was used for the buildup of polyelectrolyte multilayers with polyetheyleneimine on silica with the aid of the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. These preparation methods produced smooth thin films on the nanometer scale Suitable for X-ray diffraction and swelling measurements. The surface morphology and thickness of the cellulose films were characterized in detail by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry measurements, respectively. To determine the surface energy of the cellulose surfaces, that Is, their ability to engage in different interactions with different materials, they were characterized through contact angle measurements against water, glycerol, and methylene iodide. Small incidence angle X-ray diffraction revealed that the nanocrystal and MFC films exhibited a cellulose I crystal structure and that the films prepared from N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO), LiCl/DMAc solutions, using the LS technique, possessed a cellulose II structure. The degree of crystalline ordering was highest in the nanocrystal films (similar to 87%), whereas the MFC, NMMO, and LS films exhibited a degree of crystallinity of about 60%. The N,N-dimethylacetamide(DMAc)/LiCl film possessed very low crystalline ordering (<15%). It was also established that the films ha different mesostructures, that is, structures around 10 nm, depending on the preparation conditions. The LS and LiCl/DMAc films are smooth without any clear mesostructure, whereas the other films have a clear mesostructure in which the dimensions are dependent oil the size of the nanocrystals, fibrillar cellulose, and electrostatic charge of the MFC. The swelling of the films was studied using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. To understand the swelling properties of the films, it was necessary to consider both the difference in crystalline ordering and the difference in mesostructure of the films.

  • 43.
    Aulin, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindqvist, Josefina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Shchukarev, Andrei
    Umeå Universitet.
    Lindström, Tom
    Wetting kinetics of oil mixtures on fluorinated model cellulose surfaces2008In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 317, p. 556-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wetting of two different model cellulose surfaces has been studied; a regenerated cellulose (RG) surface prepared by spin-coating, and a novel multilayer film of poly(ethyleneimine) and a carboxymethylated microtibrillated cellulose (MFC). The cellulose films were characterized in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). AFM indicates smooth and continuous films on a nanometer scale and the RMS roughness of the RG cellulose and MFC surfaces was determined to be 3 and 6 nm, respectively. The cellulose films were modified by coating with various amounts of an anionic fluorosurfactant, perfluorooctadecanoic acid, or covalently modified with pentadecafluorooctanyl chloride. The fluorinated cellulose films were used to follow the spreading mechanisms of three different oil mixtures. The viscosity and surface tension of the oils were found to be essential parameters governing the spreading kinetics on these surfaces. XPS and dispersive surface energy measurements were made on the cellulose films coated with perfluorooctadecanoic acid. A strong correlation was found between the surface concentration of fluorine, the dispersive surface energy and the contact angle of castor oil on the surface. A dispersive surface energy less than 18 mN/m was required in order for the cellulose surface to be non-wetting (theta(e) > 90 degrees) by castor oil.

  • 44.
    Aulin, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Netrval, Julia
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindström, Tom
    Ultra light-weight microfibrillated cellulose aerogels with tunable oleophobicityArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Aulin, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Yun, Sang Ho
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Lindström, Tom
    Design of Highly Oleophobic Cellulose Surfaces from Structured Silicon Templates2009In: Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, Vol. 1, no 11, p. 2443-2452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structured silicon surfaces, possessing hierarchical porous characteristics consisting of micrometer-sized cavities superimposed upon a network of nanometer-sized pillars or wires, have been fabricated by a plasma-etching process. These surfaces have superoleophobic properties, after being coated with fluorinated organic trichlorosilanes, on intrinsically oleophilic surfaces. By comparison with flat silicon surfaces, which are oleophilic, it has been demonstrated that a combination of low surface energy and the structured features of the plasma-etched surface is essential to prevent oil from penetrating the surface cavities and thus induce the observed macroscopic superoleophobic phenomena with very low contact-angle hysteresis and low roll-off angles. The structured silicon surfaces were coated with cellulose nanocrystals using the polyelectrolyte multilayer technique. The cellulose surfaces prepared in this way were then coated with a monolayer of fluorinated trichlorosilanes. These porous cellulose films displayed highly nonwetting properties against a number of liquids with low surface tension, including alkanes such as hexadecane and decane. The wettability and chemical composition of the cellulose/silicon surfaces were characterized with contact-angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The nano/microtexture features of the cellulose/silicon surfaces were also studied with field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The highly oleophobic structured cellulose surfaces are very interesting model surfaces for the development of biomimetic self-cleaning surfaces in a vast array of products, including green constructions, packaging materials, protection against environmental fouling, sports, and outdoor clothing, and microfluidic systems.

  • 46.
    Axelsson, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Pulp and Paper Technology.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Pulp and Paper Technology.
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Condensation reactions of lignin during birch Kraft pulping as studied by thioacidolysis2004In: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 317-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influences of kappa number and ionic strength during birch kraft cooking on the extent of lignin condensation have been studied using thioacidolysis and size exclusion chromatography. Thioacidolysis degrades alkyl-aryl ether bonds in lignin while leaving carbon-carbon and diaryl-ether bonds relatively intact. Therefore, the lignin structures not cleaved during thioacidolysis can be considered as relatively stable and may account,, for example,for the slow residual phase delignification in the kraft cook and for differences in bleachability. It was shown that condensed lignin structures are formed in the residual lignin during birch kraft cooking. The relative amount of such structures increased with decreasing kappa number or with increasing sodium ion concentration in the cook. These structures were also found in a xylan-lignin complex isolated from a birch kraft pulp. The condensed structures were only partly reactive during oxygen delignification.

  • 47. Backstrom, Marie
    et al.
    Jensen, Anna
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Influence of chip presteaming conditions on kraft pulp composition and properties2016In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, no 5, p. 393-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presteaming is a well-established technique in pulp mills, which improves cooking liquor impregnation by removing air from within and between chips. The aim of the study was to investigate how conditions during steaming affect the subsequent kraft cook and properties of the obtained pulp. It was found that higher pressure and temperature during chip presteaming led to increased degradation and dissolution of hemicelluloses. Lower refinability and tensile index was obtained for pulps cooked after presteaming at high pressure and for a long time.

  • 48.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Eklund, Johan
    DPC, MidSweden University.
    Folding of Printed Papers: Experiments and Numerical Analysis2003In: Preprints of the 2003 International Paper Physics Conference, 2003, p. 193-196Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Bellani, Gabriele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Söderberg, L. Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Experimental study of the forming process: Fluid velocity and fluid-fiber interaction measurements2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the flow in the direct vicinity of a forming wire and a fiber network during forming is reported. The measurements are performed with Particle Image Velocimetry in a scaled system. Index-of-refraction matching is used to gain optical access to the flow. Time resolved measurements of the flow velocity in the vertical and horizontal direction is obtained in a plane with a size of 60 × 40 fiber diameters. The spatial resolution is 2 fiber diameters. Data is obtained for three drainage velocities and two different lengths of the fibers. The relative level of the velocity fluctuations are found to decrease with drainage velocity and is higher in the flow above a network mat of shorter fibers compared to the network made of longer fibers. The size of the flow structures is obtained by spectral analysis and compared for the six cases.

  • 50.
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cranston, Emily D.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University.
    Ondaral, Sedat
    Department of Pulp and Paper Technology, Karadeniz Technical University.
    Johansson, Erik
    Cellutech AB.
    Brumer, Harry
    The Michael Smith Laboratories and the Department of Chemistry, The University of British Columbia.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Adsorption of Xyloglucan onto Cellulose Surfaces of Different Morphologies: An Entropy-Driven Process2016In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 17, no 9, p. 2801-2811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature-dependence of xyloglucan (XG) adsorption onto smooth cellulose model films regenerated from N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO) was investigated using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, and it was found that the adsorbed amount increased with increasing temperature. This implies that the adsorption of XG to NMMO-regenerated cellulose is endothermic and supports the hypothesis that the adsorption of XG onto cellulose is an entropy-driven process. We suggest that XG adsorption is mainly driven by the release of water molecules from the highly hydrated cellulose surfaces and from the XG molecules, rather than through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces as previously suggested. To test this hypothesis, the adsorption of XG onto cellulose was studied using cellulose films with different morphologies prepared from cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), semicrystalline NMMO-regenerated cellulose, and amorphous cellulose regenerated from lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide. The total amount of high molecular weight xyloglucan (XGHMW) adsorbed was studied by quartz crystal microbalance and reflectometry measurements, and it was found that the adsorption was greatest on the amorphous cellulose followed by the CNC and NMMO-regenerated cellulose films. There was a significant correlation between the cellulose dry film thickness and the adsorbed XG amount, indicating that XG penetrated into the films. There was also a correlation between the swelling of the films and the adsorbed amounts and conformation of XG, which further strengthened the conclusion that the water content and the subsequent release of the water upon adsorption are important components of the adsorption process.

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